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Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh"



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TEANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



EOYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH 



S\ th C ,<H? 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXXIX. 




EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCC. 



No. 



I. 


Published 


September 16, 1897. N 


o. XVIII. 


Published 


II. 


>> 


September 16, 1897. , 


XIX. 


» 


III. 


>> 


September 17, 1897. , 


, XX. 


» 


IV. 


>> 


September 17, 1897. , 


, XXI. 


j> 


V. 


>> 


September 17, 1897. 


XXII. 


)> 


VI. 


)> 


October 20, 1897. , 


, XXIII. 


>) 


VII. 


)> 


November 19, 1897. , 


XXIV. 


>) 


VIII. 


>> 


November 18, 1897. , 


XXV. 


>> 


IX. 


!! 


March 25, 1898. 


XXVI. 


» 


X. 


>» 


October 5, 1898. 


, XXVII. 


)! 


XL 


)) 


October 15, 1898. , 


, XXVIII. 


J) 


XII. 


«1 


October 22, 1898. , 


XXIX. 


>! 


XIII. 


>> 


November 3, 1898. , 


XXX. 


>) 


XIV 


>> 


December 6, 1898. , 


XXXI. 


)) 


XV. 


)> 


November 21, 1898. , 


XXXII. 


1) 


XVI. 


)> 


December 1, 1898. , 


, XXXIII. 


!) 


XVII. 


J) 


December 10, 1898. , 


, XXXIV. 


)> 



December 31, 1898. 
February 1, 1899. 
February 6, 1899. 
February 7, 1899. 
February 7, 1899. 
May 3, 1899. 
August 21, 1899. 
August 4, 1899. 
November 25, 1899. 
November 28, 1899. 
December 14, 1899. 
November 28, 1899. 
December 15, 1899. 
December 15, 1899. 
December 15, 1899. 
January 11, 1900. 
July 6, 1900. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. (1896-97.) 

NUMBER PAGE 

I. On some Type Specimens of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera in the Edinburgh 
Museum of Science and Art. By Percy Hall Grimshaw, F.E.S., 
Natural History Department, Edinburgh Museum of Science and 
Art. Communicated by Dr K. H. Traquair, F.RS. (With a Plate), 1 

II. On a Melanic Specimen of Hestina nama, Doubleday. By Percy Hall 
Grimshaw, F.E.S. Communicated by Dr R H. Traquair, F.RS. 
(With figure on Plate of previous Paper), . . . .13 

III. On some Nuclei of Cloudy Condensation. By John Aitken, F.RS. 

(With a Plate), ....... 15 

IV. The C Discriminant as an Envelope. By James A. Macdonald, M.A., 

B.Sc, 27 

V. On the Fossil Flora of the Yorkshire Coal Field. (Second Paper.) By 

Eobert Kidston, F.RS.K, F.G.S. (With Three Plates), . . 33 

VI. The Meteorology of Edinburgh. (Part II.) By Robert C. Mossman, 

F.RS.K, F.R Met. Soc. (With Four Plates), ... 63 

VII. The Automorphic Linear Transformation of a Quadric. By Thomas 

Muir, LL.D., ........ 209 

VIII. A Contribution to the Comparative Anatomy of the Mammalian Organ 
of Jacobson. By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. Communicated by Sir Wm. 
Turner. (With Two Plates), . . . . .231 



Vl CONTENTS. 

PART II. (1897-98.) 

m MBER PAGE 

2 P 

IX. On the Definite Integral — r / e~ 2 dt, with Extended Tables of Values. 

By J as. Burgess, CLE., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . . . .257 

X. The Relations between the Coaxial Minors of a Determinant of the Fourth 

Order. By Thomas Mum, LL.D., . . . . .323 

XL Chapters on the Mineralogy of Scotland. Chapter VII 1. — Silicates. By 
M. Foster Heddle, M.D., Past President of the Mineralogical 
Society of Great Britain, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of St Andrews, ...... 341 

XII. The Absolute Thermal Conductivity of Nickel. By T. C. Baillie, M.A., 
B.Sc., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Physics, University 
College of North Wales, Bangor. (With a Plate), . . .361 

XIII. The Old Red Sandstone of the Orkneys. By John S. Flett, M.B., B.Sc. 

(With a Map), ....... 383 

XIV. On Torsional Oscillations of Wires. By Dr W. Peddie. (With Two 

Plates), ........ 425 

XV. The Strains produced in Iron, Steel, Nickel and Cobalt Tubes in the 

Magnetic Field. Part II. By Professor C. G. Knott, D.Sc, F.RS.E. 
(With Two Plates), ....... 457 

XVI. On the Path of a Rotating Spherical Projectile. II. By Professor 

Tait. (With a Plate), . . . . . .491 



PART III. (1898-99.) 

XVII. On the Further Anatomy and the Budding Processes of Cephalodiscus 
dodecaloplms (M'Intosh). By Arthur T. Masterman, B.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E., Lecturer and Research Fellow in the University of St 
Andrews. (With Five Plates), ..... 507 

XVIII. On Steam and Brines. By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S., . . . 529 

XIX. On a Silurian Scorpion and some additional Eurypterid Remains from 
the Pi'iitlnnd /fills. By Malcolm Laukie, B.A.. D.Sc. (With Five 
Plates), . ...... 575 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



NUiMBER 

XX. 



PAGE 



XXI. 



XXII. 
XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 



XXVIII. 



XXIX. 

XXX. 
XXXI. 



On a New Species of Cephalaspis, discovered by the Geological Survey 
of Scotland, in the Old Red Sandstone of Oban. By Ramsay H. 
Traquair, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Keeper of the Natural History 
Collections in the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. 
(With a Plate), ..... 

On Thelodus Pagei, Powrie, Sp. from the Old Red Sandstone of 
Forfarshire. By Ramsay H. Traquair, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Keeper of the Natural History Collections in the Museum of 
Science and Art, Edinburgh. (With a Plate), . 

The Emblem of the Crab in Relation to the sign Cancer. By D'Arcy 
Wentworth Thompson, C.B., . 

The Development of the Miillerian Ducts of Reptiles. By Gregg 
Wilson, D.Sc. Communicated by Professor J. C. Ewart, F.R.S. 
(With Two Plates), ...... 

On a Development of a Determinant of the mn" 1 Order. By Thomas 
Muir, LL.D., ....... 

On the Rimes in the Authentic Poems of William Dunbar. By Henry 
Bellyse Baildon, M.A. Cantab., F.R.S.E., 

On the Eliminant of a Set of General Ternary Quadrics. By Thomas 
Muir, LL.D., ....... 

On the Restoration of Co-ordinated Movements after Nerve Section. 
By Robert Kennedy, M.A., D.Sc, M.D., Glasgow. [From the 
University of Glasgow and the Glasgow Veterinary College.] 
Communicated by Professor M'Kendrick. (With Three Plates), 

Contributions to the Craniology of the People of the Empire of India. 
Part I. The Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier and the 
People of Burma. By Professor Sir Wm. Turner, M.B., D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. (With Three Plates), 

On the Development and Morphology of the Marsupial Shoulder 
Girdle. By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. Communicated by Professor 
Sir Wm. Turner. (With Two Plates), .... 

Non-Alternate ± Knots. By Professor C. N. Little, Ph.D. Com- 
municated by Professor Tait. (With Three Plates), 

The Meteorology of Ben Nevis in Clear and in Foggy Weather. By 
J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S. (With Eight Plates), . 



591 



595 
603 

613 
623 
629 
667 



685 



703 

749 
771 

779 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



XXXTT. Report on Fossil Fishes collected by the Geological Survey of Scotland 
in the Silurian Rocks of the South of Scotland. By Eamsay H. 
Traquair, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Keeper of the Natural History 
Collections in the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. 
(With Five Plates), ...... 



827 



PART IV. (1898-99.) 

XXXIII. The Trap Dykes of the Orkneys. By John S. Flett, M.A., B.Sc. 

(With Three Plates), ...... 865 

XXXIV. On the Structure and Affinities of a Lepidodendroid Stem from, the 

Calciferous Sandstone of Dalmeny, Scotland, possibly identical with 
Lepidophloios Harcourtii (Witham). By A. C. Seward, M.A., 
F.R.S., University Lecturer in Botany, and A. W. Hill, B.A., 
University Demonstrator in Botany, Cambridge. (With Four 
Plates), ........ 907 

Appendix — 

The Council of the Society, . . . . . .937 

Alphabetical List of Ordinary Fellows, ..... 939 

List of Honorary Fellows at November 1899, .... 955 

List of Ordinary Fellows Elected during Session 1896-97 ', . . 957 

List of Honorary Fellows Elected during Session 1896-97, . . 957 

Fellows Deceased, Resigned, or Cancelled, 1896-97 ', . . .958 

List of Ordinary Fellows Elected during Session 1897-98, . . 959 

Fellows Deceased, 1897-98, . .... 960 

List of Ordinary Fellows Elected during Session 1898-99, . . 961 

Fellows Deceased or Resigned, 1898-99, . . . . .962 

Laws of the Society , . . . . . . .963 

The Keith, Makdougall-Brisbane, Neill, and Gunning Victoria Jubilee 

Prizes, ........ 970 

Aivards of the Keith, Makdougall-Brisbane, Neill, and Gunning Victoria 

Jubilee Prizes, from 1827 to 1898, . . . . .973 

Proceedings of the Statutory General Meetings, .... 979 

List of Public bistitutions and Individuals entitled to receive Copies of 

the Transactions a ii<1 Proceedings of the Royal Society y . . 987 

Index, ......... 995 



PRESENTED 
SEP 1900 




TRANSACTIONS. 



I. — On some Type Specimens of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera in the Edinburgh 

Museum of Science and Art. By Percy Hall Grimshaw, F.E.S., Natural 

History Department, Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art. Communicated 
by Dr R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. (With Plate.) 

(Read 17th May, 1897. ) 

In the year 1819 the University of Edinburgh acquired by purchase a large 
zoological collection from M. Dufresne, of Paris, including a cabinet containing 
upwards of 12,000 specimens of insects. Some years later (in 1855), when the whole 
of the University collections were formally transferred to the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, the Dufresne cabinet became public property. 

While consulting lately the volume by Godart devoted to the article " Papilio" in 
the famous Encyclopedic Methodique, I was surprised to see a reference to the 
" Dufresne cabinet " in one of the descriptions of new species, and it immediately 
occurred to me that the specimen in our possession must be the actual " type " of the 
species, which discovery led me to search carefully through the whole of the volumes 
devoted to insects in this well-known work, with a view to finding as many types as 
possible. At the same time, I thought it possible that Olivier, who wrote his great 
Histoire Naturelle des Insectes — Coleopteres about the same time, might also mention 
some of Dufresne's specimens, and this I found to be as I had anticipated. Altogether, 
in the two works mentioned, I find no less than twelve references to butterflies and forty 
to beetles in the Dufresne cabinet. I have been successful in finding all the types of 
butterflies, but in the case of the beetles about half of them are missing. These are not 
mentioned in the MS. catalogue which accompanied the collection, and hence must either 
have been removed from the cabinet before it came to Edinburgh, or, as is much more 
probable, must be among the unnamed specimens, in which case the types must remain 
unidentified until such time as all the specimens have been carefully examined and 
referred to their proper species. 

rVOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 1). A 



2 MB PERCY HALL GRIMSHAW ON 

hi addition to the twelve species of butterflies already referred to, there are a number 
of others in the Dufresne collection belonging to species described by Godart as new, and 
labelled in the same handwriting. From Latreille's " Avertissement " to the ninth 
volume of the Eneyclopddie, we learn that Godart worked through the whole of 
Dufresne's cabinet, and therefore, although there is no special allusion to these speci- 
mens, it seems to me quite fair to regard them as true types. 

By the comparison of these original and interesting specimens with others in the 
Natural History Collections at the British Museum, I have been enabled to clear up 
many doubtful points in synonymy, etc., and the following paper is the result of my 
investigations. In submitting it to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, I must express my 
best thanks to Dr Traquair, Keeper of the Natural History Department of the Museum, 
for his kindly encouragement and advice, and also my great indebtedness to Dr A. G. 
Butler, Mr F. A. Heron, Mr 0. 0. Waterhouse, and Mr C. J. Gahan, who, by their 
generous assistance, materially contributed to the success of my work in London. 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

Nectaria idea. 

Papilio idea, Clerck, Icones, t. 38, f. 1 (1764). 

Idea agelia, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 195, n. 1 (1819). 

Godart's types (2 specimens) in Dufresne collection. 

RaDENA MEGAN [HA. 

Danais meganira, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 192, n. 51 (1819). 
Types (2 specimens) in Dufresne collection. 

Tasitia cleothera. 

Danais cleothera, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 185, n. 31 (1819). 

Type agrees with British Museum specimens from St Domingo. Locality given by Godart (Timor) 
probably an error. 

EUPLOEA PHjENAKETA. 

Papilio phsenareta, Schaller, Natur/orscher, xxi. p. 177, pi. 5, f. 1, 2 (1785), <$ . 
Danais prothoe, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 177, n. 1 (1819). 

Godart's type (a S > labelled " Amboine ") in Dufresne collection. 

Isamia alopia. 

Danais alopia, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 177, u. 4 (1819). 

Type (?) in Dufresne collection, a $ , distinct from midarnus, Linn. 

Penoa ALOATHOS. 

Dan<i>y alcathoe, Godart, Enc MSth., ix. p. 178, n. 5 (1819). 

A 9 in the Dufresne collection, labelled " Amboine," is probably the variety mentioned by Godart ; it 
COmea very near to Standinger's bid fa. 



SOME TYPE SPECIMENS OF LEPTDOPTERA AND COLEOPTERA. 3 

Penoa doubledayi. 

Euploea doubledayi, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. ii. p. 337 (1867). 
,, aleathoe, auct. 

The specimens in the British Museum collection referred to aleathoe do not correspond at all to Godart's 
description, nor does the figure given by Marshall and de Nic^ville (Butt, of India, vol. i. pi. ix. fig. 17). 
Moreover, aleathoe, as generally understood, comes from Sikkim, Sylhet, and Further India, while 
Godart's species was stated to come from Amboyna. Under these circumstances, it seems advisable to 
revive Felder's name for this species, and to regard Godart's species as distinct and not yet identified. 

VONONA EUPHON. 

Papilio euphon, Fab., Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 423 (1798). 
Danais baudiniana, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 181, n. 17 (1819). 
,, euphone, Godart, t.c, p. 181, n. 18 (1819). 

Godart's baudiniana is nothing but the well-known Fabrician species, and the locality "Timor" is an 
error. Godart was evidently unacquainted with euphon, as he merely gives a translated description. 
His types of baudiniana (2 specimens) are in the Dufresne collection. 

Lycorea cleob^ea. 

Heliconia cleobsea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 222, n. 58 (1819). 
One male and one female (types'?) in the Dufresne collection. 

Ceratinia euclea. 

Heliconia euclea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 220, n. 53 (1819). 
Jihomia fenestella, Hew., Ex. Butt. I., Ith., t. 5, f. 25 (1854). 

By an examination of the type in the Dufresne collection the identity of this species, which has long- 
been obscure, with that of Hewitson's fenestella is established. 

Calisto hysius. 

Satyrus hysius, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 525, n. 131 (1823?). 

It is somewhat curious that, although the second part of the ninth volume of the Encyclopedic 
Methodique is generally supposed to have been issued in 1823, the MS. Catalogue of the Dufresne 
collection, which bears the date 1818, contains the name of this species, in the original handioriting. 
There are two specimens in the collection, one of each sex, but only the female bears the original 
label. This label must have been written prior to 1819, as in that year the collection came to 
Edinburgh; and as Godart only describes the female, this specimen is evidently the type. The 
question whether Godart wrote his description some years previous to publication, or whether the 
generally accepted date of publication is erroneous, is a point difficult to settle. The specimens at 
the British Museum referred to hysius differ slightly from the type, They have the ring at the anal 
angle of the hind wings much smaller, and that at the apex of the fore wings less sharply defined. 

Acr^ea zetes. 

Papilio zetes, Linn., Syst. Nat., i. 2, p. 766, n. 110 (1767). 
Acrxa zethea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 236, n. 21 (1819). 

Godart's types (2 $ and 1 $ ) in Dufresne collection. 

ACR^EA SERENA. 

Papilio serena, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 461, n. 76 (1775). 
? Acreea janisca, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 233, n. 10 (1819). 

As pointed out by Kirby (Syn. Cat, p. 718), Godart's species is the ? of serena. His type is in the 
Dufresne collection. 



MR PERCY HALL GRTMSHAW ON 



Acra:* sekvona. 



Acraa servona, Godart, Enc MHh., ix. p. 239, n. 28 (1819). 

<* Acreea dqjana, Godm. & Salv., Jameson's Story of the Rear Column, p. 431 (1890). 

Of this species Godart describes only the female, which is in the Dufresne collection. Dejana is merely 
the male of the same species. 

Aorjja CEPHBUS. 

Papili') cepkeus, Linn., Mm. Ulr., p. 252 (1764). 

An-sea materia, Godart, Eric. MHh., ix. p. 232, n. 6 (1819). 

Godart'.s type in Dufresne collection. 

AOTINOTE OZOMENE. 

Acrxa ozomene, Godart, Enc. MHh., ix. p. 241, n. 36 (1819). 

Two specimens in the Dufresne collection, of which one bears the original label, and is therefore the 
type. The specimens in the British Museum are from Quito. 

Heliconius cyrbia. 

Heliconia cyrbia, Godart, Enc. MHh., ix. p. 203, n. 3 (1819), 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Heliconius ethilla. 

Heliconia ethilla, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 219, n. 49 (1819). 

< )f this distinct and handsome species, which has long remained in obscurity, the type is represented in 
the Plate, fig. 2. Two unnamed specimens in the British Museum were found to agree exactly witli 
the type in the Dufresne collection. 

EUEIDES ALIPHERA. 

Cethosia aliphera, Godart, Enc. MHh., ix. p. 246, n. 7 (1819). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Clothilda briarea. 

Argynnis briarea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 261, n. 16 (1819). 
Anelia numida, Hub., Samml. Ex. Schmett. (1816-1824). 

By comparison of the two Dufresne specimens (the types), Godart's species has been proved to be 
identical with numida, Hiib., and not with pantherata, Mart., as generally supposed, in spite of the 
different locality. 

PSEUDARGTNNIS HEGEMONE. 

Argynnis hegemone, Godart, Enc. MHh., ix. p. 258, n. 7 (1819). 
Messaraa ] hegemone, Kirby, Syn. Cat. D.L., p. 153 (1871). 
Ixra duodecin i punctata, Snail, Tijdschr. Ent. (2), vii. p. 15, t. 1, f. 1-3 (1872). 
Aterica clorana, Druce, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1874, p. 157. 

The type is in the Dufresne collection, and is represented in the Plate, fig. 5. I have compared it with 
specimens in the British Museum collection from Angola, Zomba, and Nyasa-land. 

Phyciodes tharos. 

l'.ipdit, tharos, Cram., Pap. Ex., ii. t. 169, E.F. (1779). 
Argynnis tharossa, Godart, Enc. MHh., ix. p. 289, n. 61 (1819). 

Godart's type in Dufresne collection. 



SOME TYPE SPECIMENS OF LEPIDOPTERA AND COLEOPTERA. 5 

Phyciodes #:gon. 

Papilio sec/on, Fab., Spec. Ins., ii. p. 130, n. 594 (1781). 

Argynnis pygmsea (part), Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 290, n. 63 (1819). 

There are two specimens (Godart's types 1) in the Dufresne collection with the original label attached, 
one of which is the Fabrician species, the other pelops, Drury. 

Phyciodes pelops. 

Papilio pelops, Drury, III. Ex. Ent., i. t. 19, f. 3, 4 (1773). 
Argtjnnis pygmsea (part), Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 290, n. 63 (1819). 

See remarks under previous species. 

HYPANARTIA BELLA. 

Papilio bella, Fab., Ent. Syst., iii. 1, p. 328, n. 713 (1793). 
Vanessa zabulina, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 301, n. 13 (1819). 

One specimen (Godart's type 1) in Dufresne collection. 

Pybameis calliroe. 

Hamadryas decora calliroe, Hub., Samml. Ex. Schmett. (1806-1816). 
Vanessa vulcania, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 320, n. 55 (1819). 

Specimen (one of Godart's types'?) in Dufresne collection labelled " TeneViffe." 

Precis pelarga. 

Papilio pelarga, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 513, n. 296 (1775). 
Vanessa laodora, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 314, n. 38 (1819). 

There are two specimens in the Dufresne collection labelled laodora, one of which is the present 
species, the other being galami, Boisd. The latter bears the original label, but as Godart's descrip- 
tion agrees better with true pelarga, and as he makes no special mention of Dufresne's specimens, it 
will perhaps be safer to let Boisduval's name stand, and treat Godart's name as a synonym of the 
Fabrician species. After all, pelarga and galami may be only local forms of the same species. 

Anartia lytrea. 

Vanessa lytrea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 299, n. 7 (1819). 
Anartia dominica, Skinner, Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, xvi. p. 86 (1889). 

By comparison of Dufresne's type specimen with those in the British Museum, it is proved that 
Skinner's species is identical with lytrea, while chrysopelea, Hub., is distinct; the latter name must 
therefore be restored. 

DlDONIS BIBLIS. 

Papilio biblis, Fab., Syst. Ent, p. 505, n. 261 (1775). 
Biblis thadana, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 326, n. 1 (1819). 

The Dufresne specimen (one of Godart's types ?) is a female. 

LlBYTHEA MYRRHA. 

Libythea myrrha, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 171, n. 4, (1819). 
Types (2 specimens) in the Dufresne collection. 

Libythea terena. 

Libythea terena, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 170, n. 2](1819). 
Type in Dufresne collection, from the Antilles. 



«) MR PERCY HALL GRIMSHAW ON 

Euterpe tereas. 

Pqpilio tereas, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 38, n. 39 (1819). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Dismorphia SPIO. 

Pieris epio, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 167, n. 163 (1819). 
Types (2 specimens) in Dufresne collection. 

Xaxthidia pyro. 

Pierispyro, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 137, n. 60 (1819). 

The type of this rare and remarkable species is in the Dufresne collection, and is represented in the 
Plate, fig. 7. It is not represented in the collections at the British Museum, and unfortunately we 
have no indication of its habitat. 

Pieris josephina. 

Pierisjosephina, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 158, n. 136 (1819). 

Types (1 $ and 1 <? ) in Dufresne collection. 

This species, which comes from St Domingo ami Mexico, is quite distinct from P. amaryllis, Fab., which 
is a native of Jamaica. 

HERP.EXIA eripiii a 

Pieris eripfiia. Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 157, n. 134 (1819). 

Type in Dufresne collection. //. tritogenia, King, is possibly the dry-season form of this species. 

Belexois gidica. 

Pieris gidica. Godart, Enc MSth., ix. p. 131, n. 37 (1819). 

The type of this rare and little-known species is figured in the Plate (fig. 4). It is a dry-season form, of 
which the wet -season form is as yet unknown. 

Pinacoptekyx doxo. 

Pieris doxo, Godart, Enc. MSth., is., p. 123, n. 15 (1819). 

,, eharina, Boisd., Sp. Gen., i. p. 525, n. 128 (1836). 

,, simana, HopfF., Ber. Verh. Ah. Bed., 1855, p. 640, n. 13. 
Pinacopteryx alba, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 10 (1857). 
Callosune doxo, Kirby, Syn. Cat. D.L., p. 500 (1871). 

The type is in the Dufresne collection, and is figured in the Plate (fig. 6). Pieris eharina, Boisd., is the 
dry-season form of this species. 

Daptonura limnoria. 

Pieris limnoria, Godart. Enc. MSth., ix. p. 144, n. 93 (1819). 

This is quite distinct from flippantha, Fab., which has no orange hind margin in the posterior wings of 
the male. Godart describes both sexes, but in the Dufresne collection there is only a single (male) 
specimen labelled limnoria, which is figured in ihe Plate (fig. 3). 

Daptonura BALAOIA. 

Pieris ealacia, Godart, Enc. MSth., ix. p. 144, n. 91 (1819). 

Godart describes both sexes. The single specimen (a type?) in the Dufresne collection is a female. 



SOME TYPE SPECIMENS OF LEPIDOPTERA AND COLEOPTERA. i 

Glutophrissa ilaire. 

Pieris ilaire, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 142, n. 83 (1819). 
Mylothris margarita, Hub., Samml. Ex. Schmett (1816-1841). 

Godart's name probably is the earlier one. There is only one specimen in the Dufresne collection, but it 
is no doubt one of the types. 

IXIAS VENILIA. 

Pieris venilia, Godart, Enc, Meth., ix. p. 121, n. 7 (1819). 

One specimen, a male, in the Dufresne collection, evidently one of the types. /. venatrix, Wallace, is 
venilia, Godart, in part, as the latter author apparently described both species as one. 

Teracolus phisadia. 

Pieris phisadia, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 132, n. 40 (1819). 
Pontia arne, Klug, Symb. Phys., t. 7, f. 1-4 (1829). 

Idmais phisadia et arne, Boisd., Sp. Gen., i. p. 587, n. 3, t. 19, f. 2 (1836). 
„ philamene, Mabille, Compt. Rend. Soc. Enf. Belg., xxxiii. p. cvi. (1880). 

Type in Dufresne collection. 

Papilio zidora. 

Acrsea zidora, ? Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 237, n. 22 (1819). 
Papilio ridleyanus, White, Ann. Nat. Hist., xii. p. 262 (1843). 

It is somewhat startling to find that the single specimen in the Dufresne collection labelled "zidora, fem.," 
and described by Godart as the female of his Acrsea zidora, is nothing else but Papilio ridleyanus, White ! 
That he certainly confused the two species is further shown on examining his description of the female. 
He says : — " Cette bande " [i.e., the "bande fauve ou d'un rouge-cerise "] " s' etend un peu sur les pre- 
mieres ailes du male ; dans la femelle, au contraire, elle monte beaucoup plus haut, et elle est divis^e 
en cinq taches ovales, dont la superieure plus petite." Now this description exactly fits Papilio 
ridleyanus, which name must therefore stand as a synonym, and the name zidora be restored under the 
present genus. 

Type in Dufresne collection. 

Papilio triopas. 

Papilio triopas, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 33, n. 23 (1819). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Papilio zacynthus. 

Papilio zacynthus, Fab., Ent. Syst., iii. 1, p. 15, n. 46 (1793). 
<£ ,, polymetus, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 35, n. 28 (1819). 

Godart's species is represented in the Dufresne collection by a single specimen, which is the male of the 
Fabrician species. It bears the original label, and is probably one of Godart's types. 

Papilio cresphontinus. 

Papilio cresphontinus, Mart., Psyche, t. 3, f. 8 ; t. 4, f. 10 (1797). 
,, temenes, Godart, Enc Meth., ix. p. 63, n. 104 (1819). 

One specimen in the Dufresne collection, presumably one of Godart's types. 

Papilio machaonides. 

Papilio machaonides, Esp., Ausl. Schmett., t. 45, f. 2 (1785-1798). 
,, hjcorseus, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 63, n. 105 (1819). 

Type of Godart's species in the Dufresne collection. 



MB PERCY HALL GRIMSHAW ON 



Papilio imerius. 



Papilio imerius, Godart, Enr. fth'th., ix. p. 69, n. 121 (1819). 

„ zetes, Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc, v. p. 36, t. 3, f. 1, 1* (1847). 

Godart's species is not identical, as Kirby supposed (Syn. Cat. D.L., p. 542), with pelaus, Fab., but 
corresponds exactly with zetes, Westw. The type in the Dufresne collection has been compared with 
British Museum specimens of zetes from St Domingo. 

Papilio leucaspis. 

Papilio leucaspis, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix. p. 55, n. 85 (1819). 
The type of this fine species is in the Dufresne collection. 



COLEOPTERA. 

Cladognatha suturalis. 

Lucanus suturalis, Olivier, Ent., i. 1, p. 16, n. 9, t. 4, f. 12 (1789). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Odontolabis camelus. 

Lucanus camelus, Olivier, Ent., i. 1, p. 22, n. 18, t. 5, f. 19 (1789). 

Odontolabis camelus, Leuthner, Trans. Zool. Soc, xi. p. 446, pi. xcvi. f. 7, 8 3 , 9 °- (1885). 
„ gouberti, C. 0. Waterhouse, Ent. Mo. Mag., xii. p. 172 (1876). 

The type (a male) is in the Dufresne collection. The species is well described and figured by Leuthner 
(l.r.) ; it comes from the Philippines. 

Ortctes augias. 

Scardbmu augias, Olivier, Ent, i. 3, p. 36, n. 39, t. 24, f. 212 (1789). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Hexodon reticulatum. 

Hexodon reticulatum, Olivier, Ent., i. 7, p. 4, n. 1, f. 1, a-e (1789). 
i )ne of the types of this rare species is in the Dufresne collection. 

PnOTINUS VITTATUS. 

Lampyris vittata, Olivier, F.xl., ii. 28, p. 23, n. 21, t. 3, f. 20 (1790). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

PHOTINUS PULGIDU8. 

Lampyris fvlgida, Olivier, A'///., ii. 28, p. 16, n. 9, t. 2, f. 9, a, b (1790). 
„ rufa, Olivier, Ent., ii. 28, p. 28, n. 30, t. 3, f. 30 (1790). 

From an examination of the type of rufus, which is in the Dufresne collection, it appears certainly 
identical with fidgidus, described by Olivier a few pages earlier on. Fulgidus is probably an imma- 
ture form of rufus, the original description of which is incorrect. Olivier says, " Corpus subtus 
pedesque rufa immaculata"; bill the type has the two lost segments of the abdomen blackish. 



SOME TYPE SPECIMENS OF LEPIDOPTERA AND COLEOPTERA. 9 

Stenocara aranipes. 

cJ Pimelia aranipes, Olivier, Ent., iii. 59, p. 17, n. 22, t. 4, f. 6 (1795). 
$ ,, longipes, Olivier, Ent., iii. 59, p. 16, n. 20, t. 1, f. 3 (1795), nee. Fab. 
Stenocara herbsti, Gemminger, Col. Heft, vi., 1870. 

Type of aranipes in Dufresne collection. The $ of this species is the same as Olivier's longipes, 
described on the previous page of the Entomologie. The latter name, however, was preoccupied 
by Fabricius, whose species of that name is an Adesmia. On this account the species was re-named 
by Gemminger, but aranipes is now the correct name. 

EUSCELUS CRIBRARIUS. 

Attelabus eribrarius, Olivier, Ent., v. 81, p. 8, n. 5, t. 1, f. 5 (1807). 

Types (2 specimens) in the Dufresne collection. This species appears to be rare, and is unrepre- 
sented in the British Museum collections. It is represented in the Plate at fig. 9. 

Sphbnophorus sericeus. 

Calandra sericea, Olivier, Ent., v. 83, p. 84, n. 14, t. 28, f. 409 (1807). 
„ sericea, Latr., Humb. et Bonpl. Voy., i. p. 206 (1811). 

The types (2 specimens) are in the Dufresne collection. Latreille is usually quoted as the authority for 
this species, but Olivier's description is earlier by four years. 

HOMALONOTUS VALIDUS. 

Curculio validus, Olivier, Enc. Meth., v. p. 499, n. 131 (1790). 
Rhynckstmus validus, Olivier, Ent, v. 83, p. 157, n. 124, t. 15, f. 186 (1807). 

Types (2 specimens) in Dufresne collection. 

HlLIPUS APIATUS. 

Ehynchsenus apiatus, Olivier, Ent., v. 83, p. 171, n. 144, t. 28, f. 424 (1807). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Ph^dropus candidus. 

Curculio candidus, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 146 (1775). 

„ tomentosus, Olivier, Enc. Meth., v. p. 536, n. 288 (1790). 

Olivier, Ent., v. 83, p. 343, n. 394, t. 13, f. 155, a, b (1807). 

Type of Olivier's species in the Dufresne collection. 

Cyphicerus novemlineatus. 

Curculio 9-lineatus, Olivier, Ent, v. 83, p. 417, n. 513, t. 26, f. 377 (1807). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

Cerambyx interruptus, Olivier. 

The type of this interesting species, which is represented in the Plate at fig. 8, is in the Dufresne collec- 
tion, and is probably unique. It has been carefully examined by Mr C. J. Gahan, who considers it 
the type of a new genus, which he characterises as follows : — 

" Zonotylus, gen. nov. (Fam. Cerambycidae), 

"Head rather narrow and slightly concave between the antennary condyles, the latter having each a 
small angular process at the upper margin just in front of the upper lobe of the eye. Eyes finely 
facetted, deeply emarginate. Last joint of labial palpi with a distinct pit on the outer surface 
(maxillary palpi wanting). Antennae of the female scarcely longer than half the body; third joint a 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 1). B 



10 MB PERCY HALL GRIMSHA.W ON 

little longer than first, thickened at the apex j fourth to tenth gradually diminishing in length, 
fourth towards the apex, and the remaining joints in their whole length dilated and compressed 
towards the anterior edge, each having a sharp angle at the distal extremity ; eleventh joint scarcely 
longer than tenth, oblique and slightly cmarginate at the apex. Prothorax with a stout conical 
tubercle at the middle of each side ; disk raised and somewhat irregularly convex, deeply and very 
closely punctured with a smooth callosity in the middle; basal margin slightly rounded in the middle, 
sinuate on each side. Scutellum rather long, and acutely triangular ; surface of mesonotum between 
the scutellum and the stridulating area marked with a transversely elliptical pit. Elytra with sides 
sub-parallel, apex rounded. Hind legs much longer than either of the two anterior pairs, and with 
their tibia' flattened and somewhat dilated ; femora of all the legs strongly clavate below the middle, 
and narrowed again towards the apex. Presternum furnished with a small narrow tubercle near the 
posterior end, which is almost vertical ; anterior coxal cavities rounded, closed in externally, open 
behind. Mesosternum emarginate and somewhat bilobed behind, furnished, just in front of the 
emargination, with a narrow and distinct, but not very strongly raised tubercle ; coxal cavities of the 
middle pair opening outwards to the epimera. 

" This genus offers the characters of the group Stcnaspides of Lacordaire, and in this group seems to 
come nearest iu general structure to Eurycleu, Thorns., though owing to its narrower form, and the 
peculiar ivory-like markings of the type species, this relationship would at first sight scarcely be 
suspected. 
"Type: Zonotylus inter ruptus, Oliv. 

" Cerambyx interrupts, Oliv., Enc. Meth., v. p. 307 (1790) ; Ent., iv., n. 67, p. 35, pi. 17, f. 133. 

" The habitat of this interesting species is unfortunately still unknown. Both Pascoe and Lacordaire, 
to whom the species was known only from Olivier's description and figure, surmised that it came 
from Australia, and was referable to the genus Bixorcsthes, Pasc, which was founded upon what was 
supposed to be au Australian, but is now known to be a South African species. Olivier's figure 
gives a fairly good idea of the general appearance of his species ; but neither from his figure nor 
his description could it be inferred that the markings on the elytra —consisting of a basal spot and 
two transverse and slightly sinuate bands on each elytron — are raised and present an ivory-like 
appearance. The rest of the surface of the elytra, except at the shoulders, which are nearly impunctate 
and somewhat glossy, is finely and very closely punctured and of a dull black colour. The legs are 
glossy and black with a faint bluish tint." [C. J. Gahan.] 

Sagka splendida. 

Sayra splendida, Olivier, Ent., v. 90, p. 497, n. 2, t. 1, f. 2, a, b (1807). 
Type in Dufresne collection. 

(EDIONYCHIrf FASCIATA. 

Galeruca fasciata, Fab., Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 96 (1798). 

Attica fasciata, Olivier, Ent, vi. 93 bis. p. 675, n. 9, t. 1, f. 9 (1808). 

The specimen described and figured by Olivier is in the Dufresne collection. 

Cephalodonta maculata. 

I/i.-pa maadata, Olivier, Enc. Meth., vii. p. 96, n. 3 (1792). 

„ spinipes, Fab., Ent. Syst., iv. App., p. 448 (1794) ; Olivier, Ent., vi. 95, p. 761, n. 4, t. 1, f. 4 (1808). 

Olivier's type in the Dufresne collection. 

In 1885 Baly, in working through the Hispidae for the Bioloyia Centrali- Americana, described a new 
species as Cephalodonta maculata. As this name is pre-occupied by the species just referred to, I 
propose to re-name that described by Baly as follows: — 

CEniAi."DoNTA P.ALvr, n. n. 

Cephalodonta maculata, Baly, Biol. Centr. Am. Col., vi. (2), p. 35, t. ii. f. 18 (1885). 



SOME TYPE SPECIMENS OF LEPIDOPTERA AND COLEOPTERA. 11 

EUMOLPUS IQNITU8. 

Chrysomela ignita, Fab., Mant., i. p. 68 (1787). 

Eumolpus ignitus, Olivier, Ent., vi. p. 897, n. 1, t. 1, f. 1 (1808). 

The specimen described and figured by Olivier is in the Dufresne collection. 

DlABROTICA QUADRIGUTTATA. 

Chrysomela quadriguttata, Olivier, Enc. Meth., v. p. 703, n. 62 (1790). 

Galeruca albicornis, Fab., Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 96 (1798) 

Crioceris thoracica, Fab., Syst. EL, i. p. 457 (1801). 

Galeruca thoracica, Olivier, Ent., vi. 93, p. 650, n. 61, t. 4, f. 62, and Chrys., t. 4, f. 53 (1808). 

Type of quadriguttata in Dufresne collection. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Hestina nama, Dbl. ab. 

2. Heliconius ethilla, Godart. 

3. Daptonura limnoria, Godart. 

4. Belenois gidica, Godart. 

5. Pseudargynnis hegemone, Godart. 

6. Pinacopteryx doxo, Godart. 

7. Xanthidia pyro, Godart. 

8. Zonotylus interruptus, Olivier. 

9. Euscelus cribrarius, Olivier. 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Edm r , Vol. XXXIX 



Type Specimens of Lepidoptera & Coleoptera in the 
Edinburgh Museum of Science & Art. 





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-( 13 ) 



II. — On a Melanic Specimen of Hestina nama, Doubleday. By Percy Hall 
Grimshaw, F.E.S. Communicated by Dr R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. (With 
figure on Plate of previous Paper.) 

(Read 17th May 1897.) 

In a collection of Indian butterflies purchased by the Edinburgh Museum in the 
year 1890, I found a specimen of Hestina which is of some interest. After carefully 
examining it, and comparing it with a figure by Oberthur of a form which he regards 
as a melanic aberration of the well-known Hestina nama, Doubleday, I have come to 
the conclusion that our example is another and more melanic form of the same species. 
From Oberthur's figure, which he calls ab. melanina [Etudes d' Entomologie, xx., 1896, 
p. 30, pi. 10, no. 177), the present specimen differs in the fore wing, in the absence of 
the inner row of whitish spots, in the size and position of the upper spots in the outer 
series, and in the spot at the anal angle being nearer to the base of the wing. At the 
base of the cell there is a rich cream-coloured sub-triangular spot, instead of the slender 
greenish streak. There is no ferruginous border to the hind wing, and the whitish 
streaks are more elongated, and in the anal half of the wing only very faintly in- 
dicated. 

For the reference to the figure of melanina, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr F. 
A. Heron, of the British Museum. As the under side is neither described by Oberthur 
nor represented in his plate, I have thought it advisable to figure the Edinburgh speci- 
men, and to write the following more detailed description : — 

Upper side: Fore wing entirely purplish-black, with the exception of a marginal 
series of whitish spots, the uppermost of which is elongated into the form of a streak, 
the four next lower becoming shorter and more crescentic towards the anal angle, the 
lowermost (between the sub-median and the first median nervures) more quadrate, and 
followed by a short streak at the anal angle, which is, however, further removed from 
the margin. At the apex of the wing are two much smaller and less distinct whitish 
streaks. Inner margin dusted for about two-thirds of its length with bluish-grey. A 
pale streak at base of costal area and a cream-coloured spot at base of cell. Hind wing 
more reddish in colour, but much darker in the discal area. Light markings confined 
to a gradually disappearing marginal series of streaks beginning at the costa and extend- 
ing to the anal angle, only the first three, however, being distinct. Inner margin 
broadly whitish. Under side : Fore wing lighter than upper side, with a greater extension 
of the whitish markings, those near the apex being especially more distinct. Inner 
margin paler than on upper side, with an additional bluish-white streak at the anal 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 2). C 



14 ME GRTMSHAW ON A MELANTC SPECIMEN OF IIESTINA NAM A. 

angle. Nervurcs in apical portion of wing strongly margined with chestnut-red ; spots 
at base of wing more distinct than on upper side. Hind wing lighter than on upper 
side, with all the nervures strongly margined with bright chestnut-red. Marginal series 
of light markings much larger and more distinct, of a more yellowish colour than those 
on the fore wing, and practically forming a broad band, interrupted by the red-margined 
nervures, and dentatcd externally by the extension inwards of a triangle of chestnut-red 
between each nervure. Precostal area with four white spots ; inner margin creamy- 
white, dusted with chestnut-red. Cilia of both wings alternately edged with white on 
both upper and under surfaces. Body, head, and legs marked as in typical II. nama. 



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( 15 ) 



III. — On some Nuclei of Cloudy Condensation. By John Aitken, F.R.S. 

(With a Plate.) 

(Read 3rd May, 1897.) 

I have to apologise for placing this communication before you in a somewhat 
incomplete form. My work has been much interrupted in the past, and it will again 
shortly be stopped for a considerable time. I have therefore decided to place before 
vou the results so far as they are worked out. 



PART I. 
Ions and Cloudy Condensation. 

Robert von Helmholtz published in 1887 the results of "Experiments with a 
•Steam Jet." # This investigation was continued, and he and Professor Richarz joined 
forces, and the result of their investigation will be found in the same journal for 1890, 
under the title — "On the Influence of Chemical and Electrical Action on the Steam 
Jet, and on the Dissociation of Gases, particularly of Oxygen." t 

Helmholtz seems to have begun his work under a wrong impression as to the 
conclusions of other investigators. In the first of these papers, after describing some 
results, he says they cannot be explained on the dust theory ; and after stating that 
some observers had rejected the dust theory, he adds that " Aitken, on the other hand, 
has attempted to explain everything by it." In the second of the papers referred to, 
the authors say : "We hold that the earlier assertions that cloud is never formed without 
dust is incorrect." I have great difficulty in understanding how these authors could 
have made this mistake, because in my first paper it is distinctly stated that cloudy 
condensation can take place without dust ; and a number of experiments are described 
in which condensation takes place in the presence of the vapours of different substances, 
such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and a number of others, — the very substances 
one of the authors uses to prove that condensation can take place without dust. I had 
also shown, that if the supersaturation be great enough, that condensation can take place 
without nuclei of any kind. 

In my first communication on the subject in 1881 I even went further, and said 
that it was probable that sunshine might cause the formation of nuclei, and allow 
cloudy condensation to take place where there was no dust. On this point I shall 
have something further to say in this paper. 

* Weid. Ann,, xxxii. pp. 1-19, 1887. t Weid. Ann., xl. pp. 161-202, 1890. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 3). D 



16 Mil JOHN AITKEN ON 

The principal object of the two papers by Helmholtz and Richarz is to prove that 
cloudy condensation may take place without dust, and the authors describe a great number 
"1 very beautiful experiments made with the steam jet, showing the change which takes 
place in its appearance when mixed with air charged with the products of combustion 
either from flames or from slow combustion, such as damp phosphorus slowly oxidising in 
the aii', or when the jet is mixed with air which had been exposed to the electric discharge. 
In all these cases the authors show that something is produced which, when it meets 
the steam jet, causes an increase in the density of the condensation, evidently due to 
an increase in the number of small water drops. That there is something produced 
which causes an increase in the density of the steam is evident ; but whilst one may 
go thus far with these authors, yet it is difficult to accept their explanation of the 
phenomenon. They attribute the condensation not to nuclei, but to the molecular 
shock produced by the chemical processes going on in the neighbourhood of the jet, 
or, to use a translation of the authors' words, "The collapse of the unstable condition 
of the supersaturated water vapour from the jet is determined less by the particular 
nature of the chemical action than to a far greater extent by the molecular shocks set 
up in the jet, molecular dissociations and associations, and on the presence of unsatu- 
rated compounds, molecular groups with free valencies or ' ions.' " 

Whilst accepting the facts of the experiments, namely, that something is produced 
in these chemical processes which determines dense condensation in the steam jet, yet 
one has great difficulty in accepting the above explanation. Supposing we even admit 
that a molecular shock of the kind described could determine condensation in a super- 
saturated vapour, it must be remembered that the degree of supersaturation in a 
.steam jet in the open air where there is dust is extremely slight, — the particles of 
water are so close that any strain easily relieves itself. Further, it must be remem- 
bered that the vapour in the jet is nearly in equilibrium with the drops of the size 
present in the jet, and it is very doubtful if it will be at all supersaturated to extremely 
minute particles of water, as the vapour tension at the surface of extremely small 
particles is higher than at the surface of larger particles. For these reasons it seems 
more probable that whatever it is that is produced in these chemical processes, 
it acts somehow in forming nuclei, and is itself engaged directly in the formation 
of the centres of condensation.* 

Near the end of the second paper already referred to, the authors put in a claim 
for the importance of these " ions " in producing ordinary cloudy condensation. They 

* There is another way of considering the whole question, from which it would appear that there is no such 
thing as aupereaturation in a vapour; that is, no strain in the vapour which either dust or "molecular shocks" 
can relieve. What is generally called a saturated vapour is one whose tension is equal to the tension of the vapour 
at a flat surface. Now this tension is not so high as the tension at a surface of extremely small convex curvature ; 
and vapour that is in equilibrium with the vapour at a convex surface is supersaturated to the flat surface ; so that 
saturation is a relative and not an absolute quantity, relative to the curvature of the condensing surface, and a 
vapour that is supersaturated to a Hat surface is not necessarily saturated to a surface of very small curvature. It 
would thus appear that there is no strain in a vapour till a surface makes its appearance ; but after it is formed 
the lower tension at its surface determines a movement of the vapour molecules towards it. 



SOME NUCLEI OF CLOUDY CONDENSATION. 17 

say : " Apart from the explanation, the fact remains that by rapid and slow combustion 
an agent is called forth which sets up condensation, and which does not disappear 
immediately on the cessation of the originating process. Now so much oxidation 
takes place in so many different ways, that the idea is at once suggested that this 
agent which is formed by oxidation will be always present in small quantities in the 
air. We consider it quite possible that the faint condensation which the steam jet 
suffers in the open air may quite as well be due to the presence of this agent as to that 
of dust." 

This conclusion seemed to be of sufficient importance to demand further investi- 
gation. Admitting the existence of these " ions " in the products of combustion, the 
question resolves itself into this : Do these " ions " persist for any length of time, and 
so come to play some part in the condensation of a steam jet or of a cloud, or is their 
action very short-lived? The difficulty of arranging an experiment for testing this point 
is, that during combustion so many different products are thrown into the air as well 
as an enormous number of fine dust particles. It is, therefore, difficult to find, by 
testing this complex mixture, many of the constituents which cause cloudy condensa- 
tion, whether any particular one is more affected by time than the others. Because, 
if we keep the gases, new chemical combinations are formed, and the number of dust 
particles also decreases, and it would be difficult to determine how much of the decrease 
was due to loss of activity of the " ions." If, therefore, we are going to test the length 
of time the " ions " of combustion retain their activity, we must use some form of 
combustion in which no dust is formed, and the products are free from any substance 
that can form on cooling solid or liquid nuclei. Hydrogen burned in oxygen seemed 
particularly suitable for the purpose, but as this would involve considerable difficulties, 
it was determined to try the effect of burning it in filtered air. It was, however, kept 
in view that the presence of the nitrogen might give rise to complications, but fortu- 
nately there was no trouble due to its presence ; nor did hydrogen peroxide, ozone, or 
ammonium nitrate, which are said to be produced when hydrogen is burned, produce 
any effect. Further, the products from hydrogen burning in air are stated by 
Helmholtz to be very powerful in increasing the density of the steam jet, and they, 
therefore, seemed the most suitable substance for an experiment of this kind. 

In carrying out this experiment the following arrangement was adopted (see Plate). 
The hydrogen was prepared from zinc and sulphuric acid placed in the flask, A. After 
being purified, it was burned at the platinum jet, B, having a diameter of 1 mm. The 
air for combustion was drawn through the large cotton-wool filter, C, and brought in at 
the lower end of the tall cylindrical glass combustion chamber, D, and taken off at the 
top. The combustion chamber used for these experiments was a Fresenius Chloride of 
Calcium Cylinder placed in an inverted position. For the present the flask, U, is 
supposed to be removed, and the combustion chamber, D, connected directly by its 
branch pipe, V, with the long glass tube, E, through which the products of combustion 
are carried to the gasometer, F, by means of which the air and products of combustion 



18 MR JOHN A1TKEN ON 

are drawn through the apparatus. On the pipe, E, at a point about I m. from the 
combustion chamber, there is a branch pipe, G, which leads through the stop-cock, H, into 
the test-flask, /. This flask is provided with an air-pump, K, and a filter, L. By means 
of this part of the apparatus a sample of the air passing from the combustion chamber 
can be tested when desired. To make this test, the flask, I, is first cleared of all dust 
particles by means of the pump, K, and filter, L. After the air is free from nuclei, the 
stop-cock, H, leading to the pipe from the combustion chamber is opened, and a sample 
of the products passing in the pipe are drawn into the flask, I. The stop-cock, H, is then 
dosed, and the air in the flask expanded by means of the pump, when the density of the 
condensation observed indicates the number of nuclei in the air from the burning 
hydrogen. For observing the amount of condensation in the flask, I, the dark lantern, R, 
was used, the light being focussed on the contents of the flask by means of the 
condensing lens, S, whilst the cloudy particles were observed through the lens, T. 
When making these experiments the room should be darkened, as the phenomena are 
then most easily observed. 

At first the results were unsatisfactory : there was always considerable clouding, but 
the density was far from being constant. Efforts were, therefore, made to get everything 
as perfect as possible. Pure redistilled zinc and the purest sulphuric acid were used 
for generating the hydrogen, and, to prevent sulphur compounds from coming over with 
the gas, cupric sulphate* was added to the sulphuric acid, which was used very weak, 
and mixed with water and cooled before being put in the flask, A. The flask, A, in 
which the hydrogen was generated was kept cool by a bath of water, M. The hydrogen 
after leaving the generating flask was passed through the wash-bottle, N, filled with 
solution of lead nitrate. The gas then passed through a plug of cotton-wool, O, 
saturated with a strong solution of lead nitrate, then through a dry cotton-wool filter, P. 
It then passed through a small but very tight cotton-wool filter, Q, to regulate the 
pressure of the gas, as without this obstruction the light was apt to go out, owing to 
irregular pressure due to the bubbling of the gas. The gas was burned at the platinum 
jit, B, which was made red-hot with a blow-pipe before each experiment to thoroughly 
cleanse it, and prevent nuclei being driven off by the heat. The combustion chamber 
was kept cool by surrounding it with a wet cloth. 

We shall now turn to the cmestion of filtering the air. This looks a simple matter, 
but it was found to be one of the most troublesome parts of the experiment. In the 
apparatus a largo cylindrical metal box, C, filled with cotton-wool, was used, with a pipe 
leading off it at the end. This pipe was at first connected with the combustion chamber 
bv means of a short length of india-rubber tube. When the pure hydrogen was burned 
in this apparatus the flame was scarcely visible, and quite invisible if there was any 
daylight in the room, even if the combustion cylinder was surrounded with a black sur- 
face. Watching the burning hydrogen on one occasion, suddenly a little bright spark 

* It was necessary to be constantly adding cupric sulphate to the acid in .1. If this was not done, con- 
siderable condensation took place in the products. 



SOME NUCLEI OF CLOUDY CONDENSATION. 19 

made its appearance in the flame ; on now testing the products they were found to have 
greatly increased in impurity. This at once suggested that some piece of solid matter 
had got into the flame. I now gently tapped the india-rubber tube by which the filtered 
air was brought to the combustion chamber, when the flame at once responded, showing 
a few bright sparks in succession, and the test-flask showed the air to be very full of 
nuclei. The india-rubber tube was therefore removed, and the filter connected direct to 
the combustion chamber. On now testing the apparatus, I gently tapped the filter 
itself, with the result that matters were as bad as before — dense clouding made its 
appearance in the test-flask. The arrangement of the apparatus was now slightly 
altered. The combustion chamber, filter, and gas-generating apparatus were put on one 
table, while the test-flask, with its pump, were put on another, to prevent the vibrations 
produced by working the pump from shaking the other parts of the apparatus. 
Further, the cotton in the filter was damped by passing damp air through it the reverse 
way, and when in use a wet cloth was hung over the entrance end of the filter. This 
was done to prevent dust rising from the dry wool or metal case. 

It may be asked why all these precautions are necessary, when a cotton-wool filter 
is found to act quite satisfactorily without them when used in the ordinary dust experi- 
ments. The reason is very simple. If a little bit of any kind of matter happens to be 
carried with the air out of the filter in making the ordinary experiments, this means 
■only one centre of condensation, and that drop may not meet the eye of the observer ; 
but when the same bit of matter, particularly if it be organic, passes through the 
hydrogen flame, at once there are created thousands of centres of condensation, and what 
in the one case may escape detection gives rise in the other to a very manifest effect. 

After many failures, and many alterations and improvements in the apparatus, the 
result is that, when everything is working right, the test-flask shows the products of 
combustion of pure hydrogen in dust-free air to be free from nuclei of all kinds. The 
<iir remains clear on expansion, and only a few drops are seen falling rapidly ; the air is 
in fact far freer from condensation than the purest air met with in the country. The 
air was never absolutely free from a single nucleus on expansion, but frequently only a 
very few drops appeared, and all in view could be easily counted. 

From this experiment it may be concluded, 1st, that pure hydrogen burning in 
dustless air gives rise to no solid or liquid form of dust ; and 2nd, that any activity 
the "ions" may have is extremely short-lived, as they are inactive by the time they 
are cooled. 

Whilst the apparatus, as described, shows that pure hydrogen when burning in 
dustless air gives rise to no permanent nuclei of condensation, we can, by making a 
slight alteration in the conditions, show the great importance of dust in the cloudy 
condensation produced by the products of combustion. If we remove the filter, C, and 
allow the air of the room to go unfiltered to the hydrogen flame, we get very different 
results, according to the condition of the air. If the day be calm, and the air of the 
room be but little disturbed, we get a great increase in the density of the condensation 



20 Ml! JOHN AITKKX ON 

when tested iu the flask, I, but the density is not very much greater than what the air 
of the room would give if it had not passed through the hydrogen flame. The concen- 
trated light from the lantern produces a luminous cone shining in the flask. If now, 
however, we move about things in the room, so as to stir up some dust, the result is 
remarkable. On now testing the products from the hydrogen flame in the flask the 
cone of light is no longer visible. So dense is the condensation that the whole flask 
is filled with a dense white fog, the flask looking like a white ball, the intense heat of 
the hydrogen flame having produced an enormous number of nuclei out of some of 
the dust floating in the air. 

The conditions of the experiment, in which it is shown that hydrogen burning in 
filtered air gives rise to no nuclei of condensation, is not, however, quite the same as that 
in which Helmholtz found these products to be very active, as he mixed them much 
more quickly with the re-acting agent. The products in his experiment were carried 
direct to the steam jet. To test the condensing power of the products immediately after 
combustion, the following alterations were made in the arrangement already described in 
the apparatus shown in the Plate : — The test flask, U, was introduced into the circulating 
.-ystem at a point close to the combustion chamber, so that the products might be tested 
immediately after combustion. For testing them in this case the steam jet method was 
employed as in Helmholtz' experiments, only no unfiftered air was allowed to mix with 
the products. Steam was generated in the flask, W, and conveyed by means of a glass 
tube to the interior of the test-flask, Z7. This tube terminated in a fine jet. With the 
hydrogen burning and unfiltered air, there was a dense condensation, but when filtered 
air was used the condensation was extremely slight, and if the flame was low on some 
trials, it was difficult to say whether there was any condensation or not. In each test 
the steam was allowed to enter only for a very short time, as the test-flask got heated, 
and had, therefore, to be cooled before each test. It is evident from these experi- 
ments that the products of combustion from pure hydrogen and dustless air are far 
from being very active in the condensation of the steam jet, even when they are 
newly formed. 

There are other reasons for leading us to conclude that the action of these "ions" is 
extremely short-lived. It is generally admitted that these "ions" are the cause of 
electrical conduction in gases, that it is to their presence in the products of combustion 
that these gases owe their power of discharging electrified bodies. Now we know that 
the products of combustion soon lose this power; if we bring the products from the 
flame to the electrified body by means of a short tube, the discharge is rapid, but as 
we lengthen the tube, the power very rapidly decreases. Again, the air of a room 
where gas is burning has very little, if any, power of discharging electrified bodies, 
yet it has enormous numbers of nuclei of condensation, due to the products of 
combustion. Lord Kelvin and Dr Magnus Maclean, in a recent communication to 
tin Royal Society of Edinburgh, show that the products of combustion lose their 
power of discharging bodies in less than fifteen seconds. Further, we know that air 



.SOME NUCLEI OF CLOUDY CONDENSATION. 21 

is nearly freed of all nuclei of condensation by the electric discharge, which, while it 
deposits the dust, rather increases the " ions." It may also be remembered that air 
passed through the Thermic filter is freed of all nuclei. 

But whilst all experimental tests indicate that these " ions," or whatever it is that 
is produced during combustion, and which gives rise to condensation, are extremely 
short-lived, and do not play any important part in cloudy condensation in the 
atmosphere, it would be rash to say that they never do play any part. The conditions 
of combustion of a laboratory experiment are different from those under which com- 
bustion usually takes place ; and further, whilst hydrogen may not give any long-lived 
" ions," some other forms of combustion may, and though they lose their power of 
discharging electrified bodies, they may yet be capable of causing cloudy condensa- 
tion. 

From many hundreds of observations on the dust and the transparency of the 
atmosphere, it has been shown that, for the same relative humidity, the transparency is 
proportional to the number of dust particles in the air, except at one place of observa- 
tion, and under exceptional conditions. # Now this is not likely to be the case if " ions " 
played any important part in the condensation, as we can hardly expect their action 
to bear a constant proportion to that of the dust. For the reasons above given, it 
therefore does not appear at all likely that " ions " play any important part in the 
ordinary cloudy condensation in the atmosphere. 



PART II. 
Sunshine and Cloudy Condensation. 

In 1894 there was communicated to this Society Part III. of a paper "On the 
Number of Dust Particles in the Atmosphere." It is there shown that under certain 
•conditions the sun gives rise to a great increase in the number of nuclei. The observa- 
tions made at Kingairloch show, that when the wind is from the N.W. the number 
of particles is always very low, being generally under 500 per c.c, and often very 
much lower when the sky is clouded, but that when the sun came out the numbers 
rapidly increased as the day advanced, and if the sun kept shining all day, the numbers 
rose to many thousands in the afternoon, after which the numbers decreased, and 
again were very low next morning if the wind continued to blow from the N.W. 
These observations entirely justify the prediction which was made in 1881 on the 
probable action of sunshine in producing nuclei of condensation. 

This action of sunshine on our atmosphere evidently deserves further investigation. 
A few of the ordinary constituents and impurities of our atmosphere have therefore 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Edin., vol. xx. pp. 66, 93 ; Trans. Roy. Soc, Eclin., vol. xxxvi., Part III., pp. 621, 693. 



22 MR JOHN AITKEN ON 

been tested to see if sunshine acted on them in such a way as to make them active as 
producers of nuclei of cloudy condensation. 

The gases tested were ammonia, nitric acid, nitrous acid, peroxide of hydrogen, 
sulphurous acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, and chlorine. The result of 
these tests is that the gases or vapours of all these substances give rise to nuclei of 
condensation after being acted on by sunshine. 

The apparatus used for these experiments consisted of a glass flask, in which the 
gases were sunned and tested. This flask was provided with an air-pump and a cotton- 
wool filter, the arrangement being the same as that shown on the right-hand side of 
the Plate, with the centre tube removed. Different methods were used for getting the 
gases into the flask ; in some cases a little of their solutions in water was introduced 
into the flask, in others the gases were drawn into the flask through the cotton-wool 
filter. 

In making a test, the first thing to be done was to wash the flask and connecting 
tubes, and put new cotton-wool into the filter. Filtered air was then pumped in till 
no drops appeared on expanding the air. If a solution of any of the gases was in the 
flask, the apparatus was then removed to an open window and exposed to sunshine, 
generally for one minute, after which it was brought back, the air expanded by means 
of the pump, and the density of the condensation noted. If the gas was introduced 
into the flask through the filter, it was sometimes necessary to pass a considerable 
quantity of vapour when making the first test, as it was found that the vapour that 
first entered the filter did not pass through, but seemed to combine with the cotton- 
wool, or perhaps only condensed on it, as after a filter was saturated it acted for some 
time, supplying nuclei without a fresh quantity of vapour being passed into it. 

I regret that the experiments on the action of sunlight on the vapours mentioned are 
far from being as complete as I could wish ; but for the reasons already given, and on 
account of the difficulty of getting plenty of sunlight, it has not been found possible to 
get the work done. The following notes are, therefore, very incomplete. 

It should be noted at the outset that ordinary air, after being filtered and exposed 
to sunshine, does not show any cloudy condensation on expansion, only occasionally a 
drop or two may appear ; but when any of the above-named gases are in the air a very 
different result is obtained. Ammonia has been experimented with both by placing a 
weak solution in the test-flask, and by drawing the vapour into the flask through the 
filter. If one drop of ammonia be added to 100 c.c. of water, and put in the flask 
and sunned for one minute, a great deal of condensation takes place on expansion with 
even this very weak solution, and if we expose it for five minutes the condensation 
is much more dense. If we put a weak solution of nitric acid in the flask, say two 
drops to 100 c.c. of water, we get cloudy condensation on expansion after being sunned ; 
but the action of nitric acid is not so powerful as ammonia ; that is to say, that though 
the solution of nitric acid was double the strength, it did not give so dense a con 
densation as the vapour from solution of ammonia. 



SOME NUCLEI OF CLOUDY CONDENSATION. 23 

The experiments made with nitrous acid must be looked on with considerable doubt, 
owing to the uncertainty which hangs round the existence of this gas when produced by 
the ordinary methods. I shall, therefore, only describe the experiments made, and 
leave the reader to draw his own conclusions. In experimenting with this gas it was 
always made outside the test-flask, and drawn in through the cotton- wool filter. The 
gas was prepared by means of nitric acid and arsenious anhydride. With gas prepared 
in this way, it is probable some of the effect might be due to nitric acid passing over 
with the nitrous acid. Another sample of nitrous acid was prepared from weak 
sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate. Both these samples of nitrous acid gave dense 
condensation after being exposed to sunshine. 

The hydrogen peroxide was tested by placing a little of the ordinary 10 per cent, 
solution in the test-flask and sunning the contents. It proved to be a powerful 
generator of nuclei. 

Sulphurous acid is one of the most puzzling of all the gases tested, its action is so 
uncertain. Unlike the others, it almost always gives rise to condensation in the dark. 
On some days, with even a weak solution in the test-flask, it was impossible to get the 
condensation to cease entirely. When attempting to clear the air in the flask, even in 
the dark, a few drops fell at each expansion, and on most days, though the drops nearly 
ceased to appear, yet on standing a few minutes a considerable number made their 
appearance when the air was expanded ; but in all cases the cloudy condensation was 
very greatly increased after sunning. The products of combustion from household gas 
in some cases gave rise to slight condensation after sunning, whilst the products of 
combustion from anthracite coal, which probably contained a good deal of sulphur, 
gave dense condensation after being exposed to sunshine. This test might possibly be 
used for the detection of sulphur compounds in household gas. 

The sulphuretted hydrogen tested was prepared from sulphide of iron and weak 
sulphuric acid. The gas was generated in a glass bottle, and drawn into the test-flask 
through the cotton-wool filter. This gas gave dense condensation after being exposed 
to sunshine. In order to see that the effect was not due to vapour of sulphuric acid, 
the acid used was tested alone before adding the sulphide of iron, and was found 
to be inactive. 

Vapour from hot hydrochloric acid was drawn into the test-flask through the filter 
and sunned, after which it gave dense condensation on expansion, whilst the same 
vapour was inactive whilst kept in the dark. 

Chlorine is one of the most interesting of the gases tested, as it caused condensa- 
tion to take place without supersaturation. The gas was prepared from potassium 
bichromate and hydrochloric acid ; it was drawn into the test-flask through the filter. 
Whilst this gas gave no condensation on being expanded, if kept in the dark, it became 
fogged on exposure to sunlight without being expanded, and the density of the con- 
densation was but little increased by expanding it. 

A point of some importance connected with these nuclei due to the action of light 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 3). E 



24 MR JOHN ATTKEN ON 

on gases in the atmosphere is : after they are formed, do they remain active for any 
length of time, or are they short-lived ? Unfortunately, for reasons already given, 
this point has not been thoroughly worked out ; but this much has been ascer- 
tained: some of them, such as the hydrogen peroxide nuclei, arc very short-lived — 
fifteen minutes to half-an-hour being sufficient for the air in the flask to lose its 
power of cloudy condensation ; whilst the nuclei from sulphurous acid remain active 
for a long time, half an hour having no appreciable effect on the density of the 
condensation when that substance forms the nuclei. In this case the nuclei are 
probably particles of fine sulphur dust, and their action seems to be as permanent as 
that of ordinary atmospheric dust. 

As might be expected, all the gases do not respond to light rays of the same rate 
of vibration ; but no extensive experiments have been made in this direction. It may, 
however, be mentioned that whilst sulphurous acid is easily made active by means of 
the light of burning magnesium, on many of the other gases that light has little if any 
action. The action of burning magnesium on sulphurous acid makes a convenient 
lecture experiment, the flask being shown free from cloudy condensation when the moist 
air and sulphurous acid vapour are expanded, if the room be lit with gas. On now 
burning two or three inches of magnesium ribbon, and expanding, the air in the flask 
becomes densely white with cloudy condensation. 

Whilst these experiments show that many gases which are frequently found in the 
atmosphere form nuclei of condensation after being acted on by sunlight, yet it must 
be admitted that they throw but little light on the abnormally high dust readings got 
at Kingairloch, when the wind blew from a pure direction and the sun shone. On 
looking for a source of impurities in the atmosphere at Kingairloch, I found there 
was a " mineral well" to the north-west of the place of observation, at a distance of 
about three miles ; and on inquiry I found that there are a number of these wells in the 
district. The water in these wells contains sulphuretted hydrogen, and it seemed 
possible that this gas under the action of sunlight might be the cause of the abnormal 
number of nuclei ; but as yet I have not been able to get evidence sufficient to bring- 
in a verdict against it. Since I discovered that the sunlight was in some way 
connected with the production of these nuclei of condensation in N.W. winds, I have 
only been once at Kingairloch to test if the mineral springs supplied the gas out of 
which the nuclei were produced, but unfortunately the weather was never favourable 
for a test. If the sun shone, the wind was in the wrong direction, and when the wind 
was N.W., there was no sunshine. Only on one day did I get a minute or two of weak 
sunshine while the wind was N.W., but on that occasion I got no evidence against the 
well. The numbers were the same in the air coming to the well as in the air leaving 
it. The test, however, was too imperfect to put any reliance on, as by the time I got 
to a small distance to the lee side of the well, to get the air after the sun had time to 
act on it, the sun was under a cloud. I have also had some of the water bottled and 
brought here, where it was tested by placing some of it in the test-flask, and sunning 



SOME NUCLEI OF CLOUDY CONDENSATION. 25 

the air and gases over it, but obtained little indication of nuclei being formed. It 
should, however, be kept in view that it is quite possible the sun may produce the 
nuclei found at Kingairloch in some other way than from gaseous impurities in the 
atmosphere, and the phenomenon will require to be further investigated at that place. 

These experiments on the effect of sunshine on the gases in the atmosphere show 
that it is possible for cloudy condensation to take place in the absence of dust. That 
is, supposing there is any part of the upper air free from dust, it is possible, if any of the 
gases referred to be present, for the sun to convert them into nuclei of condensation, and 
permit of clouds forming in dustless air. In the lower atmosphere there always seems 
to be plenty of nuclei to form cloudy condensation whether the sun shines or not. The 
only case where almost no nuclei were detected in the air was at the Ben Nevis 
Observatory, where on one occasion, at least, Mr Rankin found the air nearly free from 
dust, whilst the top of the mountain was in cloud. All the nuclei there at the time 
seemed to have been used up to form fog particles, and the air was then in a peculiarly 
supersaturated condition. 

Though it is here shown that the impurities in the atmosphere when acted on by 
sunshine may permit of cloudy condensation taking place in the absence of what is 
commonly known as dust, we are not yet in a position to say that they do act in this 
way, because the impurities may not be in sufficient quantity to give a large enough 
number of nuclei to produce the cloudy form of condensation ; there may be only nuclei 
sufficient to produce the rainy form of condensation. 



( 27 ) 



IV. — The C Discriminant as an Envelope. By James A. Macdonald, M.A., B.Sc, 

(Read 5th July 1897.) 

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the conditions under which the C dis- 
criminant of a system of curves furnishes a curve which at every point of its length is 
touched by a curve of the system. 

Subsidiary Proposition. 

The following proposition will be used : — 
If A be the discriminant of 

U=Ac" + Bc"- 1 + ~Dc"- 2 + . . . . +Nc 2 + Pc+Q = (1) 

where A, B, etc., are finite, continuous, single valued, differentiable functions of x and y, 
the doubled root of U = is 

c=A a /Ab=A b /A d =A p /A . (2) 

Now, if we give such values to A, B, etc., that one of the functions A A . . . . A r 
vanishes in virtue of A = 0, then it follows from (2) that all the functions except A Q 
must vanish. If A Q does not vanish, the doubled root is c = 0. Hence P and Q must 
contain a factor in common with A, and this factor is the particular case of the system 
(1) obtained by putting c = 0. 

If all the functions A A . . . . A Q vanish, then since A r = 2A A A, r and A y = 2A A Aj,, 
A r = and A y = all along this part of A = 0, that is A = has a repeated factor. 

Similarly, if A A ^0, A B = 0, the rest of the functions must vanish ; the doubled root 
is c = oo, and A and B have a factor in common with A, this factor being a particular 
case of system (1). # 

* The discriminant may always be written in either of the forms : — 

A=A X + B\p (a) 

AsPf + Q x ' (b) 

where x, x' are determinants whose first columns contain respectively only the coefficients A, B, D, and N, P, Q ; and 
i//, if/ are determinants whose first columns contain respectively only A, B and P, Q. 
Differentiating (a) we obtain : — 

A a =X+Axa+B^ a 

A e = ^ + Axb + B<(/e (c) 

Ad = Axd + Bi{/d 
etc. 
It is evident from (a) that A = always passes through the points common to A = 0, B = 0, and that if these co- 
efficients have a common factor a contains this factor. In this case (c) shows that A B , A D , etc., vanish. 

If A, B, and D have a common factor, x also contains this factor, and the same factor is by (a) repeated in A ; 
(c) shows that in this case all the derived functions vanish. If one of the functions B, D vanish identically, it may 
be considered as divisible by the factors contained in A. 

Similar propositions hold with respect to N, P, Q, and in fact all the results obtained above may also be obtained 
in this way. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 4). F 



'28 MR JAMES A. MACDONALD ON 

The system of curves 

« ■-■' ■•■-' - 2c(>/ 3 - a 8 ) + (y - .-•)-'( Sf + 4xy + 2a?) = (3) 

has for discriminant A = (y' — x 2 ) 9 

A A = - 4D = -4(y - ») 2 (3y 2 + 4r y + 2.« 2 ) 

A„ = 2B =-4(2/ 3 -^) 
A„=-4A=-4» 2 . 

Along ?/ = x A A = A u = A D :£0, the corresponding value of c is zero, and the part 
y — x = of the discriminant is a part of D = and of B = 0. 

Again, the system c 3 y + c 2 (2y + x) + 3cx + 2x = o (4) has for its discriminant 
A = Sx(x - iyf, 

1=0 
A B =-18a?(a:-4y) 2 

l s =-6(2x+ I/ )(x-^ y y. 

Along the branch (x — 4y) 8 = of the discriminant all the functions vanish, and as 
already indicated (a; — iyf is a repeated factor. 

Since A A = for every point of the plane of x y, it is suggested that, regarded as a 
function of x and y, the expression on the left-hand side of (4) contains a factor inde- 
pendent of x and y. In fact, the expression is identically equal to (c + 2) (c 2 y + ex + x). 

Along the branch x = of the discriminant all the functions except A E vanish ; 
the corresponding value of c is zero, and this part of the discriminant is contained in 
D and in E. 

It should be noted that the ordinary rule for calculating the value of c does not 
hold in the last mentioned case ; it holds, however, when the new and correct dis- 
criminant x(x — Ay) is calculated as well as the new values of A A , A B , and A D . 

Nature of the Value of C for an Envelope. 

With regard to the value of c obtained, we have to remark that if it be indepen- 
dent of x and y in virtue of the relation between the variables along any branch of the 
discriminant, then that branch must be merely a particular case of the curves given by 
the c equation, and not an envelope. An envelope may be a particular case of the C 
equation ; but the corresponding value of c in this case must be a function of the 
variables, so that it changes its numerical value as we proceed from point to point of 
the discriminant. 

For example, the curves 

chj + cx + x = (5) 

and 

e'-' sin x — 'ley + sin % = (6) 

have their discriminants respectively x{x — Ay) and y 2 — sm 2 x. 



THE C DISCRIMINANT AS AN ENVELOPE. 29 

Both these when equated to zero give constant values for c, and therefore do not 
supply envelopes. 

Envelope and Particular Case of the ' C Curves simultaneously. 

The system (5) consists of straight lines passing through the origin, and two 
constant values of c correspond to any one of these straight lines ; but along x — Ay = 
these two values become equal, hence this locus is included in the discriminant. The 
curves given by the C equation might all touch each other at a fixed point, and in this 
case the discriminant if it corresponded to a constant value of c would also touch each 
curve of the group ; but it is plain that it is no more an envelope than the line 
x — Ay = is an envelope of the group (5). 

On the other hand, the system y = c{x — cf (7) whose discriminant is 3y(Ax :i — 27y) 
gives for y = 0, c = x. Now, y = is a particular case of the curves indicated by 
y = c(x-c) 2 , viz., that given by c = 0; but c = is not the corresponding value of c, 
and the curve y = is a true envelope. In fact we may regard the curve y — as made 
up of infnitesimally small pieces of each of the curves y = c(x — cf at their maximum 
or minimum points. 

Main Proposition. 

Let us now take the irreducible equation 

Tj=Ac' + Bc"- 1 + Dc"- 2 + . . . . +Pc + Q = (8) 

A, B, D, etc., being subject to the restrictions already stated 

U, = c"A, + c"- 1 B,+ .... + C P, + Q,. 
But 

c=A A /A B =A B /A D = etc., 
.-. ( A B ) 2 = A A A D , ( A B ) 3 = (A A ) 2 A E etc., 

all the functions being assumed finite both ways. 
Hence 

/A A \" , t,/Aa n "" 

(A A )" 



V *= A {W +B * { ^ ] + 



Similarly 

i.e. along A = 



:g^-{ A.,A,+ A»B,+ +A 9 Q«} 



U » = [f"*y- 1 { A.A+A..B, .... +A.Q,} 
" (A,)" A "J 



(9) 



30 MR JAMES A. MACDONALD ON 

Therefore, assuming for the present that A A and A„ are both finite both ways, and 
that the corresponding value of c is variable, we have the following conclusions: — 
0, and U„ vanish or do not vanish according as A r and A v respectively vanish or 
do not vanish ; and when A ( . and A y are not both zero, the curve A = touches at every 
point of its length one of the curves U = 0. If, however, A,, and A^ are zero in 
consequence of the relation A = 0, both U x and U„ vanish all along A = (or part of it 
if it be a degenerate curve), that is A = is (provided c be variable) a locus of multiple 
points on the system U = 0. Now if A,. = A y = along a finite part of A = 0, A 
must have a repeated factor. Hence, the occurrence of a repeated factor in the 
discriminant indicates, under the conditions already stated with respect to A A , A B and 
c, a locus of multiple pyoints. 

Locus of Multiple Points not in general an Envelope. 

It is easy to show that in general the discriminant curve does not touch the U 
curves at their multiple points ; for if (x, y) be a double point on U = 0, we have 
(w, and m. 2 being the values of the tangents of the angles which the tangent at this 
point makes with the x axis) 

m 1 +m z =-2TJ xy jV !ljl 



(10) 

(11) 



(12) 
ami 

Iff! )//,/", 2AaA;;/+2(Aa)/A;/ V , 

The condition that the discriminant may touch one or both branches of the C curve 
at the double point is easily found. In fact, if S'" — be a repeated factor of the 
discriminant, the condition that 8 = touch one branch of U = at the double point is 

2TJ 3 y _U«, S v S x /-^\ 

U,„, U OT/ Sx s,, 

and the condition that it touch both branches is 

(WfR: ^ m» 

the value of c in terms of x and y having been substituted in U. r ., , U,„ and XJ yy after 
differentiation. The conditions (14) and (15) may of course be expressed in terms of 
the discriminant and its derived functions only. 



* 7>) _1_ )n — __ V J " 


i,„+ • • • •) 


1 (c"A„,, + c" 'I 


>,„+ j 


„2A A A„, 




" 2A A A W 




2A A A„ 




The values for the discriminant are : — 




TA A 

(1m — \m ' A-m ' — —1 


, + Z(A A ),A, 


yAin — ;//([ -\-ui., — — VA A 


, + 2(A A )A 



THE DISCRIMINANT AS AN ENVELOPE. 31 

Practical Examination of the Curves U = and A = 0. 

Given therefore a system of curves U = and the discriminant curve A = 0, we may 
draw the following conclusions : — 

(1) If the terms P and Q contain a common factor, (or if P = 0) this factor is 
contained in the discriminant and is not an envelope but merely the particular case of 
the C system obtained by putting c = 0. Similarly, if A and B contain a common factor, 
(or if B~0), the corresponding discriminant factor is not an envelope. This factor 
may be either single or repeated. 

(2) The remaining factors of the discriminant are either (a) single or (b) repeated. 

(a) Taking the single factors, we must test whether the corresponding values of c 

are constant or functions of x and y. Whether this is more easily done by 
finding the value of A A /A B (as in the case where the c equation is of the 
second degree in c) or by direct substitution, depends on special circum- 
stances. If c be found to be constant the corresponding factor is not 
envelope ; but if c be variable, the curve is a true envelope and is touched 
at every point of its length by the C curves. 

(b) Taking the repeated factors we have to test whether they represent doubled (or 

in general n-pled) curves, at every point of which U* = U v = in virtue 
of U = or loci of multiple points. * 

The value of c discriminates between these two cases. If it be constant, the 
locus is a particular case of the C curves. An example of this is supplied 
by the system 

C \x 2 + y l _ 1)2 + g^ + y 2 _ !) _ 3(x 2 _ 2 f _ 1) = 

which is discussed below. 

If c be variable, the locus is a locus of multiple points, and in general is nothing 
more. 

The following systems of curves illustrate some interesting points. 

(1) c%x 2 + y 2 + 2x) + 2cy + 2x=0 (a) 

A=y' 2 -2x(x 2 +y 2 + 2x) (b) 



A = has a node at the origin and an asymptote 



x 



Every circle of the system (a) touches A = and passes through the origin, and 
two circles of the system (given by c = ±1) touch A = at (0. 0) 

(2) c 2 x 2 + c(x + y) + y 2 = (a) 

/\=4:xY-(x + y) 2 = (b) 

* Note also here that the vanishing of the first three or the last three coefficients, in virtue of their containing 
a common factor, leads to a repeated factor in the discriminant. This case has already been disposed of under (1). 
VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 4.) G 



32 THE C DISCRIMINANT AS AN ENVELOPE. 

(b) represents two equal hyperbolae passing through the origin, with asymptotes 
x= ±\=y. The curves (a) are a series of ellipses passing through the origin and 
touching both parts of A = there, as well as at one other point on each. 

(3) c i x' i + 2c(y i -v i ) + (i/-xy(3f + 4:xy + 2x 2 ) = (a) 

A=(tf~-x*Y (b) 

y + x = is a locus of multiple points (c = 2x), y — x = is a particular case of the 
primitive given by c = 0. 

(4) cXx* + f-l? + 6c 1/ (x* + f-l)-3(x>-2f-l) = (a) 

A=3(x*+if-lf = (b) 

The points (y = 0, x= ±1) are on all the curves (a) as well as on (b). 

All the curves touch at these points the discriminant which is a particular case of 

U = 0(c=+<x>); y = — is a tangent to all the curves at two points. The curve given 

by c = — a is the image in the x-axis of the curve given by c = + a, and as c increases 
to + oo and decreases to — oo the curves and their images gradually close together, 
and finally give the discriminant. 



( 33 ) 

V. — On the Fossil Flora of the Yorkshire Coal Field. (Second Paper.*) 
By Kobert Ktdston, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. (With Three Plates.) 

(Read 20th July 1896.) 

Among the specimens from the Yorkshire Coal Field which have been collected by 
Mr W. Hemingway, Barnsley, and submitted to me for examination at various times, are 
the remains of several cones which are referable to the genus Sigillariostrobus, Schimper. 

Notwithstanding the great frequency of the genus Sigillaria in the Coal Measures, 
and especially in the Middle Coal Measures, examples of their fructification are very rare. 
This is the more remarkable, as specimens of Sigillaria, showing cone scars, though not 
common, are occasionally met with. Possibly, however, the apparent rarity of Sigil- 
larian cones is due, in part, to our inability at present to distinguish them in all cases 
from cones generally placed under the name of Lepidostrobus, which latter genus there is 
every reason to believe comprises cones that belong to several genera of Lycopods. 

A Sigillaria occurs in the Upper Coal Measures of Somersetshire, which I have 
recorded under the name of Sig. tessellata (but which differs slightly from the typical 
form), that frequently shows verticils of cone-scars ; but I could never refer any of the 
many forms of Lepidostrobi, occurring in the same beds, to that or any other Sigillaria. 

It is quite possible that the cones I described as Lepidostrobus (?) spinosus t and 
Lepidostrobus squarrosus^ may belong to Sigillaria, but on this point we cannot 
speak with any certainty. In the case of the two cones to be described in this paper, 
no doubt can remain as to their Siffillarian nature. 

Although the genus Sigil (aria was founded by Brongniart in 1822,§ nothing was 
known of the internal organisation of Sigillaria till 1839, when the same distinguished 
author published his " Observations sur la structure interieure da Sigillaria elegans 
comparee a celle de Lepidodendron et des Stigmaria et a celle des vegctaux vivants."\\ 

Previous to the publication of Brongniart's paper no data existed from which the 
affinities of the genus could be suggested, and owing to imperfect knowledge of the 
internal structure of fossil and at present living allied plants, some of the structure 
displayed by the now classic specimen was misinterpreted, and from then till the 
present time, notwithstanding the description of undoubted Lycopodiaceous Sigillarian 
cones by Zeiller,! some botanists are still very reluctant to give up their old ideas of 
the Cycadaceous affinities of Sigillaria, as originally suggested by Brongniart, and still 
seem to hesitate to place Sigillaria amongst the Lycopodiacese. 

* " On the Fossil Flora of the Yorkshire Coal Field " (first paper), Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxviii. part ii. No. 5, 
pp. 203-223, with three plates, 1896. 

t Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxvii. p. 342, pi. iv. figs. 13-14, 1893. 

t Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxvii. p. 341, pi. ii. fig. 7 ; pi. iii. figs. 11-12, 1893. 

S " Sur la classification des vegetaux foss.," p. 9, Mem. Mustfum d'hist. nat., vol. viii. Paris. 

|| Archives du Museum, vol i. pp. 405-461, pis. xxv.-xxxv. (i.-xi.). 

IT Zeiller, Ann. d. Sc. Nat, 6*. ser., " Bot," vol. xix. p. 256, plates xi., xii., 1884 ; also in Flvre foss. du Bassin 
Jiouil. d. Valenciennes, p. 591, 1888. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 5). H 



34 MR ROBERT KTDSTON ON 

It may not be without service to review as shortly as possible the evidence on which 
these two opinions as to the affinities of Sigillaria have been founded. Other views 
which referred Sigillwria to the Cactacecs and Euphorbaceoe need not be discussed, as 
they arc utterly untenable. 

The small specimen of Sigillaria, whose internal organisation was described by 
Brongnjart in 1839, under the name of Sigillaria elegans* consisted of a small part of a 
young stem about 2 cm. Ions; and 4 cm. in diameter. 

The most of the delicate tissue lying between the central vascular bundle and the 
bark had disappeared, but the denser cortical portion and the vascular system were 
excellently preserved. The specimen therefore presented an outer cylinder of bark and 
an inner cylinder of vascular tissue, between which originally lay a delicate cellular 
tissue, of which only a few fragments were preserved. 

The outer cortical cylinder, constituting the bark, and on whose outer surface were 
the rhomboidal leaf-cushions, was composed of very fine and very dense fibro-cellular 
tissue. The more important portion of the stem — the vascular system — formed a 
perfectly regular hollow cylinder, 13 to 14 mm. in diameter, but the cylinder itself is 
only about 1 mm. in thickness, and composed of a definite number of bundles, always 
perfectly equal and similar, and placed beside each other without almost any appreciable 
interval, but distinctly individualised by their round interior margins, which gave a 
" festoon " appearance to the inner boundary limit of the vascular system. Each of these 
bundles is formed of two distinct zones — the inner and primary bundles forming the 
'" festoon " structure, the outer and much larger portion the exogenously developed zone. 

In transverse section the primary bundles have the form of a segment of a circle 
whose convexity points towards the centre of the stem, and are composed of vessels 
irregularly placed without any order, whose walls are transversely or obliquely barred 
or even reticulated. The larger vessels occupy the inner portion of the bundle, while 
the smaller elements are placed externally. 

The exogenous zone is composed of vessels disposed in radiating series, sometimes 
si | m rated by a narrow interval, which was occupied by the medullary rays, though these 
were generally destroyed in the specimen. The vessels on the inner portion of the 

Egenous zone are smaller than those on its outer surface ; the smallest vessels of the 
secondary zone being in contact with the smaller vessels of the primary bundles, and 
these vessels of smaller size form by their contact, but without any confusion, a line of 
demarcation between the primary and the exogenously developed bundles. 

Outside of the exogenous zone, and situated close to it, are small isolated lenticular or 
circular bundles composed of uniform tissue, but smaller and disposed without any order. 
These are the foliar bundles. 



* This specimen was namerl .S'. dajans by Buongniart in error. The fossil is his Sig. Menardi, Hist. d. vfyit.foss., 
pi. clviii. fig. <> (? not fig. 5), which again is only a young condition of Sigillaria Brardii, Bgt, the type of the 
Ulathraria section of Sigillaria. See Zeiller, Ann. d. Scienc. Nat., 6°. ser., "Bot.," vol. xix. p. 259, 1884 ; Welsh, 
Hitz-Berichi 'I. Gesell. natur. Freunde. Berlin, No. 5, 188G, p. 7<>. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 35 

Examining the structure of these various parts more in detail, the primary bundle is 
composed of very long tubular utricules, irregular in size, of which the smaller arc 
external. These utricules or vessels,* disposed without order, differ among themselves, 
not only by their size but by their length. Their walls are marked by transverse bars 
or spiral striae, numerous and fine, but very variable, some vessels having one kind of 
marking, some the other, and occasionally the two forms of marking occur on the same 
vessel. In the vessels of smaller size the bars are generally more oblique, and form 
spirals. Earely the thickenings form hexagonal areolations, but all these various forms 
of cell-thickening appear to occur on the same vessel. The smallest vessels are situated 
on the exterior surface, and contain spiral fibres. 

In the exogenous zone the bundles are composed of a uniform tissue, consisting of 
tubular radiating vessels disposed in regular parallel radiating series, which are some- 
times contiguous or separated by narrow medullary rays. The vessels next the primary 
bundles are smallest, and increase in size as one proceeds outwards, and become almost as 
large as the large vessels of the primary bundles. They are hexagonal in form, but 
irregular in section. Their walls are marked by transverse bars (scalariform), perfectly 
regular, and form a series on each face of the vessel on all sides. In tangential section 
the medullary rays are seen to be composed of plates of cellular tissue of little vertical 
height, generally of one series of cells, but occasionally the medullary rays are of more 
than one layer in thickness. 

The foliar bundles which spring from the outer surface of the primary zone are 
entirely composed of scalariform vessels, smaller than the external vessels of the 
secondary bundles, and do not show any regular arrangement. 

The cortical envelope is composed of two different layers, which are intimately 
eonnected, and pass almost insensibly into each other. The inner layer is 
formed of elongated prosenchymatous cells, very dense, terminated by oblique ex- 
tremities, and of which many contiguous cells have the same height, so that their 
terminations form zigzag lines. They are placed in regular uniform radiating series, the 
walls being without punctations. The outer layer is formed of parenchymatous 
tissue, more or less regular, the smooth cells being closely placed without lacunae, and 
are not arranged in radiating series, nor are they parallel to the surface. In the most 
external zone the walls appear to be thickened, and form the surface of the leaf- 
cushion. 

After describing Sigillaria elegans, Anabathera pulcherrima, and Stigmariajicoides, 
Brongniart says : — " These fossil stems ally themselves then, on the one part to the 
Conifer se and Cycadacese, by the disposition and uniformity of their ligneous or vascular 
tissue, and on the other part to the vascular cryptogams by the constancy of the 
structure of the walls of the vessels." t 

* These, like those in ferns and lycopods, are not true vessels. They communicate with each other by lateral 
openings, and are not continuous as in true vessels, but the septse forming the individual cells or utricules remain 
intact. 

+ Broxgniart, Observations sur la Structure inter du S. elegans, p. 426. 



36 Mi: ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

BRONGNIART tlien proceeds to consider the structure of Lepidodendron Harcourtii* 
the only Lepidodendron whose internal organisation was then known. 

In Lepidodendron Harcourtii the primary vascular bundle consists of a closed ring 
of scalariform tissue, sharply defined on its inner side, where the larger-sized vessels are 
placed. On its outer surface the vessels become much smaller, and form a curious 
crenulate line caused by bay-like hollows with dividing projections. The elements 
composing the bundle are disposed without any definite order, and there are no 
medullary rays. The foliar bundles spring from the outer smaller vessels. 

From the structure exhibited by this species, Brongniart came to the conclusion that 
Lepidodendron belonged to the vascular cryptogams, as the arrangement of the vessels 
was such as one constantly observes in Lycopods. In contra-distinction to this, he 
believed that the disposition of the ligneous tissue (secondary xylem) of Sigillaria 
elegans, composed of radiating series of vessels, was a character foreign to all crypto- 
gams and characteristic of Dicotyledons, and for these and other reasons, which 
Brongniart fully gives, he believed the affinities of Sigillaria elegans were with the 
gymnosperms. To show, however, that his opinions were not free from doubt, he 
says : — " But in the meantime it may be difficult to establish this in a positive manner, 
because there are numerous differences between this plant and the gymnosperms which 
we know," and of these differences he gives a summary which need not be repeated 
here, but concludes with the following suggestive sentence : — "All these circumstances 
lead to the conclusion that the Sigillaria and Stigmaria constitute a special and 
extinct family probably belonging to the great division of the Dicotyledonous gymno- 
sperms, but of whose fruit and leaves we are still ignorant," and he further asks whether 
Stigmaria may not be the root of Sigillaria. 

Tin' great point on which Brongniart founded his conclusions that Lepidodendron 
was Lycopodiaceous, and Sigillaria gymnospcrmous, was the absence of a secondary 
xylem in the former and its presence in the latter, accompanied with medullary rays 
and a radial arrangement of the vascular elements. 

It is a curious circumstance that Lepidodendron Harcourtii, the species examined 
by BRONGNIART while he was instituting his comparison between the internal structure of 
Sigillaria and Lepidodendron, is one of the very few Lepidodcndra which has not yet 
\ ielded any specimens showing the development of the secondary xylem. In regard to 
the absence of secondary xylem in Lepidodendron Harcourtii,^ Professor Williamson 
remarks :■ -"No specimen of it has yet been found showing a trace of secondary xylem. 

* Wi'iHA.M, "On tlie lepidodendron Harcourtii," Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Nor thumb., Durham, and Newcastle, vol. 
ii., read Blarcfa 1832. Ibid., "Internal Structure of Fossil Vegetables found in the Carboniferous and Oolitic De- 
posits of Great Britain," pp. 51 and 75, pi. xii. figs. 1-7, and pi. xiii., Edin., 1833. Lindley and Hutton, Lepidoden- 
dron Harcourtii, Fostil Flora, vol. ii. p. 45, pis. xcviii. and xcix., 1833. 

t WILLIAMSON, " On the Light Thrown upon the Question of the Growth and Development of the Carboniferous 

Arborescenl Lycopods by a Study of the Details of their Organisation," Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, 

4th ser. vol. ix., session 1894-5, p. 47, 1895. See also Brongt., Hist. d. ve'ije't. foss., vol. ii. p. 37, pis. xx. and xxi., 1837 ; 

1 liiiTKAND, " Remarqaes sni Le Lepidodendron Harcourtii de Witham," Travauz el Mffmoircs des Faculte's de Lille, vol. ii. 

No, <;. plfl. i.-x. Lille, 1801. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 37 

It appears probable that in this respect the type resembles L. Wunsckianum, viz., that 
the exogenous zone, or secondary xylem, only made its appearance at an advanced age of 
growth, and that we have as yet obtained no specimen sufficiently advanced to have 
entered upon that stage." 

Since Brongniart wrote his memoir, little has been added to our knowledge of the 
internal organisation of Sigillaria, the only contribution being by MM. Renault and 
Grand 'Eury, " Recherches sur les vegetaux Silicifies d'Autun : Etude du Sigillaria 
spinulosa." * This memoir contains some important anatomical discoveries. The 
primary vascular bundles form an inner circle, but do not touch each other laterally ; 
they are, however, in contact with the secondary xylem or " ligneous cylinder," which 
is slightly swollen at the point where they come in contact with it. The form of the 
primary bundles is exactly similar to the corresponding portion in Sigillaria elegans. 
In transverse section the bundle is in the form of a crescent, of which the convexity 
formed by the larger vessels faces inwards, while the slightly concave part composed of 
smaller vessels faces the slight prominences of the secondary xylem. The large vessels 
are scalariform or reticulated, but as they approach the secondary xylem they become 
smaller, and assume the form of spiral vessels or false tracheids. These smaller vessels 
give rise to the foliar bundles. 

The secondary xylem consists of a cylinder of many regular radiating series of 
medium-sized vessels separated by medullary rays, but without any division into com- 
ponent bundles as in Sigillaria elegans. The vessels which compose this secondary 
xylem are elongate and barred on all surfaces (scalariform), as in Sigillaria elegans. 
These vessels are disposed in long radiating lines and separated by the slender medullary 
rays or by the foliar bundles. 

The Medullary rays, which are composed of one, or at most of two, rows of laterally 
placed smooth-walled muriform cells, have a considerable vertical height. 

The Bark, according to Renault, is composed of three layers : an inner and delicate 
cellular tissue which is usually destroyed ; a middle, of coarse Dictyoxyloid structure, 
which he names the suberous layer. This suberous layer is formed of bands of elongated 
cells with smooth resistant walls, which anastomise longitudinally and transversely, 
and thus form a strong mesh-like structure, whose meshes are filled with more delicate 
prismatic cellular tissue. The suberous layer appears to be formed of several zones of 
this Dictyoxyloid tissue, which, under certain conditions of preservation, separate from 
each other. In comparison to the size of the vascular system, this middle zone of the 
bark bulks largely in the size of the stem. 

The third or outermost layer of the bark — the Epiderm — is formed of polyhedric 
cells, which become elongate as they approach the cellular rays which fill the meshes of 
the suberous layer, and especially so where they join the mesh-bands. The epiderm 
forms a continuous layer extending over all the outer surface of the plant, and obscures 

* M4m. Presentes par divers savants a Vacad. d. Sciences, vol. xxii. Paris, 1875. Plates. See also note on p. 62 
of this communication. 



38 MR ROBERT KTDSTON ON 

more or less the prominent projections of the suberous meshes. To these projections, 
not wholly obscured by the epiderm, are due the stria; on the cortical surface of the 
stem. It also extends over the leaf-scars, and blends with the cells which form the 
cushions. 

The foliar bundles, which spring from the outer surface of the primary bundles, at 
first rise up vertically in the parenchymatous inner layer of the bark, but at a certain 
height they bend outwards and penetrate the suberous layer, following the course of 
the cellular tissue which fills the meshes of the Dictyoxyloid tissue. 

The foliar bundles, at first circular, become enlarged and lunate in form as they 
approach the surface of the stem. The foliar bundle is always accompanied by two 
lunate lacunae parallel to its direction, of which their vertical section is an ellipse, 
limited by a cellular envelope. These two organs, of which it is difficult to ascertain 
their function, were each penetrated longitudinally by a tolerably large canal, of which 
it has been impossible to study" the structure. Perhaps they originally contained some 
gummy substance. It is these lacunae which give rise to the lateral arcs that are seen, 
one on each side of the foliar bundles of the leaf-scar.* 

The authors of this memoir arrive at a conclusion very similar to that propounded 
by Broxgxiart, that "by the most essential characters the Sigillaria have the 
organisation of Dicotyledonous stems, and particularly of gymnosperms, and, above all, to 
the Cycadacese" an opinion they have since seen grounds to modify, though apparently 
not entirely to resign ; for in a communication, " Sur les fructification des sigillaires," t 
after giving the description of a cone which Renault refers to the Clathrarian section 
of Sigillaria, ami in which he describes the occurrence of pollen sacs on the under 
surface of the basal portion of the bracts on each side of the medial nerve, he arrives at 
the conclusion that the Clathrarian and Leiodermarian Sigillaria are Phanerogamous 
gymnosperms allied to the Cycads, and that the Sigillaria with ribbed stems are 
cryptogams. \ am not aware that this interesting specimen has yet been figured, nor 

* Note. — In the earlier part of this paper (p. 34) I have remarked that the Sigillaria elegans, whose internal 
structure was described by Broxgniart in 1839, was now recognised as his Siy. Menardi (in part), Hist. d. 
ve'ge't. foss., pi. clviii. fig. 6. This again is considered to be only a young condition of Sig. Brardii, Brongt., and 
to this last mentioned species the Sigillaria .yrinulosa, Germar, must be united as only representing a different 
state or condition of growth. See Weiss and Sterzel, Die Sigilla/rien </</ preusmchen Steinkohlen-und Rothliegenden- 
Gebiete, II. "Die Gruppe del Sub-sigillarien," Abhomd der Kiinig J'reuss. geol. Landesanstalt, Neue Folge, Heft. 
2, Berlin, 1893, p. 84 et seq. Kidston "On Sigillaria Brardii, Brongt., and its Variations," Proc. Roy. Phya. 
Hoe. Edin., vol. .xiii. p. 233, pi. vii., 1896. But there are great structural differences in the bark of the specimen 
described l>y BbonOHIABT and that described by Renault and Grand 'Eury, differences which preclude the 

iiility of these two forms of cortex belonging to the same species. 

Two questions therefore arise : — (First) Are the specimens figured by Renault and Grand 'Eury in their 
memoir on the internal structure of Sigillaria spvaulosa, pi. i. figs. 2-3, really referable to that plant or one 
of the forms of Sig. lirnrdiil and (.wuiidly) -ranted they do belong to this species, is it proved beyond doubt 
that the vascular axis described under the name of Sigillaria spmulosa really belongs to the bark found associated 
with it ' From the crashed and broken condition of the axis and bark shown in their fig. 1, pi. i., the 
absolute proof thai all these parts belong to the same stem appears to be wanting, and their relative position 
might In: only accidental. These remarks are made from an examination of the figures and descriptions which 
accompany them only, as I have not had an opportunity of studying the original specimens. 

t >'nnijiU, rendu . 7th Dec. 188. r >. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 39 

have I had the pleasure of examining it, but as there is absolutely no evidence adduced 
to show that the fructification under discussion belongs to Sigillaria, I cannot accept 
the deductions drawn from it as throwing any light upon the affinities of that genus,* 
especially when cones undoubtedly belonging to Sigillaria, which have been described 
by Zeiller, and other specimens possessed by myself presently to be described, have an 
entirely different structure. 

Mons. Grand 'Eury, in the introduction to his Geologie et Paleontologie du Bassin 
Houiller du Gard, t after reviewing the evidence for and against the cryptogamic 
position of Sigillaria, places them among the vascular cryptogams ; but this opinion is 
scarcely upheld in the body of the work, for we find under Sigillariostrobus fastigiatus \ 
the following remark : — " For me, in any case, there is not a doubt that the celebrated 
silicified Sigillaria elegans from Autun, which is the Sigillaria Brardii with the 
structure of a Dicotyledonous gymnosperm, has not been reproduced by spores." 

To sum up, it is seen then that those authors who regard Sigillaria, in whole or in 
part, as Cycadaceous, and Lepidodendron as Lycopodiaceous, base their opinions largely, 
if not entirely, on the presence of an exogenous zone in Sigillaria, and the absence of 
such a zone in Lepidodendron. 

Within the last few years much has been done to elucidate the structure of Lepidoden- 
dron, especially by the late Professor Williamson, who, from the rich material from the 
beds containing plant structure in Yorkshire and Lancashire, in England, from Pettycur 
and the Island of Arran, in Scotland, has described in detail the internal structure of 
many species of Lepidodendron, in which he has proved beyond all doubt the presence 
in this genus also of a secondary exogenously developed zone of vascular tissue. This 
exogenous zone does not appear in all species at the same relative age ; in some it occurs 
in comparatively small branches, as in Lepidodendron selaginoides, Carr. (? Sternb.), 
while in others, like Lepidodendron Wunschianum, from Laggan Bay, Arran, it only 
appears in advanced age. Lepidodendron Wunschianum may therefore be taken as 
serving to point out the general structure of Lepidodendron when compared with that 
of Sigillaria, especially as its anatomy, from very young twigs to old stems, is known. 

In the earliest condition the vascular cylinder of Lepidodendron Wunschianum 
consists of a solid circular bundle devoid of any medulla. As growth proceeds a small 
medulla appears in the centre of the vascular bundle, and as the medulla increases in 
size, the vascular bundle is carried outwards, and eventually, when all increase of the 
medulla has ceased, the primary vascular bundle appears as a zone of considerable size, 
composed of scalariform tissue of tolerably equal diameter, the transverse bars of which 
are again connected with fine transverse lines. 

* See also in regard to the affinities of Sigillaria : — Renault, Cours d. botan. foss. Premiere Anne'e, 1881, pp. 125, 
151. Renault, " Structure comparee de quelques tiges de la flore carboniiere," Nouvelles Archives du Museum de 
Paris, 2e. ser., vol. ii. p. 213, 1879. Dawson, " On New Plants from the Erian and Carboniferous, and on the 
Characters and Affinities of Palaeozoic Gyranosperms," Peter Redpatli Museum, M'Gill University, Montreal — 
Notes on Specimens, 1890, Canadian Record of Science, January 1890, p. 19 et seq. 

t St Etienne, 1890, pp. 196-197. + Grand 'Eury, loc. cit., p. 258. 



40 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

Professor Williamson concludes that the addition to the primary vascular bundle 
( which i.s not separated into distinct lateral bundles) must have arisen through a 
conversion into vessels of the cells of the central or medullary parenchyma by a centri- 
petal process of development.* 

Outside of this primary bundle we have the exogenously developed centrifugal 
xylem, composed of small scalariform tissue, radially disposed, between which run the 
medullary rays. In the specimen figured by Williamson^ of which the above is a short 
description, the primary xylem forms a circular band, 4 5 mm. thick, while the secondary 
xylem is 20 mm. thick. 

The vortex consists of several layers ; the innermost is composed of small-celled 
parenchyma. Outside of this is a broad zone of very uniform parenchyma, composed of 
small cells passing externally into another zone of uniform tissue, but composed of cells 
with thicker walls and of larger size. This is enclosed in the usual zone of prosen- 
ehyma, which in the arborescent stems attained to a considerable thickness from 
increase by age..| 

The leaf bundles in Lepidodendron Wunschianum offer no peculiarity. They 
spring from the outer surface of the primary bundle, and pass out in an upward course 
to the leaves. 

It is therefore clearly proved that Lepidodendron possessed an exogenous growth 
quite similar to Sigillaria, and especially like that described in Sigillaria spinulosa, 
where the secondary xylem is not separable into component bundles, as in the Sigillaria 
rlegans described by Brongniart. 

A further difference has been presumed to exist between the primary bundles of 
Lepidodendron and Sigillaria, as illustrated by Brongniart, Renault, and Grand 
'Eury, iu that the primary bundle in Lepidodendron forms a continuous closed ring, 
while in Sigillaria it is formed of a number of separate bundles arranged in a circle; but 
in the figure of Sigillaria spinulosa, given by Sohns-Laubach,§ taken from a specimen 
presented to the late Professor Williamson by M. Renault, at one part of the primary 
bundle circle, these bundles are shown to be united, and form part of a ring quite 
similar to that seen in Lepidodendron Harcourtii or Lepidodendron Wunschianum. 
As illustrating this point more fully, I figure here the central portion of a transverse 
section of another specimen of Sigillaria spinulosa, — for which I am also much indebted 
to Mons. Renault, — that shows still more clearly that the isolated primary bundles have 
evidently been separated from what appears to have been originally a closed vascular ring. 

* "On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures," part x. p. 497, Phil. Tram., part ii., 1880. 

t I. o,. r,t., Mem. \., pi. xiv. tig. 6. 

J Williamson, "General Morphological and Histological Index to the Author's Collective Memoirs on the Fossil 
Plant- of tli'- ' '"al Measures," part ii. p. 16, Mem. and Proc. M'ter. Liter, and Phil. Soc, session 1892-93, 1893. Note. 
— If the Halonial branch referred here to Lepidodendron Wunschianum belongs to this species, then the plant is a 
Lepidophloioi. This does not, however, in the slightest alter the position of the question under discussion as to the 
occurrence of an exogenous zone in Lepidodendron, as it is present in Lepidodendron selayinoides and other species. 

jj Foiisil Botany, English edit., p. 253, fig. 29, 1891. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 



41 



One is led, therefore, to believe that the primary vascular bundle in Sigillaria was 
a closed vascular ring quite similar to that found in Lepidodendron ; but that in 
Sigillaria, by the increase in the size of the pith core (which we know in Lepidodendron 
increased in size up to a certain period), the original closed bundle became broken up 
and carried outwards by the increasing volume of the pith, instead of persisting as a 
closed ring, as in Lepidodendron. 

That the presence or absence of a secondary xylem is no proof of a Cycadaceous 
affinity is abundantly shown in the case of Lepidodendron, which possesses a secondary 

B A C 





Sigillaria spinulosa. 

A, Primary vascular zone x 8 ; B, part marked a in tig. A, showing isolated bundles x 17 ; C, part marked 
b in tig. A, showing union of primary bundles x 17 and formation of the Lepidodendron type of primary 
xylem. This is further seen at d in fig, A. 



xylem, and whose fruit is in the form of cones, bearing macro- and microspores. But 
this phenomenon of exogenously developed xylem is not entirely unknown amongst recent 
Cryptogams, for "a secondary thickening, starting from a cambial layer, which pro- 
duces secondary wood. and. secondary cortex, is found (only) in the Isoetes* 

* A. de Bary, Comparative Anatomy of the Vegetative Organs of the Phanerogams and Ferns, English edit., 
p. 623, 1884. 

Note. — On the structure of Sigillaria and Lepidodendron the following additional works may be consulted : — H. 
Graf zu Solms-Laubach, Fossil Botany, being an Introduction to Palceophylology from the Standpoint of the Botanist, 
English translation, Oxford, 1891. Sir Wm. Dawson, "On the Conditions of the Deposition of Coal, more especially 
Illustrated by the Coal Formation of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, May 1866, vol. xxii. 
p. 95. Ibid., Geological History of Plants, New York, 18S8. Ibid., Acadian Geology, 2nd edit., London, 1868. Sir W. 
Hooker, " On the Vegetation of the Carboniferous Period, as Compared with that of the Present Day," Mem. Geol. 
Survey of Great Britain, vol. ii. part ii. p. 387, 1848. Binney, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1862, vol. xviii. p. 106. Ibid., 
Phil. Trans., vol. civ. pp. 579 and 591, 1865. Ibid., Pakeont. Soc, vol. xxix. pp. 97 and 147, 1875. P. van Tieghem, "Sur 
tpaelques points de l'anatomie des cryptogames vasculaires," Bull. Soc. Bot. de France, vol. xxx. p. 169, 1883. Ibid., 
TraiU de Botanique, 1884. Williamson, Memoirs, " On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures," 
in Phil. Transactions, No. ii. 1872 ; No. iii., 1872 ; No. ix., 1878 ; No. x., 1880 ; No. xi., 1881 ; No. xii., 1881 ; No. 
xvi., 1889. Ibid., " General, Morphological, and Histological Index to the Author's Collective Memoirs on the Fossil 
Plants of the Coal Measures," part ii., Mem. and Proc. Mter. Liter, and Phil. Soc, vol. vii., series 4, session 1892-93, 
1893. Ibid., " On the Light thrown upon the Question of Growth and Development of the Carboniferous Arbores- 
cent Lepidodendra by a Study of the Details of their Organisation," Mem. and Proc. M'ter. Liter, and Phil. Soc, 
session 1894-95, series 4, vol. ix., 1895. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 5). I 



42 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 



Fructification. 

Goldenberg was the first to refer to Sigillaria, as its fructifications contain cones 
which he found associated with their stems. These he described in his " Flora 
Sarsepontana Fossilis" in Heft. i. (1855) and Heft. ii. (1857). The cone he figures on 
pi. x. fig. 1 lie thought might belong to Sigillaria tessellata, and that on pi. x. fig. 2 
to Sigillaria intermedia ; and for these fructifications Schimper founded the genus 
Sigillariostrobus.* Some other portions of Sigillarian cones are shown by Goldenberg 
od his pi. b figs. 18-25, and pi. iv. fig. 3 (p. 1, Heft. ii.). 

The specimens figured by Goldenberg consisted of fragments : that given on pi. b 
fig. 18 exhibits a portion of a cone, some of the bracts of which have been removed, 
causing the thick axis to be seen. Figs. 19-25 show the more minute details of the 
structure of the bracts, but one cannot learn from them any accurate knowledge as to 
the structure or position of the sporangia. 

The figure on pi. iv. fig. 3 shows the basal part of a cone with a portion of its sup- 
porting pedicel. Remains of two grass-like leaves lie on each side of the specimen, and 
are probably the remains of the foliage of the parent plant. 

The specimens given on pi. x. figs. 1-2 show the upper portions of the cones. 
Enlarged drawings of the lanceolate bracts, with their rhomboidal expanded base, on 
which the spores are seen, are added. When these cones were referred to the Sigillaria; 
the only ground for the assumption was their association with Sigillarian stems — quite 
insufficient data for such important conclusions ; and for thirty years their systematic 
position remained uncertain, till, in 1884, Mons. Zeiller announced the discovery of 
specimens agreeing with the cones referred to Sigillaria by Goldenberg, on the 
pedicel of one of which the Sigillarian leaf-scars were seen. 

This discovery confirmed the conclusions arrived at by Goldenberg as to his cones 
being the fructification of Sigillaria^ 

In 1884 Zeiller gave a preliminary description of these interesting specimens, in 
which he says : — " It is impossible to discover any trace of a sporangium in which the 
macrospores were contained ; the position which they occupy, grouped most frequently 
at the base of each bract, only permit it to be supposed, with considerable probability, 
that they had been inclosed in the fold which is present in the wedge-shaped basal 
puii ion of the bract, and covered by a tissue, from whose destruction they had been set 
free, similar to what occurs to-day in Isoetes. The affinity indicated by Goldenberg 
(that the Sigillaria were an arborescent form of Isoetes\) appears to me, then, well 
founded." £ 

* Trait4d. pateont. v4g&. f vol. ii. p. Iu5, pi. lxvii. flga. 12-24, 1870. 

+ Fkistmantel, in 1876, under the name of Siyillariostrobus Golde7ibcryi, appears to include all the Sigillarian 
described by GoLDENBEBG, but the accuracy of this course is open to serious doubt. Vers. d. bohmischen 
i-Ablager, iii. Abth. p. 31, Cassel, 1876. 

* Goldenberg, Flora Sarcepont. foss., Heft. i. p. 25. 
S Cowplet rendvs, 3<>tli June 1884. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 4'.\ 

All the spores which M. Zeiller observed were macrospores ; but, as he points out, 
even had microspores been present in the specimens he examined, their mode of preserva- 
tion was such that, from the minute size of microspores, it would have been impossible 
to observe them. 

In a subsequent communication Zeiller describes and figures in detail his Sigillarian 
cones from the coal field of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. # 

Of the various cones he describes and figures, the most interesting is Sigillariostrobus 
Tieghemi, Zeiller, f for the pedicel of this specimen shows the true Sigillaria leaf-scar. 
The determination of the Sigillarian affinity of this specimen carries with it all the 
other examples he describes, as well as those formerly described by Goldenberg. 

Two figures of Sigillariostrobits Tieghemi are given, both, of which show the basal 
portion of the cone borne on a stout leafy peduncle, which increases in width as it 
approaches the base of the cone. On the lower part of the peduncle of fig. 1 pi. 
xi. the acicular leaves have been removed, showing the stem to be flexuously ribbed 
and transversely barred beneath the characteristic Sigillarian leaf-scar. Each leaf is 
provided with a medial nerve, contained between two very close and parallel longi- 
tudinal folds, whose origin is marked by a prominent point, corresponding to the two 
lateral cicatricules which lie one on each side of the vascular cicatricule. This cone may 
possibly be referable to Sigillaria polyploca, Boulay, but certainly in this identifica- 
tion is wanting. 

At the summit of the peduncle the leaves assume the form of bracts. They are 
inserted obliquely on the axis, single nerved, oval lanceolate, acute at the point, and 
suddenly contracted at the base. Between the bracts, and still in position, one can see 
the macrospores sometimes in great numbers, about 2 mm. in diameter, perfectly 
smooth, but marked by a triradiate ridge, the arms of which are connected by a semi- 
circular line. The macrospores are disseminated without order. " One cannot see any 
trace of an envelope on the bracts, but on some of them can be discovered above the line 
which separates the limb from the claw a slight arched line, which might well correspond 
to the attachment of a membrane which originally covered the bodies in question."! 
M. Zeiller also points out that these " bodies " much resemble the macrospores of 
Isoetes. That these "bodies" are macrospores seems to be clear beyond all doubt. 
Structurally they are identical with the macrospores of the cones of Lepidodendron. 

In all the cones Zeiller examined, he only found these large spores. Schimper thought 
he saw sufficient difference in the size of the spores figured by Goldenberg to treat 
them as macrospores and microspores,! though he was not certain of this interpretation. 
He gives as the size of his macrospores 1*5 to 2 mm., and the microspores as 1 mm., in 

* " Cones de Fructification de Sigillaires,'MH«. d. Scienc. Nat., 6 e . ser., "Bot.," vol. xix. pp. 256-280, pis. xi.-xii., 
1884. See also Zeiller, Flore foss. Bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, pp. 591-608, pis. lxxxix.-xc, 1886 and 1888. 
t Ann. d. Sc, he. cit., pi. xi. figs. 1, la, 4, 4a, 4b. 
X Loc. cit, pp. 264-265. 
§ Schimper. Traite d.paUont. veg4t., p. 105. 



44 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

diameter ; but, as far as I am aware, these measurements are not derived from 
GoLDENBERG's original specimens, but from his figures, which one can scarcely regard 
as a reliable source for such minute measurements. 

Although microspores have not yet been observed in the cones of Sigillaria, it does 
not follow that they are isosporous ; for the minute size of microspores, either in recent 
or fossil Lycopods, would make their detection with certainty very difficult in the only 
state of preservation in which the Sigillarian cones are known to us. 

Zeiller further suggests that perhaps certain cones bore macrospores, others micro- 
spores, which may account for the absence of spores between the bracts of his Sigillaria 
nobilis.* This condition in the case of Sigillariostrobus nobilis may be equally 
explained, and I think more probably, by the state of maturity at which the cone had 
arrived before mineralisation took place : the spores might have been shed at maturity 
or been imperfectly developed. Several of my specimens show no indications of macro- 
spores. This, of course, is only a suggestion, but it is equally valid to supposing the 
cone contained only microspores. From certain appearances presented by a small 
fragment of a Sigillarian cone from the Kilmarnock Coal Field, I am inclined to think 
that the cones of Sigillaria were heterosporous, though I cannot speak definitely on 
this point, but on a subsequent page I give the evidence on which I have formed this 
opinion. 

Mons. Zeiller refigures and describes the specimens to which reference has already 
been made in his complete work on the Carboniferous Flora of the Valenciennes Coal 
Field,t and adds there the figure and description of another species, the Sigillariostro- 
bus Crepini.\ 

In this the bracts are arranged on the axis in a gentle spiral, or are verticillate. This 
character does not yet appear to be clearly determined. In form the bracts are elongate 
rhomboidal, and divided into a limb and claw. The claw portion of the bract bends 
downwards, but the limb is directed upwards ; thus a knee-like angle is formed where 
the limb and the claw of the bract merge together. The margins of the bract are bent 
up on each side of the medial nerve, and form a sort of sack or spoon-like structure ; 
this is sometimes empty, but is occasionally occupied by an ovoid body. Mons. Zeiller 
suggests that these ovoid bodies may be microspore sporangia. They are too large to be 
macrospores, and had they been sporangia containing such, the probability is that some 
of the remains of the macrospores would have been preserved. These "ovoid bodies" 
are further said to be more or less enveloped by the bract which bears them ; frequently 
only their edge can be seen, and their margins are often imperfect on account of portions 
<»f the structure, which appears to have been very delicate, having adhered to or been 
imbedded in the matrix. 

* Lor. rit., p. 267, pi. xii. figs. 1, 2, 2a. 

+ Etudes des Gites Mineraux de la France, Bassin houiller de Valenciennes. Flore fossile du Bassin houiller de Valen- 
"'• irncs, Paris, plates i.-xciv., 1886, text, 1888. 
J Ibid., p. 60r>, pi. Ixxvii. figs. 2-3. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 45 

From the structures here described, the spoon-like form of the bract, and the mode of 
attachment of the " ovoid body," which appears from the enlarged figures to be 
attached to the " knee " of the bract, I am afraid this cone cannot be placed in the 
genus Sigillariostrobus ; and especially, in the light of the specimen given on my 
pi. ii. fig. 3, Zeiller's cone, if my interpretation of it is correct, would require a new 
genus to be created for its reception. 

One frequently finds on stems of certain Sigillarise curious scars, occasionally placed 
in the hollow between the ribs, sometimes on the ribs and in the clathrate forms, inserted 
between the leaf- cushions. These scars form a girdle round the stem, often of little 
width, but occasionally of greater vertical extent. These are the scars left by the fallen 
cones. In the majority of cases the cones appear to have been pedicellate ; # but in some 
members of the Clathrarian section, as on Sigillaria (Ulodendron) discophora, and 
Sigillaria ( Ulodendron) Taylori, the cones were sessile, and from the pressure of the 
base of the cone on the bark, a cup-like depression was formed, which, after the cone 
had fallen, increased in size with the increase of girth of the stem, in the same way that 
we see our initials cut in the bark of a tree enlarge with the growth of the trunk. 

The mode of arrangement and disposition of these cone-scars on the stems of 
Sigillarise afford important specific distinctions. Some have supposed these scars were 
due to adventitious roots, but Renault has shown that small branchlets, bearing leaf 
cicatrices, were attached to such scars on a specimen he describes from the Comentry 
Coal Field,t so therefore the aerial-root hypothesis must be entirely abandoned. 
When we add to this the discovery of pedicellate Sigillarian cones, the dimensions of 
whose stems agree with that of the scars in question, the chain of evidence in favour of 
these curious scars frequently found on the stems of Sigillaria, being the scars left by 
the fall of deciduous pedicellate cones, seems complete. 

Some other writers than those already referred to have figured cones which they 
believed to be those of Sigillaria. Of some of these, with only the figures and descrip- 
tions to guide one in forming an opinion of their systematic position, there must rest 
considerable doubt as to the accuracy of placing them in Sigillariostrobus. 

Mr Binney gives a woodcut of a fossil which he regards as the fructification of 
Sigillaria, ~\. but neither his description nor figure show any evidence that his fossil had 
any connection with Sigillaria, much less that it was a cone. 

In the Versteinerungen der bohmischen Kohlen-Ablagerungen, part iii. pp. 32-33, 
1876, Feistmantel describes two species of Sigillariostrobus — S. Cordai, pi. xi. fig. 4, 
and 5. Feistmanteli, pi. xi. figs. 1-3. These cones, from the fragments figured, must 
have been of very large size, much larger than any we can definitely refer to this genus. 
In no case is the complete bract shown, only the basal expanded portion. One has 
considerable difficulty in accepting, without great reservation, the systematic position 

* See also Kidston, " On Sigillaria Brardii, Brongt., and its Variations," Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc, vol. xiii. p. 233. 
t Flore foss. Bassin houil. d. Comentry, pp. 540-541. 
X Phil. Tram., 1865, p. 595, fig. 6. 



46 MR ROBERT K1DST0N ON 

assigned by FEISTMANTEL to these fossils. I cannot think that the specimens figured 
as Sigillariostrobus Feistmanteli (loc. cit., pi. xi. figs. 1-2) are specifically identical with 
that given by Goldenberg (Flora Sarsep. foss.) on his pi. b figs. 18-25. 

Grand 'Eury gives the restoration of a cone that he names Sigillariostrobus rugosus* 
and which he believes is referable to Sigillaria lepidodcnd rifolia, Brongt. One would 
like, however, to be in possession of the original data from which the figure is produced. 
According to Mons. Zeiller, the specimen from which the restoration was made is very 
incomplete, and badly preserved in the upper portion. t The Sigillariostrobus mirandus, 
Grand 'Eury,| of which the figure also appears to lie a restoration, seems to be of even 
more doubtful Sigillarian affinity. 

The stem of Sigillaria seems to have very rarely branched, and never to have pro- 
duced the much dichotomised ramification so characteristic of the Lepidodendra. In 
some cases the Sigillarian stem appears to have been a narrow conical trunk, as shown 
in Goldenbkrg's § and other figures. || Goldenberg's stem was over 18 feet in height, 
and must, therefore, have attained considerable age. We can easily imagine on such a 
specimen the foliage would be confined to the upper portion, it having fallen from the 
lower and older part of the tree. That the leaves were articulated, and shed after a 
shorter or longer interval, is, I think, indicated by the clearly defined leaf-scar they 
leave behind them. If the leaves were articulated, as I believe they were, this may 
account for the rarity of specimens being found with their foliage attached. 

All Sigillarise had not, however, these thick, short, cactus-like stems, for Goldenberg 
figures portions of two other stems which show little or no diminution in their girth in 
the parts which have been preserved.^! In the Museum, Newcastle-on-Tyne, there are 
two very good decorticated stems of this type, and another in a similar condition in the 
Sunderland Museum. 

The Sunderland Museum specimen is specially interesting, as it shows most beautifully 
how the ribs increase in number as the stem advances in age. The portion of the trunk 
which is preserved is about 6 feet G inches high. It is slightly " bottle-shaped " at the 
base, where it measures about 5 feet in circumference. In this part of the stem 
there are 29 broad ribs. About one-third up the stem many of these wide ribs bifur- 
cate, and when about two-thirds from the top, there are 40 ribs, with a circumference of 
stem of about 3 feet. All these additional ribs have not, however, arisen by a division 
of the primary basal ribs, for about two-thirds from the base new ribs with narrow, 
pointed extremities** are inserted between the older ones ; thus about 6 inches below the 
broken-over extremity there are 45 ribs, though the stem is considerably smaller in 

* Flore i 'nrh. ilu Depart, de la Loire et da centre de la Franc?, p. 160, pi. xiv. fig. 4, 1877. 

+ Arm. d. Sc. Nat., 6 e . air., " Bol.," vol. xix. p. 257. 

J Lor. cit., p. 160, pi. xiv. tig. 5. 

§ Loc. cit., pi. b tig. 13. 

|| Grand 'Euky, Qeol. and Paieont. dv Batevn houiL da Oard, 1890, pi. xiii. tigs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

" Loc. cit., pi. x. fig. •;. 

** See Zkii.i.kk, Flore Joss. Bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, pi. lxxviii. fig. 3 (Siy. Icevigata). Ibid., pi. lxxxv. tig. 1 
(S. trssellata). 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 



47 



circumference than at the base. It is seen, then, that the number of leaves borne is not 
proportional to the size of the stem in girth. A transverse section of such a specimen 
(presuming the internal organisation was preserved) would show at the base a much 
less number of leaf traces than a section made immediately below the broken-over 
summit, and a few feet above its base. 

In the upper portion of the trunk, five curious furrow-like grooves appear, and, deepen- 
ing, give to the broken-over extremity of the tree the appearance as if it were about to 
divide into five branches. These grooves may be due to shrinkage, but they seem to be 



Wnfc, 




'lout J/fi. 
circvmfeftrtcc 



**<*■ ribs* 



ltj[ rilrs ■ 
dOouf- S/t. 
Circc/nrffrenee. 



7?i5&ecL Stem of Siailla rta J/ei<fht about 6ft- 6 irr 
■SuiiJtrfand! fftusrum 



too regular for that. I am not aware, however, that a dichotomising specimen of the 
ribbed Sigillarise (Rhytidolepis section) has ever been discovered, though we know that 
the Favularia section occasionally, though apparently very rarely, produced dichotomised 
branches. Stur figures such an example.* Mr George Wild, Bardsley, has also shown 
me a very fine example of a dichotomously branched stem of Sigillaria tessellata from 
the Diamond Shaft, Bardsley Colliery, Lancashire. It was found in a bed of shale, about 
50 feet below the New Mine (Middle Coal Measures).! 

* Die Culm Flora, Heft. ii. pi. xxv. figs. 2-3 {Sigillaria Eugenii, Stur). 

t Wild, " On Section of Shaft sunk through the Middle Coal Measures at Bardsley Colliery, and an interesting 
Discovery of Calaniites," Manchester Geol. Soc, Feb. 2, 1886. 



48 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

As already mentioned, it is very rarely that one finds specimens of Sigillarise with 
the leaves still attached. I only possess two with the foliage connecting with the 
stem. One, the Sigillaria (Ulodendron) discophora, Konig, sp., where the leaves are 
lanceolate, single nerved, about 1^ inch long and ^ inch wide ; the other, Sigillaria 
eamptotoenia, Wood, sp., where the foliage is of the long grass-like type, about -§• inch wide ; 
but they are so broken on my example that their full length cannot be determined, but 
they must have been of considerable length. From the descriptions and figures of 
several writers, this appears to have been the prevailing type of leaf among the Sigillarise, 
and is, in fact, the Cyperites bicarinata, L. and H.,* though the description by these 
authors seems to be erroneous, in so far as they ascribe to the leaf two sub-lateral 
veins. 

Though Sigillaria occurs in the Permian Formation, it is essentially a Carboniferous 
genus, and even here it is rare, except in the Upper Carboniferous. From the Lower 
Carboniferous of Britain 1 only know of two species, — the Sigillaria (Ulodendron) 
Taylor i, Can, and the Sigillaria Youngiana, Kidston.f The former belongs to the 
Clathrarian section, and occurs in both the divisions of the Lower Carboniferous ; and 
the latter, belonging to the Rhytidolepis section, is only known by a single specimen, 
which was discovered in the Carboniferous Limestone Series of Scotland by Dr John 
Young of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, and is the only example of a ribbed Sigillaria 
1 have seen from Lower Carboniferous rocks. In the Middle Coal Measures the 
Sigillarise, especially the ribbed forms, appear to attain their maximum period of 
development in Britain. 

A prevalent idea seems to have taken possession of many geologists that every trunk 
found in Carboniferous rocks belongs to Sigillaria, and several trunks occurring in the 
Lower Carboniferous have been publicly announced as such ; but in no case have any of 
these stems, so far as I have been able to trace, ever shown any characters, either on 
their outer surface or impressed upon the surrounding matrix, in support of this popular 
but erroneous belief. On the other hand I have in two cases been able to prove 
conclusively that certain large stems which occurred in the Calciferous Sandstone Series 
belonged to Lepidodendron Veltheimianum, Sternb. I possess a specimen which was 
sent to me as one of these so-called Sigillaria, but in receiving portion of the enveloping 
rock the leaf-scars of Lepidodendron Veltheimianum were clearly impressed upon it. lj: 
Between this impression and the ribbed core a layer of coaly matter was inserted. In 
certain liepidodendra the bark of old stems splits into longitudinal clefts by the increase 
of the stem in girth, and it is the casts of such fossils which give rise to these so-called 
Sigillaria. Sir William Dawson called attention to these old irregularly ribbed stems 
of Lepidodendron in his " Report on the Fossil Land Plants of the Lower Car- 
boniferous and Millstone Grit Formations of Canada," in 1873, when he pointed out 

* Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. xliii. figs. 1-2. 

t J'roc. Hoy. I'hys. Soc, vol. xii. p. 261, pi. vi. ligs. 2, 2«, 1894. 

X From the left bank of tlie Water of Leith, a little above Spylaw House, Colinton, Midlothian, Reg. Nos. 67 
and 68. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 49 

how these longitudinally furrowed stems simulate the ribbed character of Sigillaria.* A 
similar warning has been given by the late Professor Williamson t in regard to the 
Arran stems, of which some published accounts refer them to the Sigillarize, although 
all the evidence in the case is diametrically opposed to such a supposition. 

Description of Specimens. 
Sigillariostrobus, Schimper. 

1870. Sigillariostrobus, Schimper. Traite d, paleont veget., vol. ii. p. 105. 
1888. Sigillariostrobus, Zeiller. Flore foss. Bassin houif. d. Valenciennes, p. 391. 

Description. — Cones borne on deciduous peduncles, with few leaves or the leaves 
reduced to bract-like structures, cylindrical, composed of a ligneous axis bearing spirally 
arranged sporiferous bracts. Bracts rhomboidal, acute, or long-lanceolate, acute with 
an expanded rhomboidal base, caducous. Microspores contained in the hollow inflated 
base of the bract, 0*75 mm. to 2*00 mm. in diameter, smooth, or the surface apiculate ; 
under surface marked by three ridges radiating from a central point (microspores 
probably present, but their existence not yet definitely proved). 

Whether the cones of Sigillaria bore microspores as well as macrospores is at 
present not conclusively settled, and in an earlier part of this paper reference has been 
made to the opinions expressed on this point by Mods. Zeiller.| I am, however, 
strongly of opinion that the Sigillarise were heterosporous, and this view is very much 
founded on the specimen figured on pi. ii. fig. 1. 

This fragment shows a small portion of a Sigillarian cone which hits apparently been 
split longitudinally ; the upper part of the bracts being embedded in the matrix, they 
only show their basal extremities exposed on the surface of the rock. The part which 
came off this fossil must have contained the axis and other half of the cone, but this 
unfortunately has not been found. 

In examining this specimen the first point that arrests one's attention is the great 
difference in the size of the bases of the lower and upper bracts. The bases of the lower 
bracts marked a, pi. ii. fig. 1, are about 3 mm. wide, while the upper ones marked 
b, c, e, on the figure are about 5 mm. wide. The bases of the smaller and lower 
bracts are covered with small, smooth macrospores (fig. la x 4) about 075 mm. in 
diameter (fig. laa x 8). These lower bracts bear the macrosporangia. 

The most interesting part of this fossil is, however, the upper bracts. These, as 
already stated, have larger bases, and are in an equally fine state of preservation. 
When their upper surface is examined under the microscope it is found to be distinctly 

* Geological Survey of Canada. Montreal, 1873, p. 41. 

t Williamson, " On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures," part x., Phil. Trans., 1880, 
part ii. p. 494 

% Ante, p. 43. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 5). K 



•~>0 MB ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

granulated (fig. lc). These granular roughnesses measure about 0*20 mm.,* and are 
covered by a thin cellular envelope, the size of the cells forming this layer being such 
that from three to four cells equal the size of the individual granular roughnesses. The 
cells are therefore about O'Oo mm. in their longest diameter (pi. ii. fig. Id). 

Some of these larger sporangia are seen in side view on pi, i. fig. Id d'. 

On the exposed surface of some of the bases of these larger upper bracts is a sub- 
rhomboidal mark with a central point, and below it the indication of a semicircular 
.iica (fig. lb). This may represent the point of attachment of the bract to the axis of 
the cone, but of this T am not certain, as it might perhaps represent the part where 
dehiscence took place. This structure is well seen on fig. 1 at e and b. 

It is from the examination of this specimen that I have come to the conclusion that 
most probably the cones of Sigillaria were heterosporous, for I do not see what other 
explanation can be given than that the granular structure is caused by contained 
microspores covered by a delicate cellular envelope. I do not claim for this interpreta- 
tion of the fossil an absolute certainty, but dealing with bodies so minute as microspores! 
jut served in the manner of the specimen under discussion, I scarcely see how we can 
expect more conclusive evidence. This interesting specimen, which occurs on a small 
slab with a piece of the bark of Sigillaria camptotcenia, Wood, sp. (but whose association 
may be merely accidental), was collected by Mr John Rorrison from the " Major Coal," 
at Xo. 3 Pit, Springhill, Crosshouse, Ayrshire (Lower Coal Measures), and communicated 
to me by the Rev. D. Landsborough, Kilmarnock, to both of whom I am much 
indebted. 



Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, Kidston, n. sp. 



PI. I. figs. 1-8; PI. II. figs. 10-11. 

Cone cylindrical, elongated, stalked, caducous, apex blunt ; bracts caducous, rhom- 
boidal, single-nerved, with an acuminate point, finely ciliate on margin, placed spirally 
on axis. Pedicel without ribs, bearing distant lanceolate bract-like leaves, which 
become more numerous at the base of the cone, round which they are closely placed ; 
pedieel thickly covered with small acicular points. Macrospores large, rough, with small 
apiculi, and having a triradiate ridge on lower surface, 1*5 mm. to 2 mm. in diameter. 

Remarks. — This species is represented by over a dozen specimens from Monckton 
.Main Colliery, all of which have been collected by Mr Hemingway. Of these the more 
interesting examples are here figured and described. 

* If I am correct in regarding the cause of these " roughnesses " to be contained microspores — pre- 
amably tiny were still united in groups of four, as is frequently seen in the cones of Lepidostrobus — then the 
r/ ■ of the individual microspores would be less than 0*10, for the thickness of the containing envelope adds to 
their apparent size. 

t Tin' *iy>- of th<- microspores in a cone of Lepidostrobus Bhowing structure is O02 mm. 



THE FOSSIL FLOEA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 51 

Description of Specimens. — The largest specimen I have is not so well preserved as 
those figured, but measures in complete length rather over 9 inches. This example, 
except in giving the complete length of the cone, is not of any special interest, the 
structural details being much better shown on other specimens. (Reg. No. 2242.) 

PL I. fig. 1. 

This fossil shows the lower portion of the cone, from the upper remaining part of 
which the bracts have been shed. The shedding of the bracts at maturity seems to be 
a characteristic of Sigillarian cones, and one of the distinguishing points between them 
and Lepidostrobus. 

In some cases the slabs are thickly covered with bracts and portions of denuded axes. 
On fig. 1 pi. i. the bracts are spread out, and evidently the cone has attained to maturity, 
as microspores occur on the surface of, and others are shadowed through, the substance 
of the bracts. At the base of the cone are the spirally arranged narrow setaceous 
bracts, quite dissimilar to the fruiting bracts. As far as can be observed, there is little 
transition between the narrow linear leaf-like bracts and the wide rhomboidal sporangi- 
ferous bracts ; but the former seem to cease suddenly when the sporangiferous bracts 
take their place. The pedicel is without ribs, but is covered with closely placed small 
thorn-like points. 

PL I. fig. 2. 

This example shows more distinctly the rhomboidal acuminate form of the bracts 
still in position. The stem is faintly striated, but cannot be said to be ribbed, and like 
that in all the other specimens shows also the small apiculi. The bracts show well their 
ciliate margin, but the cilia are too small to show clearly on figures given in natural size 
— in which the matrix is represented— but they are very distinctly observable on the 
originals when examined with a hand lens. A few fragments of the grass-like leaves, 
which are probably the foliage of the plant which bore these cones, are seen on the slab. 
|These generally accompany the cones. 

On the pedicel, and especially at the base of the cone, are seen the lanceolate, leaf- 
like bracts, which do not seem to leave, as far as I have been yet able to observe, any 
distinct scar, but their base appears to be carried down the stem in a decurrent manner. 

PL I. fig. 3. 

This specimen does not show the individual bracts so well as the other figured 
examples, but I believe it is referable to the same species. The pedicel, which is long, 
is not so thick as on the other specimens. One cannot help thinking that such pedicel- 
late cones must have been pendant — such slender pedicels could scarcely have supported 
the cone in an upright position. 



52 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 



PI. I. fig. 4. 



The bracts have almost entirely been shed from this example, only a few at the base 
of the cone remaining attached to the axis, which in this naked condition shows well by 
the scars of the fallen bracts their spiral arrangement. At a on fig. 4 is one of the 
lanceolate bract-like structures (shown enlarged at fig. 4a), which congregate round the 
base of the cone. The pedicel is covered with the small apiculi, which are also indicated 
on fig. 4". 

The slab on which this cone occurs has many isolated bracts scattered over its 
surface, some of which, as well as a fragment of another cone and pedicel, are shown in 
the figure. 

PL I. fig. 5. 

Here two cones are seen to spring from the top of the same pedicel. This is 
probably an abnormal condition. The cone to the right is complete, and shows well its 
narrow cylindrical form. Its size, however, is probably less than it would have been 
under more normal circumstances. The cone to the left seems to have its upper part 
broken over. 

PL I. figs. 6, 6«, and 7,7a. 

Tlnse figures show two isolated bracts, with portions enlarged to illustrate the 
delicate cilia which occur on the margins. These cilia are generally simple and more 
numerous and longer on the expanded portion of the bract than on its upper region. 
The bracts occasionally exhibit a slight keel, and are single nerved. 



PL I. fig. 8. 

This exhibits very beautifully the small thorn-like apiculi on the pedicel, not only 
when seen from above, but also in profile at the margin of the pedicel. An enlarged 
drawing is given at fig. 8a. These minute thorn-like structures are extremely numerous, 
and occur on all the specimens which show the pedicel. In form and structure they 
have tin- appearance of very minute thorns. On fig. 8 at b a fragment of one of the 
bract-like leaves occurs. 

PL II. fig. 10. 

Here there is a tolerably complete cone, with portion of its pedicel. This has a faint 
indication of ribs, but this may be due to a slight collapsing of the pedicel during 
mineralisation, as it is absent from the other specimens. One of the bract-like leaves is 
Been on the pedicel a short distance below the base of the cone. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 53 

PL II. fig. 11. 

Two of the macrospores magnified 10 times.* These vary in size from 1'5 mm. to 
2 mm. Their upper surface is covered with short, blunt apiculi, and their lower sur- 
face bears a triradiate ridge, around which the spore is generally smooth. This 
triradiate ridge is formed by the mutual pressure of the other three spores, which were 
developed within the same mother cell, and the smooth parts between the arms of the 
triradiate ridges represent the points where the macrospores were in contact with each 
other. I have specimens of somewhat similar macrospores from another source, still 
united in groups of four.t 

Affinities of Species. 

Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, in the form of bracts, shows a slight approach to 
Sigillariostrobus Tieghemi, Zeiller,^ but is easily separated from the latter species by its 
much more truly rhomboidal bracts, with ciliate margin and the apiculate macrospores. 

The pedicel of Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus is also destitute of ribs, but is 
finely apiculate, with minute thorn-like points. In addition to these differences, 
Zeiller's cone is larger and more robust than our species. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Locality. — Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. 
Horizon. — Barnsley Thick Coal. (W. Hemingway.) 



Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, Kidston, n. sp. 

PI. II. figs. 2-9. 

Description. — Cone cylindrical, pedicellate. Bracts spirally placed on the ligneous 
axis, linear-lanceolate acute with expanded rhomboidal base, single nerved, margins 
thickly beset with short, stout cilia. Sporangia walls formed by the hollow basal portion 
of the bract. Macrospores large, about 1*5 mm. in diameter, apiculate, with triradiate 
ridge on under surface. Peduncle indistinctly ribbed, and roughened with very small 
thorn-like apiculi. 

Remarks. — Of this cone I have seen a less number of specimens from Yorkshire than 
of Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, but a single bract from the Forest of Wyre has 

* These macrospores have a great similarity to those figured in the Proc. Boy. Phys. Soc, vol. ix. p. 109, pi. iii. 
fig. 7 (Triletes vii.), but it is improbable that they belong to the same species, as macrospores of different species have 
evidently a great similarity in form and structure, as seen in the case of those belonging to the two cones described in 
this paper. 

t Binney and Kidston, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc, vol. ix. p. 113, pi. v. figs. I6d and 16e, 1887. 

X Zeili-,eh, Ann. d. Scienc. Nat., 6". ser., "Bot.," vol. xix. pp. 263 and 266, pi. xi. figs. 1 and 4, 1884 ; also Flore 
foss. Bassin honil. d. Valenciennes, p. 593, pi. lxxxix. figs. 2-3, 1886 and 1888. 



.~>4 MB ROBERT KTDSTON ON 

been sent me by Mr T. Crosbee Cantrill (pi. ii. fig. 7). All the Yorkshire examples 
come from Wooley Colliery, Darton, and for which I am entirely indebted to Mr W. 
Hemingway. The form of the bracts and the ciliate margins easily distinguish this 
from all other described species. 

Description of Specimens. 

PL II. fig. 2. 

This example shows the base and the apex of the cone. Unfortunately the central 
part connecting these two portions was lost. It shows the peduncle with distinct 
ribbing on its upper region, but this is not so clearly seen as the peduncle is followed 
downwards. 

PL II. fig. 3. 

This small fragment is the most interesting of all the specimens, as it shows the 
form and structure of the macrosporangia. There is also another example which shows 
the sporangia (No. 2268), but it does not exhibit them so distinctly. 

Two of the sporangia, marked a on fig. 3, are enlarged four times at fig. 3a. The 
sporangia are evidently formed by a hollowing of the basal portion of the bract, and its 
walls seem to be only the modified upper and lower surface of the bract, which again 
unite at the point indicated by the letter a (fig. 3a) to form the upper lanceolate 
extension of the limb. This structure is quite analogous to that found in Isoetes. 

PL II. fig. 4. 

This shows the basal portion of a cone. The bracts are removed from the upper 
part of the specimen which exhibits the axis. One of the bracts, by displacement, is 
seen to extend past the others at b, and thus shows distinctly its form. Numerous 
macrospores occur scattered among the bracts, two of which, magnified ten times, are 
drawn at fig. 9 pi. ii. 

PL II. figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8. 

These give figures of isolated bracts and portions of the margins enlarged to show 
the cilia, which vary a little in their size and regularity. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Locality. — Wooley Colliery, Darton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. 

Horizon. — Barnsley Thick Coal. (W. Hemingway.) 
Locality. — " Road Section," Cooper's Mill, Dowles Valley, Forest of Wyre. 

Horizon. — (?). (T. Crosbee Cantrill.) 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 55 



Sporangium. 

PL II. fig. 12. 

I give here, natural size, a sporangium containing numerous small smooth macro- 
spores. This sporangium is larger than those of Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, while the 
macrospores are smaller and smooth, their size being about 0*75 mm. On another small 
piece of shale from the same locality (No. 1273) there are more or less perfect 
remains of about a dozen and a half of similar sporangia. 

They may possibly be Sigillarian, but no remains occur along with them to throw 
any light on their affinities. Two of the macrospores are enlarged ten times at fig. 12a 
and b. 

These sporangia are evidently similar in nature to those described by Lesquereux 
under the name of Sporocfstis* 

Affinities of Sigillaria. 

Goldenberg believed that Sigillaria represented an arborescent form of Isoetes,t 
and though at the time he expressed that opinion, satisfactory evidence in its sup- 
port was wanting. Subsequent discoveries have, however, proved the accuracy of his 
suggestion. Two years after he stated these views on the affinities of Sigillaria, he 
said : — " The great agreement which the Sigillaria bespeak with our quillworts, as 
well in their internal structure as in their fructification, points to the decision that the 
Sigillariss were nearly related to the Isoetes, and in the highest probability represented 
an arborescent form of these plants in bygone times." | 

The Sigillaria, though they differ from Isoetes in their arborescent dimensions and 
in their fruit being in the form of pedicellate cones, show so great an agreement with 
them in the structure of their sporangia that their affinities with Isoetes is very close. 
Of course the presence of microspores in the cones of Sigillaria is not absolutely 
certain, but the evidence already accumulated points to their cones having been 
heterosporous. 

Zeiller, in his interesting communication to which reference has been already 
made,§ says, when discussing the affinities of Sigillaria : — " In conclusion, the 
Sigillarise appear to me to deserve to be considered as constituting in the Lycopodiacese, 
in some respects, an intermediate group between the Lepidodendron proper and the 
Isoetes, on account of the affinities which they present towards the Isoetes in the 
arrangement of their sporangia and probable mode of dissemination of the spores, and, 

* Goal Flora, pi. lxix. figs. 11-14. 

t Flora Sarcep.foss., Heft. i. p. 25, 1855. 

1 Rid., Heft ii. p. 1, 1857. 

$ Ann. d. Scienc. Nat., 6 e . ser., "Bot.," vol. xix. p. 278, 1884. 



r>0 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

on the other hand, with the Lepidodendron in the structure of the leaf-scars and the 
anatomical details of the stem. 

M. Zeiller further points out what he believes to be another point of difference 
between Sigillaria and Lepidodendron, viz., the stalked deciduous cones of Sigillaria, 
and it must be admitted that, as far as we know, no Lepidodendron had stalked deciduous 
cones ; but neither were all Sigillarian cones stalked, for in Sigillaria ( Ulodendron) 
discophora, Konig, sp., and Sigillaria (Ulodendron) 'Faylori, Carr, sp., the cones have 
evidently been sessile, and it was from the pressure of the bases of these deciduous 
sessile cones on the bark that the cup-like depressions were made. But further, in these 
the cones were borne in two vertical opposite rows, not in verticils, as in the 
majority of Sigillaria}. 

Also in Lepidodendron Veltheimianum, Sternb., and Lepidodendron Landsburgii, 
Kidston,* the fructification consisted of sessile deciduous cones, disposed likewise in two 
opposite vertical rows, which produced the same cup-like depressions on the stem. The 
case of deciduous cones is, however, very exceptional in Lepidodendron, whereas in 
Sigillaria it seems to be the normal condition. In Lepidophloios, and probably in all 
the species, we find the fructification in the form of deciduous stalked cones. The 
most important distinction, however, between all these genera is the structure of the 
sporangia, and in this Sigillaria and Lepidodendron are essentially distinct ; but the 
other structural points in which they differ cannot, of course, be ignored in any system 
of classification. 

On the other hand, it must be pointed out that there do not appear to be any 
differences in regard to the internal organisation of the stems of Lepidodendron and 
Sigillaria which would enable us to separate the stems of these two genera from each 
other without the aid of additional characters. We may also place Lepidophloios in the 
same category, for we now know as a fact that the stem the late Professor Williamson 
described under the name of Lepidodendron fuliginosum is the stem of Lepidophloios 
acerosus, L. and H., sp.t 

All these fossil Lycopods form a closely-connected group of genera, — Lepidodendron 
and Lepidophloios pointing their affinities in the direction of Lycopodium and Selagin- 
ella, and Sigillaria in the direction of Tsoetes, but each one differing in some important 
respect from any recent genus. 

Sigillaria Sol., Kidston, n. sp. 

PL 111. fig. G. 

Description. — Stem ribbed, furrows straight. Leaf-scars occupying about half the 
width of the ribs, sub-orbicular, lateral angles not prominent, upper margin slightly 
notched, lower margin rounded. Vascular cicatrice punctiform, slightly above centre of 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxvii. p. 338, pi. iii. tigs. 9-10, 1893. 

t Lindley and Hutton, Foml Flora, vol. i., pi. vii. fig. 1, pi. viii. ( Lepidodencl/ron aceroswri). 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 57 

scar, and Hanked by two very slightly outward-directed oval cicatricules. Immediately 
above the leaf-scar is a small transversely elongated little cicatricule, above which is a 
short transverse lunate depression, which is again surmounted by a larger straight or 
slightly lunate hollow, from each extremity of which arises a bent band of slightly curved 
oblong depressions, decreasing in size as they reach the centre of the rib, where the two 
halves of the semicircle meet. Outer surface of ribs otherwise smooth. 

Remarks. — PI. iii. fig. 6 shows the fossil natural size ; and at fig. 6a one of the leaf- 
scars and the surmounting ornamentation is shown in outline, also natural size. 

This specimen I received in 1888 from Mr C. Bradshaw, Sheffield, to whom my thanks 
are due. The species is evidently very rare, as I have not again met with the plant. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Locality. — Kilnhurst Pit, Eotherham, Yorkshire. 
Horizon. — Barnsley Thick Coal. 

Sigillaria semipulvinata, Kidston, n. sp. 

PI. III. figs. 1-5. 

Description. — Leaf-cushions almost contiguous, transversely rhomboidal, hexagonal 
or longer than broad ; in transversely rhomboidal forms, lateral angles prominent, acute ; 
in others, generally rounded. Lower margin rounded or truncate ; extreme upper 
portion occupied by the leaf-scar. Leaf -scar occupying the entire apex of the cushion, 
rhomboidal, or transversely rhomboidal, lateral angles prominent ; upper margin flatly 
arched or slightly notched ; lower margin rounded, or rounded with slightly concave 
sides ; cicatricules placed slightly above the centre, central punctiform, the two lateral 
oblong and slightly directed outwards. On the leaf-cushion are occasionally seen two 
faint rows of transverse lines, which descend obliquely from the base of the leaf-scar. 
Subcortical layer striated longitudinally. 

Remarks. — Though this species varies in the proportional size of the leaf-cushion to 
the size of the leaf-scar, and in the cushion and leaf-scar being sometimes transversely 
expanded, or in the cushion being longer than broad, a definite character runs through 
all these variations which at once connect them as different conditions of the same 
species, — forms whose existence depends entirely on circumstances of growth, as shown 
by these variations sometimes occurring on the same individual. 

Description of Specimens. 

PI. III. fig. 1. 
This illustrates what I regard as the typical form of the species. A few of the leaf- 
scars and cushions are given in outline, natural size, at fig. la. This example shows a 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. <N0. 5). L 



58 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 

younger state of the plant than any of the other specimens. The leaf-cushions are 
transversely rhomboidal, and the leaf-scar of a similar form occupies its upper portion. 
There is no part of the cushion above the leaf-scar, and in this Sigillaria semipulvinata 
differs from almost all the other species of the Sigillaria Brardii type. The lateral 
angle of the leaf-scar meets the margin of the leaf-cushion about half-way between its 
lateral angle and the apex of the cushion. The leaf-cushions are not strictly contiguous, 
but are separated by a slight interval ; therefore, though the arrangement of the leaf- 
cushions is clathrate, still, as they do not rest on each other as in the typical Clath- 
raria* the species shows some relationship to the Leiodermaria section, where the leaf- 
scars are more or less distant. 

PI. III. fig. 2. 

This shows an older form of the plant. The leaf-cushions are more distantly placed 
here than in fig. 1. There is also seen in fig. 2 a somewhat irregular longitudinal split- 
ting of the bark in lines following the direction of the upward rows of leaf-cushions. 
This is evidently brought about by a Assuring of the bark caused by increase of the stem 
in girth, and it gives a Favularia-like appearance to the specimen which is directly 
derived from what was originally a Clathrate or Leiodermarian form. 

PI. III. fig. 3. 

This shows still more clearly the Favularia arrangement of the leaf- cushions, and 
also illustrates the variations in their size. Two of the upper leaf-cushions and accom- 
panying leaf-scars are given at fig. 3a x 2, and at 3& and 3c, natural size. Here the leaf- 
cushion is not much larger than seen on figs. 1 and 2, but at the lower part of this fossil 
(fig. 3) a considerable increase in the size of the leaf-cushion is observable (fig. 3c), in 
which increase the leaf-scar also participates. Two rows of faint transverse lines are 
present on the larger cushions (fig. 3a). 

PI. III. fig. 4. 

This is apparently from a somewhat aged specimen. The leaf-cushions are practically 
contiguous, and show below the scar two rows of faint transverse lines (fig. 4a). The leaf- 
cushion here is fully longer than broad. 

PI. III. fig. 5. 

This represents a similar condition to that shown at fig. 4. On the lower portion of 
the fossil the leaf-cushions are contiguous ; on the upper part, more or less separated. 

The study of this species shows the caution that is necessary in bestowing names on 
fragments of Sigillaria. If figs. 1 and 4 are compared, they look at first sight very 

* As the leaf - cushions appear to become more, distant with age, probably the younger conditions would 
represent true CInlhraria. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 59 

distinct, but as seen from the specimens described above, beyond all doubt they only 
represent different ages of the same plant, and these differences are quite unworthy of 
any name to distinguish them as varieties or forms. 

Sigillaria semipulvinata shows some similarity to Sigillaria decorata, Weiss,* and 
Sigillaria subornata, Weiss, t in both of which the leaf-scar is situated towards the top 
of the cushion. 

In both of these species the leaf-cushion is much smaller and the leaf-scar of a different 
form, but the character which at once distinguishes Sigillaria semipulvinata from these 
two species is the position of the leaf-scar in regard to the cushion. 

In Sigillaria decorata, Weiss, and Sigillaria subornata, Weiss, the lateral angle of the 
leaf-scar is on the same line with the lateral angle of the leaf-cushion which it joins, whereas 
in Sigillaria semipulvinata the lateral angle of the leaf-scar meets the upper receding 
boundary line of the cushion some distance above its lateral angle ; or to put it otherwise, 
the lateral angles of the leaf-scar of Sigillaria decorata and Sigillaria subornata meet in 
the lateral angles of the leaf-cushion, whereas in Sigillaria semipulvinata they do 
not. 

Distribution. — Though Sigillaria semipulvinata is rare, I have seen it from several 
localities, and my thanks are due to those whose names are mentioned in the 
appended list of distribution for specimens of this interesting Sigillaria. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Locality. — Cinderford, Yorkshire. 

Horizon— (*). (Late MrE. Tindal, Leeds.) 
Locality. — Low Moor, Yorkshire. 

Horizon. — Black Bed Coal. (Late Mr J. W. Davis, Halifax.) 
Locality. — Wharncliffe, Woodmoor Colliery, Carlton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. 

Horizon. — Kent's Thick Coal. (Mr W. Hemingway.) 
Locality. — Venture Pit, Burmantofts, Leeds. 

Horizon.— Better Bed Coal. (Mr S. W. Bond.) 
Locality. — Great Bridge, Worcestershire. 
Horizon.— (?). (Mr C. Beale.) 

* Weiss and Sterzel, Die Sigillarien d. preuss. Steinh. u. Eothl, Geliete, ii. "Die Gruppe Jer Sub-sigillarien," 
p. 207, pi. xxvii. fig. 105, 1893, Abhandl. d. Konig. Preuss. geol. Landesanstalt, neue folge, Heft. ii. Berlin. 
+ Ibid., p. 209, pi. xxvii. fig. 106, 1893. 



<iO MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Lower portion of cone and pedicel, showing axis 
denuded of bracts on upper part. Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. 
/for. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2263. 
P. 51. 

Fig. 2. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus , n. sp. Lower portion of cone, showing the setaceous-like 
bracts at its base and on the upper part of the pedicel. Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, near 
Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. 
Reg. No. 2260. P. 51. 

Fig. 3. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Portion of cone attached to its pedicel. Natural size. 
Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. 
Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2272. P. 51. 

Fig. 4. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Cone mostly denuded of bracts, and exhibiting their 
spiral arrangement on the naked axis. Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, York- 
shire. Hor, Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2259. 
P. 52. 

4«. Portion of pedicel of fig. 4, immediately below cone, showing leaf-like bract and small tubercles 
on pedicel ; slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 5. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Two cones attached to the same pedicel. Natural size. 
Loc Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor, Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. 
Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2271. P. 52. 

Fig. 6. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. * Isolated bract. Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main 
Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, 
Collector. Reg. No. 2262. P. 52. 

6a. Portion enlarged to show ciliated margin of bract. 

Fig. 7. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. A bract. Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main 
Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr "W. Heming- 
way, Collector. Reg. No. 2260. P. 52. 

la. Portion enlarged to show ciliated margin of bract. 

Fig. 8. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Portions of two cones attached to their pedicels. 
Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. 
Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 1272. P. 52. 

8a. Portion of pedicel enlarged to show small thorn-like hairs with which it is beset. 



Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Sigillariostrobus, sp. Portion of cone — a, a', a", a", sporangia, showing macrospores ; b, c, 
sporangia ; d, sporangia seen laterally. Natural size. Loc. No. 3 Pit, Springhill, Crosshouse, Ayrshire. Hor. 
Major Coal. Lower Coal Measures. Mr John Rourison, Collector. Reg. No. 1573. P. 49. 
la. Macrosporangia, a on fig. 1, showing smooth macrospores, x 4. 
laa. Macrospore, x 8. 
1/'. Microsporangia (1), b in fig. 1, x 4. 

lc. Surface of 16 more highly magnified to show granular appearance of surface. 
Id. Surface of 1/; still more highly magnified to show the cellular structure of the sporangium 
wall, smaller than, and extending over, the granular surface of the sporangium. 



THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FIELD. 61 

Fig. 2. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Cone attached to its ribbed axis. Natural size. Loc. Woolley 
Colliery, Darton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. 
Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 1192. P. 54. 

Fig. 3. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Small fragment of cone split longitudinally, showing the 
sporangia containing macrospores. Natural size. Loc. Woolley Colliery, Darton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. 
Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2144. 

P. 54. 

3a. Two of the sporangia of figs. 3, x 4, showing the sporangia and contained macrospores. 

Fig. 4. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Portion of cone with numerous macrospores scattered amongst 
the bracts. Natural size. Loc. Woolley Colliery, Darton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick 
Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2143. P. 54. 

Fig. 5. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Bract from cone. Natural size. Loc. Woolley Colliery, Dar- 
ton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, 
Collector. Reg. No. 2267. P. 54. 

Fig. 6. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Bract. Natural size. Loc. Woolley Colliery, Darton, near 
Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. 
Reg. No. 1177. P. 54. 

Fig. 7. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Bract. Natural size. Loc. " Road Section," Cooper's Mill, 
Dowles Valley, Forest of Wyre, Worcestershire. Hor. Middle Coal Measures. Mr T. Ceosbee Cantrill, 
Collector. Reg. No. 2117. P. 54. 

7a. Portion of base enlarged to show the cilia. 

Fig. 8. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Bract. Natural size. Loc. Woolley Colliery, Darton, near 
Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. 
Reg. No. 1178. P. 54. 

8a. Portion of margin enlarged to show cilia. 

Fig. 9. Sigillariostrobus ciliatus, n. sp. Macrospores from cone, fig. 4x10. Loc. Woolley Colliery, 
Darton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, 
Collector. Reg. No. 2143. P. 53. 

Fig. 10. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Cone showing setaceous bract on axis below cone. 
Natural size. Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle 
Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2273. P. 52. 

Fig. 11. Sigillariostrobus rhombibractiatus, n. sp. Macrospores, x 10. Loc. Monckton Main Colliery, 
near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Col- 
lector. P. 53. 

Fig. 12. Sporangium. Natural size. Loc. Woolley Colliery, Darton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. 
Barnsley Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 1669. P. 55. 
12ab. Two of the smooth macrospores, x 10. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Sigillaria semipulvinata, n. sp. Showing the leaf-cushions separated by only a very slight 
interval, and assuming a " Clathrate " disposition. Natural size. Loc. Cinderfield, Yorkshire. Hor. Coal 
Measures. Mr E. Tindal, Collector. Reg. No. 1408. P. 57. 

la. Outline figure of leaf -scars and cushions. Natural size. 
Fig. 2. Sigillaria semipulvinata, n. sp. Showing the leaf-cushions separated by a very slight space, and 
assuming an arrangement characteristic of the Fuvularia. Natural size. Loc. Low Moor, Yorkshire. Hor. 
Black Bed Coal. Middle Coal Measures. The late Mr J. W. Davis, F.G.S., Collector. Reg. No. 1410. 
P. 58. 

2a. Leaf-scar and cushion, x 1|. 
Fig. 3. Sigillaria semipulvinata, n. sp. Showing the same characters as the last, but the cushions on 
the lower part of the specimen are much enlarged. Natural size. Loc. Low Moor, Yorkshire. Hor. Black 
Bed Coal. Middle Coal Measures. The late Mr J. W. Davis, F.G.S., Collector. Reg. No. 1409. P. 58. 
3a and 36. Leaf-scars and cushions. Natural size. 
3c. Leaf-scar and cushion, x 2. 
VOL. XXXIX. PART. I. (NO. 5). M 



62 mi; r. kidston on fossil flora of Yorkshire coal field. 

Fig. 4. Sigillaria semijoulvmata, n. sp. With large cushions arranged as in "Clathraria." Natural 
size. Loc. Great Bridge, near Dudley. Hor. Middle Coal Measures. Mr C. Beale, Collector. Reg. No. 
832. P. 58. 

4a. Leaf-cushion and scar, xl|. 
Fig. 5. Sigillaria semipulvinata, n. sp. Showing large cushions separated by a slight interval on the 
upper part of specimen, but touching each other on lower portion of the fossil. Natural size. Loc. Wharn- 
cliffe, Woodmoor Colliery, Carlton, near Barnsley, Yorkshire. Hor. Kent's Thick Coal. Middle Coal 
Measures. Mr W. Hemingway, Collector. Reg. No. 2258. P. 58. 
5a. Leaf-scar and cushion. Natural size. 
Fig 6. Sigillaria sol., n. sp. Natural size. Loc. Kilnhurst, near Rotherham, Yorkshire. Hor. Barnsley 
Thick Coal. Middle Coal Measures. Mr C. Bradshaw, Collector. Reg. No. 1407. P. 56. 
6a. Leaf-scar and ornamentation on rib above it. Natural size. 

Note.— PL i. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8; pi. ii. figs. 1, 2, 4, 10; pi. iii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, are from photo- 
graphs ; all the other figures and enlargements are from drawings. All the original specimens are in the 
author's collection. 

Note. — Since this paper was written, a further contribution on the affinities of Sigillaria has appeared 
from the pen of Mons. R. Renault in "Bassin houil. et perm. d'Autun et d'Epinac." Fasc. iv. Flore foss., 
deux partie, 1896, pp. 239-245 (Aug. 1897). 



Trans. Roy. Soc.Edm r Vol. XXXIX 

KlDSTON ON THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE GOAL FlELD. (Second Paper). Plate I. 







M'FiLilnie i Erstine. LitW* Earn 



Figs. 1-8. SlGILLARIOSTROBUS RHOMBIBRACTIATUS. Kidston, n sp. 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Edm r , Vol XXXIX. 

KlDSTON ON THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FlELD. (Second Paper) Plate II. 

m 




3" x 4 



ae & Erskine Lit,h r ? Edin 



Fig 1. SlGILLARIOSTROBUS, sp. Figs. 2 -9. SlGlLLARIOSTROBUS CILIATUS. Kidston, n. sp. 
10,11. SlGILLARIOSTROBUS RHOMBIBRACTIATUS Kidston, n.sp. Fig. 12. SPORANGIUM 



<^r^ 



ilfe^ 






Trans Roy. Soc. Edm r , Vol X I ' 

KlDSTON ON THE FOSSIL FLORA OF THE YORKSHIRE COAL FlELD. ( Second Paper). Plate III. 




M'FarUne k Erskine, Lith" Ethn r 



Figs. 1-5. SlGILLARIA SEMIPULVIMATA, Kidston, n. sp. Fig. 6. SlGILLARIA SOL, Kidsbon, n. sp. 



( 63 ) 



VI. — The Meteorology of Edinburgh. By Robert C. Mossman, F.R.S.E., 
F.R. Met. Soc. (With Four Plates.) 

(Read 1st March 1897.) 

PART II. 

Preliminary. 

The first part of this paper was communicated to the Society on June 1, 1896, 
and published in the Transactions (vol. xxxviii. part iii., No. 20, pp. 681-755), the 
data there discussed being mean values of the climatic elements for each day in the 
year. 

In the present paper an attempt will be made to focus the results deduced from 
an examination and reduction of the various meteorological registers kept in Edinburgh 
from 1731 to 1736 and from 1764 to the present time, with special reference to secular 
and other weather changes. 

The condensed results of a number of minor papers dealing with subjects which 
have, in many cases, formed part of the daily routine of observation during the last 
ten years have also been included. Attention may also be called to the list of 
remarkable atmospheric occurrences, such as phenomenal gales, snow-storms, auroras, etc. , 
which is contained in the appendix. In presenting this paper my warm thanks must 
be expressed to Dr Buchan, from whom I received invaluable advice when points of 
difficulty arose in the reduction of the observations. 

Barometric Pressure. 

The preparation of Table I., showing the mean monthly and annual air pressure 
since 1769, has been a work of considerable labour. This was more especially the 
case with the observations taken prior to the establishment of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in 1856. During the last forty years these observations have 
been examined and checked by the Secretary, who further tested the instruments 
at the Society's stations. The errors of the barometers were thus known and 
allowed for in the calculation of the monthly means, while any accidental dis- 
placement of the mercury or other injury was at once apparent on comparing the 
returns with those made at stations in the vicinity of Edinburgh. The values for 
the period 1856 to 1896 were accordingly extracted from the Journals of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society, and entered in the table, any blanks in the observations being 
made good from the records of contiguous stations by interpolation and differentia- 
tion. No such easy method of dealing with the older observations presented itself, 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). N 



64 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



as the values from 1769 to 1853 were, with the exception of those taken by Playfair* 
from 1794 to 1799, entirely unreduced and uncorrected. There were thus the accumu- 
lated data of eighty years awaiting discussion. As the work of reduction proceeded, 
it became evident from the numerous anomalies and discrepancies disclosed by an 
inspection of the monthly means, that the preparation of monthly isobaric charts for 
Scotland must be attempted for the greater part of the first fifty years covered by 
the investigation, with a view to the elimination of discordances. In this connection 
the numerous manuscript observations kept at various places in Scotland, and kindly 
lent by the Koyal Society of Edinburgh and the Scottish Meteorological Society, proved 
of the highest value. 1 have specially to thank Dr Buchan for placing a large mass of 
material at my disposal. 

The following are the additional stations whose data were utilised in the prepara- 
tion of the monthly isobaric charts, the values for Edinburgh being calculated from 
Registers III., IV., VI., VII., X., XL, XIV., XVI., XVIL, XVIII.t 



Kept at. 


Years. 


Hours of Observation. 


Remarks. 


Selkirk,. . . ■ . 


1769-1780 


1 


The means were collected by Hoy and 
are contained in his MS. registers. 


Kirkcaldy, 


1775-1778 


8 a.m. and noon. 


Means calculated from MS. 


Branxholm, 


1774-1783 




Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. i. p. 204. 


Glendoich, . . . < 


1783-1801 ) 
1810-1816 j 


9 A.M. 


Means calculated from MS. 


Gordon Castle, 


1781-1827 


8 A.M. 


Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, vol. v. p. 73. 


Dunfermline, . 


1799-1826 


9 A.M. 


Means calculated from MS. 


Carlisle, .... 


1801-1824 


8 a.m., 1 p.m. and 9 p.m. 


Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xi. p. 429. 


Kinfauns Castle, 


1811-1834 


8 a.m. and 10 p.m. 


Means calculated from MS. 


Lasswade, 


1828-1843 


8 a.m. and 10 p.m. 


Means calculated from MS. 


Dollar, .... 


1836-1842 


9.15 a.m. and 8.30 p.m. 


Means calculated from MS. 


Aberdeen, 


1829-1841 


8 a.m. and 9 p.m. 


From Abstracts given in Aberdeen 








Journal. 



Much labour was expended in ascertaining approximately the instrumental error 
of the above instruments, and in their reduction to 32° and sea-level, the height above 
the sea being known in each case. The values from the above stations were then 
entered month by month, on small maps of Scotland. The entries include the following: — 

1. The mean barometric pressure corrected and reduced to sea-level, and corrected 

for instrumental errors. 

2. The rise or fall of pressure from the previous month. 

3. The rise or fall of pressure from the corresponding month of the previous year. 

4. The prevailing wind at Edinburgh and such places as observed the wind 

direction. 
The monthly means had also corrections applied to them so as to bring them to the 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vols. iv. p. 213, and v. p. 193. t Tram. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxviii. pp. 682-683. 



THE METEOKOLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 65 

mean of Edinburgh, on the assumption that the distribution of pressure over the country 
was normal. These corrections were obtained from Dr Buchan's paper on " The 
Mean Atmospheric Pressure of the British Isles." * Although but little weight was 
attached to the values thus corrected, they were of much interest when viewed in 
connection with anomalies in the barometric gradients over the country. Maps were 
prepared for a period of thirty -seven years, viz., from 1781 to 1817. It was not 
necessary to adopt this tedious process after 1817, as from that date the instruments 
were on the Fortin principle, and carefully observed. From an examination of the 
results thus graphically shown by the data delineated on the maps, the elimination 
of errors was rendered comparatively easy. I believe that the means thus obtained 
give a close approximation to the average pressure for the period under discussion. 
The observations utilised from 1817 to 1856 were the following: — From 1817 to 1826 
the means were computed from the Calton Hill Observatory, where daily readings were 
taken at 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. These were printed monthly in extenso in the Scots 
Magazine for the years to which they refer. Adie's observations given in the Edin- 
burgh Journal of Science were adopted for the period 1827 to 1832, while the Royal 
Society's observations were employed from January 1833 to October 1834, and again 
from 1839 to 1852, the hiatus being filled in from a register kept at Lasswade, six 
miles S.E. of Edinburgh. The Lasswade means were calculated from 1828 to 1843, 
so as to allow of the determination of the instrumental correction by comparison 
with Edinburgh. Means were also computed for part of this period from the Dollar 
register, which furnished an additional check. The hours of observation were, at 
Lasswade, 8 a.m. and 10 p.m., and at Dollar, 9.15 a.m. and 8.30 p.m. The observations 
at the rooms of the Royal Society from 1839 to 1852 were taken at 10 a.m., and were 
deficient on Sundays and holidays. It was, therefore, necessary to interpolate values 
for the missing days. The height of the barometer for these days was found from the 
contemporaneous registers kept by Alex. Adie till 1850 and continued for some years 
thereafter at his place of business. As the Royal Society observations were made only 
once a day, it was necessary to reduce Adie's 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. readings, in order to 
obtain corrections to be applied so as to bring the former series to the mean of 10 am. 
and 10 p.m. This was accordingly done. The reason Adie's observations were not 
utilised for the actual means is that there was no attached thermometer. The readings 
could not, therefore, be reduced to 32°. The means for 1853 to 1856 were obtained 
from Sir Henry James't abstracts taken in Edinburgh by the Royal Engineers. From 
1856 down to the present time the 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. observations made at the Edin- 
burgh stations of the Scottish Meteorological Society have, as already stated, been 
employed. Every effort has been made to make the results comparable by reducing or 
otherwise correcting the means to those of 9 A.M. and 9 p.m. For many years the hours 
were 8 a.m. and 10 p.m., or 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. ; observations taken at these hours differ 

* Jour. Met. Soc, vol. vi. pp. 14-18. 
t Abstracts from Meteorological Observations taken at the stations of the Royal Engineers. 



66 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

but little from readings taken at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. so that no corrections were made. 
With reference to the monthly means from 1769 to 1816, it was not considered desirable 
to attempt any reduction to 9 a.m. and 9 p.m., as the hours of observation could not be 
ascertained for some periods. The limit of error arising from this disturbing factor 
must be small, as the Edinburgh observations were checked against the isobars drawn 
month by month for the E. of Scotland. In any case, the departure from the true 
mean due to this deficiency would not exceed 0*012 inch. 

Table I. shows the means of each month and year reduced to 32° and mean sea-level, 
as well as decadal and monthly means for the whole period, viz., 1770 to 1896. The 
annual mean was 29*858 inches, being highest (29*962 inches) in 1864 and lowest (29*706 
inches) in 1789, showing a difference of 0*256 inch in the annual means. The highest 
monthly mean was that of May, which is 29 "940 inches, and the lowest that of December, 
which is 29 "800 inches, there being thus a difference of 0'140 inch between the highest 
and lowest monthly means. It is to be observed that the average pressure of November 
is practically the same as that of December, the difference being only 0*001 inch. 

The highest mean pressure of any month was 30'361 inches in March 1840, and the 
lowest was 29*186 inches in January 1791, the difference being 1*175 inch. The month 
showing the greatest range among the means is February, the highest mean being 
30*337 inches, in 1891, and the lowest 29*202 inches, in 1776, a difference of 1*135 inches. 
The least variation is in July, the highest mean being 30*153, in 1825, and the lowest, 
29*633 inches, in 1798, a difference of 0*520 inch. 

The absolutely highest barometric pressure during the 127 years under review was 
31*071 inches, at 9 a.m. on January 9, 1896, and the lowest 27*451 inches, at 10 p.m. 
on January 26, 1884, giving a difference of 3*620 inches. The highest and lowest pres- 
sures are given for each month since 1840 in Tables II. and III. Table IV. gives the 
extreme range of pressure during the last fifty-seven years, for each month. The greatest 
monthly range was 3 03 5 inches in January 1884, and the lowest 0*515 in July 1852. 
The mean monthly range is greatest (1*611 inch) in January and least (0*935 inch) in June 
and July. It is to be observed that the differences between the values given in Tables 
II. and III. do not always agree with the values in Table IV. This is due to the entry 
in the former tables of extra readings taken during periods of high and low pressure, 
whereas the table of monthly range has been compiled from the bi-diurnal observations 
taken at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. The results given in Tables I. to IV. are further summarised 
in Table V., while Table VI. shows all the sea-level pressures above 30*90 inches or 
below 28*20 inches experienced in Edinburgh from 1770 to 1896. 

Mean Temperature of the Air. 

Table VII. shows the mean temperature of the air in shade, 4 feet above grass, and 
at a height of 250 feet above mean sea-level, from 1764 to 1896. From 1764 to June 
1781 the values given are those taken by Hoy at Hawkhill House, St Andrew Square, 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 67 

the Pleasance, and, for a short time, at Mertown. They have been reduced and other- 
wise corrected to the mean of the maximum and minimum by Dr Buchan, so that it was 
only necessary to correct them to a height of 250 feet by applying a reduction equal to 
1° for each 270 feet. After having the small correction of 0*6° applied they were 
entered in the table. 

Considerable labour was involved in the reduction of the observations taken from 
June 1781 to December 1821. It will, therefore, be necessary to go into the processes 
involved in the reduction of the earlier registers with some degree of elaboration. The 
best observations throughout this period are undoubtedly those made by Adie in 
Merchant Court from 1795 to June 1805, the hours being 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. 

The uncorrected values for the months and the years are given by Forbes. They 
have been brought to the mean of the maximum and minimum by applying the correc- 
tions given in the first part of this inquiry.* The corrections there given were tested 
by a number of methods, but the values were so accordant that it was decided not to 
make any alteration. A comparison of the Edinburgh Advertiser 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. 
readings from 1795 to 1804 with Adie's corrected mean values gave the following plus 
corrections, which were applied to the Edinburgh Advertiser record from 1787 to 1806. 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


0°-9 


l°-4 


r-8 


2°-l 


2°-2 


2'-2 


2°-0 


r-5 


r-o 


0°-5 


0°-4 


0°'6 



Some change was made in the exposure of the instruments in 1806, the corrections 
applied from that time till 1821 being those already given. t The means for the period 
1787 to 1831 have been computed, and are given in Table VIII. Another change took 
place in the instruments or their exposure in 1824, but a fresh table of corrections was 
not made, as the observations were not utilised after 1821. 

Another register is available for the period 1785 to 1816, the temperatures taken 
"before sunrise" and "at noon" being given in extenso, in the Edinburgh Magazine 
and afterwards in the Scots Magazine. The station was at Duddingston, near the foot 
of Arthur's Seat, from 1785 to January 1793, "within one mile of the Castle of Edin- 
burgh" from 1793 to May 1798, and then at Barnton, three aud a half miles west of 
Edinburgh, till 1816. The means have been computed and are given in Tables IX. 
and X. The averages utilised for the calculation of mean temperatures are those taken 
before sunrise, some little doubt attaching to the noon observations, especially in hot, 
sunny weather. The corrections were obtained by a comparison with Adie's and the 
Edinburgh Advertiser records, the latter being the values for the five years 1788 to 
1792. The corrections thus obtained were applied to the observations at Duddingston 
from 1785 to January 1793. The observations taken within one mile of the Castle 
from February 1793 to May 1798 were corrected by means of a comparison with Adie 
for the three years 1795 to 1797, and those taken at Barnton till 1816 from a com- 
parison with Adie for the five years 1800 to 1804. 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxviii. p. 686. t Trans., vol. xxxviii. p. 687. 



68 MR ROBERT COC'KBURN MOSSMAN ON 

The following are the plus corrections for each series : — 



Years. 


-Tan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 







• 





o 


= 

















o 


O 


1785-1793 


1-6 


33 


4-6 


6-6 


6-6 


6-8 


6-3 


6-1 


5-1 


3-9 


2-0 


1-6 


February 
1793-1798 


2-0 


33 


4-6 


3-9 


38 


4-1 


49 


5-1 


4-3 


2-9 


1-6 


1-8 


May 
1798-1816 


1*8 


2-0 


3-2 


4-5 


5-5 


6-0 


6-8 


6-8 


5-7 


3-7 


1-9 


1-3 



A register was kept in Edinburgh by Mr George Waterston from 1799 to 1850 
(see Table XL). The hours of observation were 8 a.m., 2 p.m., and 10 p.m. They have 
been utilised from 1806 to 1820, and were corrected by comparing them with Adie's 
mean temperatures for the ten years 1821-30. The following are the monthly correc- 
tions obtained after smoothing the curve : — 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


-2°-2 


-l°-8 


-r-5 


-l°-6 


-2°0 


-2°-2 


-2° 5 


-2°-3 


- 2 0, 2 


-2°0 


-2°-2 


-2°-4 



From June 1781 to December 1784 no observations are known to have been made 
in Edinburgh. It was therefore necessary to interpolate from the records of contiguous 
stations. A register was kept at Branxholm from 1775 to 1783, the results being given 
in vol. I. of the Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. A comparison of the means there given with 
Hoy's corrected values from 1775 to June 1781 gave the following smoothed corrections 
which were applied to the observations made from June 1781 to December 1783, 
as follows : — 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


+ 3°-9 


+ 3°-0 


+ 2°'7 


+ 2°-l 


+ l°-8 


+ l°-5 


+ 2 0, 2 


+ 2 0> 4 


+ l°-6 


+ 2°-2 


+ 3° -4 


+ 3°-6 



A register was kept at Glendoich from May 1783 to 1817, from which means (see 
Table XII.) have been calculated from May 1783 to 1794, the corrections to Edinburgh 
mean temperature being obtained by a comparison with the Edinburgh Advertiser 
means from 1788 to 1793, thus: — 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

-0°-7 -0°6 -0°-6 -0°-6 -0°-6 -0"-9 - 1°0 - 1 0> 5 - 1°-4 - 1°-3 - 0"-9 -0°-6 

The corrected means from all these sources having been obtained, final means were 
calculated from them. For example, from 1799 to 1804 the means given in Table VII. are 
the average of the corrected means deduced from Adie's and the Edinburgh Advertiser 
8 a.m. and 8 p.m. observations, along with the Barnton observations, all being brought 
to the mean of the maximum and minimum by the corrections already given. The 
results are remarkably accordant in the majority of cases. Forbes' adopted temperatures 
were utilised as a check from 1805 to 1820. The Kinfauns Castle record was further 
brought to the mean of the Edinburgh record for the period 1813 to 1821 by a comparison 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



69 



with Adie's for the five years 1822 to 1826. These two last-mentioned registers not being 
deduced from observations taken in the city, were only employed as a check on the other 



registers. 



The means from 1822 to 1896 given in Table VII. were derived from the following 
sources. From 1822 to 1850 Adie's mean temperature values, as reduced by Forbes, 
were employed, but the means were recomputed from 1824 to 1831 and from 1840 to 1850. 
During the latter period some blanks were made good by interpolating from Waterston's 
register. The means for these years will accordingly be found to differ in some months 
from those given in Forbes' paper. From October 1849 to January 1853 the means were 
obtained from a record kept by Alex. Adie & Sons. From February 1853 to 1855 the 
observations taken by the Royal Engineers were utilised, while from 1856 the returns 
from the Edinburgh stations of the Scottish Meteorological Society were employed. 

The station was in Melbourne Place from May 1858 to December 1861.* The 
returns from this station are too high, owing to radiation from the surrounding buildings. 
They have accordingly been corrected by the smoothed values calculated from the data 
given in the under-mentioned report, f The corrections which are all minus, have been 
severally ascertained for the maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures, as follows : — 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


• 


• 














. 


o 


o 


o 


■ 


■ 


Maximum, . 


2-9 


3-0 


2-3 


2-5 


2-5 


3-2 


3-3 


3-5 


3-1 


2-7 


2-5 


3-0 


Minimum, 


2-5 


2-4 


2-3 


2-5 


2-5 


2-5 


2-5 


2-5 


2-7 


2-6 


2-6 


2-5 


Mean, . 


2-7 


2-7 


23 


2-5 


2-5 


2-8 


2-9 


3-0 


2-9 


2-6 


2-5 


2-8 



With regard to the observations of the past thirty-five years, for a few months inter- 
polations had to be made from Leith or Inveresk. When this was found necessary the 
values were corrected for height. 

The mean temperature for the period is 46 0, 8, or reduced to sea-level, 47°"7, the 
correction being 1° for every 276 feet. The highest mean annual temperature was 49°'6 
in the years 1779 and 1846, and the lowest 43 '8 in 1879, giving a range in the annual 
means of 5 0, 8. The warmest month was July 1779, with a mean temperature of 65°*2 
or 6° - 6 above the average, and the coldest month January 1814, the mean being 26 0, 5 
or 10° '3 below the average, the extreme range in the monthly means being 3 8° '7. 

The following table shows the highest and lowest mean monthly temperatures 
during the last 133 years : — 

* In part 1 of the paper it was erroneously stated that the observations were made at this station from 1853 to 1856. 
t (See Quarterly Report of the Meteorological Society of Scotland, for the quarter ending 31st March 1862, p. 7.) 



70 



MR ROBERT COCKBUEN MOSSMAN ON 



Month. 


Highest. 


Year. 


Lowest. 


Year. 


Range. 


January, .... 


43-8 


1796 


26-5 


1814 


17-3 


February, .... 


47-2 


1779 


29-8 


1838 


17-4 


March, ..... 


46-5 


j 1779 ) 
1 1841 j 
J 1792 1 
} 1798/ 


34-2 


1785 


12-3 


April, 


49-8 


38-9 


1837 


10-9 


May, 


55-8 


1833 


45-1 


1810 


10-7 


June, ..... 


61-9 


1846 


51-5 


1860 


10-4 


July, 


65-2 


1779 


54-4 


1879 


10-8 


August, .... 


63-7 


1779 


52-6 


1830 


11-1 


September, .... 


59-5 


1846 


48-2 


1807 


11-3 


October, .... 


52-7 


1831 


42-0 


1817 


10-7 


November, .... 


46-7 


1818 


34-0 


1807 


12-7 


December, .... 


47-8 


1843 


31-0 


1878 


16-8 


Year, ..... 


49-6 


/ 1779 ) 
t 1846 / 


43-8 


1879 


5-8 



The mean warmest month is July, 58°'6, and the coldest January, 36° - 8, the range 
being 21° '8. 

In the years 1854 and 1857 the mean temperature was above the average in each 
month, while it was below the average in each month in the years 1816 and 1879, both 
of these years being most disastrous from an agricultural point of view. The longest 
spell of cold was from April 1859 to January 1861, only one month in this period, viz., 
May 1860 having a mean temperature in excess of the average. The coldest five year 
period was from 1812 to 1816, and the warmest from 1777 to 1781, the excess or defect 
of temperature being the same in each case, viz., 1 0, 2. 

Table XIII. shows the extremes in the mean and absolute daily temperature. The 
table is incomplete from 1770 to 1821. For this period the values given are (1) the 
extreme maximum and minimum temperatures observed by Hoy at Hawkhill from 1770 
to 1776, the observations being made several times a day from 8 a.m. to midnight; (2) 
the observations taken from 1785 to 1798 were " near the foot of Arthur's Seat" or 
"near the Castle," the hours of observation being " before sunrise " and "at noon"; 
(3) the lowest and highest mean daily temperature from 1795 to 1804 taken by Adie 
at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., and corrected to mean temperatures ; (4) the absolute minimum 
temperatures from 1803 to 1821 given in the Edinburgh Advertiser register. From 
1822 to 1896 the observations were taken first by Adie till 1850, and under the 
auspices of the Scottish Meteorological Society from 1856 to 1896. The hiatus from 
1851 to 1855 was made good from records kept by Adie & Son and the Royal 
Engineers. During the last seventy-five years the highest mean temperature of any day 
was 75°'5 on August 5, 1868, and the lowest 12 0, 4 on December 24, 1860, showing 
an extreme range of 63° '1 between the mean temperatures deduced from the average of 
the daily maximum and minimum readings. The earliest date of highest mean tempera- 
ture was May 19 in the year 1888, and the latest date September 2 in the year 1824. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 71 

The corresponding dates for the lowest mean daily temperature were November 22, 
1880, and March 26, 1872. The range between the extreme daily temperatures was 
greatest 56°*0 in 1826 and least 34°*5 in 1883. The absolute maximum temperature 
in the seventy-five years under review was 87°'7 on August 5, 1868, and the lowest 5°'0, 
this value being recorded on January 31, 1845, January 29, 1848, and December 24, 
1860, the latter observation being taken at Marchhall, which is within 200 yards of the 
place where observations are now made. The extreme range in the shade temperature 
was 82°'7. The earliest date at which the maximum temperature occurred was April 30 
in the year 1862, and the latest, September 25 in 1895, the next latest being on Sep- 
tember 8, 1890. The extreme dates on which the absolute minimum took place were 
November 7, 1868, and March 24, 1834. The annual range was greatest, 77°, in 1826 
and 1848, and least, 48°, in 1862. The lowest absolute maximum was 70°"0 on April 30, 
1862, and the highest minimum, 24 c- 5, on December 28, 1863. 

Tables XIV. to XXIV. give the reduction of nearly all the temperature observations 
taken in Edinburgh. 

Table XIV. shows the highest mean daily temperature in each month from 1857 to 
1896, Table XV. gives the lowest mean temperature, and Table XVI. the range. Table 
XVII. shows the greatest daily range of temperature during this period. 

Table XVIII. gives a general synopsis of the thermometric observations from 1840 to 
1896. Table XIX. summarises some of the data contained in the above tables. 

Table XX. gives all the instances of a maximum temperature below 25°'l and of a 
minimum temperature above 60° "9. 

Tables XXI. to XXIV. give the results of the reduction of Adie's observations 
taken at Canaan Cottage. The original observations are given in extenso in the 
Edinburgh Journal of Science. Table XXI. shows the average maximum, minimum, 
and mean, temperatures, and the mean daily range of temperature. 

Table XXII. gives the extreme shade temperatures and the extreme range of 
temperature. 

Table XXIII. gives the highest night minimum and lowest day maximum, and 
Table XXIV. the extremes in the mean daily temperatures. The date of the occur- 
rence is given in each instance. 

Temperature Variability 1840 to 1896. 

The mean daily variability of temperature is given in Table XXV. In the calcula- 
tion of the values, the mean temperature was assumed to be the arithmetical mean of 
the daily maxima and minima. The calculation of the variability of temperature 
consists in extracting the difference between the day to day values. Thus, if the mean 
temperatures of two successive days were respectively 60° and 55°, the difference, viz., 
5°, would represent the variability. Table XXVI. summarises the data given in Table 
XXV., along with some additional particulars. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). O 



72 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

The mean annual variability of temperature is2°"85, being highest, 3°'24, in January 
and lowest, 2°"52, in July, thus showing a difference of 0°72. The greatest variability 
was 3 0, 38 in 1843, and the least 2 c- 50 in 1860, the range in the annual means being less 
than 1 degree. The greatest variability of any month was 4° - 9 for November 1847, 
while the low value of 1°'G was recorded in the Julys of 1853 and 1854, the Augusts 
of 1858 and 1860, and in September 1861. The greatest daily rise of temperature 
occurred on March 17, 1892, whose mean temperature was 15°'l higher than that of the 
16. August 29, 1869, on the other hand, was 15 0, 5 colder than the previous day. The 
daily observations for fifty-seven years were gone over, each rise or fall of 10° or more 
in the mean temperatures being extracted. The number of such cases was 230, viz., 
129 rises and 101 falls (see Table XXVI.). The greatest number was 14 in 1843, and 
the least 1 in 1857, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1883, and 1891. In six of the years there was 
no fall of 10°, and in four of the years no rise of 10°. The greatest number of 10° rises 
was in 1843 and 1845, when nine cases were recorded, while the maximum number 
of 10° falls, viz., six, occurred in 1880. As the variability of temperature at stations 
on the Continent is as a rule calculated from observations taken at stated hours, and not 
from the mean of the maximum and minimum, Table XXVII. has been prepared. This 
Table gives the mean daily temperature variability for the hours of 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. 
which are then compared with the values deduced by taking the daily means of the 
maximum and minimum. Table XXVIII. shows the means deduced from the 8 a.m. 
observations taken by Hoy at Hawkhill House, and Kirkcaldy, while corresponding values 
for the period 1731 to 1736 are discussed in another section. It has been shown that the 
variability of temperature is subject to a diurnal range,* but unfortunately the Edinburgh 
records are sadly defective in data from which hourly values could be calculated for 
this or any other climatic element, with the single exception of sunshine. 

Rainfall. 

Table XXIX. shows the monthly and annual rainfall in Edinburgh for 120 years 
and six months. The values from 1770-76 were taken by Hoy at Hawkhill. Mr Hoy 
was also the observer during 1780 and the first half of 1781 when he removed to Gordon 
Castle. From 1785 to 1794 the observations were deduced from the Edinburgh 
Magazine record, the gauge being at Duddingston till January 1793, and thereafter 
" within one mile of the Castle." The values from 1795 to 1805 and from 1822 to 1850 
are those taken by Mr Adie, and given by Forbes in his Climate of Edinburgh. The 
late Mr Leslie commenced his long series of rainfall observations in 1850, the station 
being Charlotte Square, where the record is still continued. The returns from this 
station have been utilised for the period 1851-96. 

From 1805 to 1821 rainfall was not systematically observed at any one station 
during the whole period ; but values have been obtained from measurements made 
at the Royal Observatory, and at other places in Edinburgh. I am indebted 

* Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, vol. x. p. 150. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 73 

to Mr G. J. Symons, F.R.S., for copies of some of the earlier rainfall observations. 
When no observations were available for the City, the Barnton register was utilised. 
It is to be particularly observed that the process adopted of dovetailing one rainfall 
record into the other introduces a slight element of error, the precipitation, as a 
whole, increasing the nearer the station is to the high grounds surrounding Arthur's 
Seat, the Blackford Hill, and the Pentlands (see Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, vol. x. p. 16). # 
The records, however, approximate closely to the mean rainfall of Charlotte Square, as 
shown by the observations taken there during the last forty-five years. 

The mean annual rainfall is 25'86 inches, the wettest year being 1872, with a rain- 
fall of 38 '96 inches, and the driest, 1826 (the year of the short crop), with a downfall 
of only 15 27 inches. These amounts are respectively 51 per cent, above, and 41 per 
cent, below the mean. The wettest month is July ; the mean daily fall being - 091 
inch, and the driest month March, the average being '049 inch. 

The wettest month was September 1785 with a rainfall of 10'69 inches, and the 
driest March 1781 with a rainfall of 0'03 inch. The mean annual number of days with 
001 inch or more of rain, taking the observations of the last twenty years (1877-96), is 
190, distributed throughout the year as follows : — 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


16 


14 


15 


14 


14 


14 


18 


19 


16 


17 


17 


1G 



The greatest number of days with rain in the period 1856-96 was twenty-nine in 
July 1882, and the least, two for March 1856. 

Droughts and Heavy Rains. 

Since the year 1770, as already stated in last section, rainfall observations have been 
taken in Edinburgh or its immediate vicinity without a break, there being always one 
or more rain-gauges at work in different parts of the city. During thirty-four years, 
however, viz., from 1777-79, 1781-83, 1817-23, and from 1833-55, the rainfall 
measurements were only made weekly or monthly. Waterston for a year or two gave 
the amounts recorded during great falls, but they have not been utilised. The 
material available for examination in connection with this inquiry was thus restricted 
to the ninety-two years during each of which the gauge was examined daily, and the 
amount, if any, measured. The period under discussion ends with 1895. 

Before stating the more prominent results of an investigation into droughts it seems 
desirable to give an answer to the question, " What is a drought ? " Mr Symons, our 
greatest authority on rainfall matters, has solved the problem by dividing droughts 
into two classes, viz.. absolute and partial. He defines the former as periods of more 
than fourteen consecutive days absolutely without rain, and the latter as periods of more 
than twenty-eight consecutive days, the aggregate rainfall of which does not exceed one- 
hundredth of an inch per day. The examination has been confined in the present 

* The mean annual rainfall for the twenty-five years, 1866-90, at various places in Edinburgh was as follows : — 
Charlotte Square, 26-71 inches ; Cumin Place, 3013 inches ; Blacket Place, 29'86 inches ; and Napier Road, 28-97 inches. 



74 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



instance to the former class, viz., absolute droughts. The total number of these during 
the ninety-two years under review was 65. Their distribution throughout the year (as 
will be seen on looking at Table) is somewhat irregular, June having the greatest number 
with 10, closely followed by February and March with 9 each. The minimum is 
reached in Autumn, November having only 2, and October 3. The secondary minimum 
in April and May is of interest as is the sharp drop after July. We may state that the 
droughts have been entered to those months in which they commenced. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug.' 


Sept. 

5 
19 


Oct. 

.3 
17 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


Number of Droughts, 
Mean duration, days, 


3 
20 


9 
18 


9 
20 


5 

19 


4 
21 


10 
18 


7 
19 


3 

18 


2 
16 


5 
18 


65 
18'6 



As regards individual years, the greatest number of droughts observed was three in 
1786, 1825, 1829 and 1867, while none occurred from February 1787 to July 1795, a 
period of eight years and three months. A recent instance of a long spell without one was 
from August 1876 to May 1884, or seven years and nine months. The longest period 
without rain occurred in 1786, when none fell for thirty-three days, viz., between May 24 
and June 25. The water supply in Edinburgh fell short during this year, the community 
being put to much inconvenience thereby. Other long spells without rain were from 
March 13 to April 11, 1825, and from June 24 to July 22, 1869, periods of thirty and 
twenty-nine days respectively. Of the sixty-five droughts recorded, sixteen exceeded 
twenty days while four lasted a month. Nearly all the dry periods occurred in early spring. 
Only on one occasion during the three months October to December did a drought last for 
a longer time than seventeen days. As to the atmospheric causes concurring in such long 
dry periods, little can be said. We know that droughts are due to the unwonted 
prevalence and persistence of anti-cyclonic systems over Western Europe, but to say 
more than this would be to enter on the ground of pure speculation. 

With regard to heavy rains, all falls of an inch or more in the twenty-four hours 
were extracted for the ninety-two years under consideration (see Table XXX I.). An 
inch a day in this part of the country is looked on as a heavy rainfall, being equivalent 
to 101 tons or 22,623 gallons of water per acre. The total number of cases as will be 
seen from the following Table was 165, giving an average of very nearly two per 



Month. Jan. Feb. Mar. 

Falls of TOO inch or more, 7 6 5 



Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year. 
6 15 12 21 33 20 18 15 7 165 



annum. The heavy falls were distributed among the years in a most capricious manner. 
For instance, there were eight such rains in the year 1808, while 1809 and 1877 had 
seven each. On the other hand not a single case was observed from September 1884 to 
August 1889. The number of heavy falls during thunderstorms was one in May, two in 
June, ten in July, and four in August. It would thus appear that in Edinburgh, at any 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 75 

rate, thunderstorm rains usually fall short of an inch. August stands out prominently 
for its rainstorms with thirty-three falls exceeding an inch. The period known as the 
Lammas Floods shows to what an extent these heavy downpours have obtruded them- 
selves upon public notice, and that long before the days of rain-gauges. July comes 
second to August with twenty-one cases, while February and April have only six each 
and March but five. It is of interest to note that two of the six heavy rains in Febru- 
ary occurred within a week. The seasonal distribution was spring, twenty-seven cases ; 
summer, sixty-six ; autumn, fifty-three ; and winter, twenty. From an examination of the 
daily weather reports it was seen that the majority of notable downpours took place 
during the passage of small shallow depressions moving slowly eastwards. Sometimes 
the depression remained almost stationary for days. Enormous quantities of rain 
were then precipitated, 7 inches, for example, falling in five days during August 1877. 
In a few cases, principally in winter, the rain was general over the country, but as a 
rule the western parts of the country were not affected by the cyclonic storms which 
gave the heavy rains on the east coast. The general direction of the wind during the 
rainstorm was noted, the percentage frequency being as follows, viz. : — 



N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


s.w. 


w. 


N.W. 


5 


15 


32 


9 


3 


9 


21 


6 



The maximum number of cases took place with winds from the east, a well marked 
secondary maximum being observed with winds from the west. If we weigh the observa- 
tions so as to allow for the relative frequency of the winds during the ninety-two years, 
we obtain quite a different windrose, as it is called. The overwhelming preponderance 
of sea-winds during the occurrence of heavy rains now becomes apparent, while the 
secondary maximum with west winds — a maximum due to the frequency with which 
these winds blow — vanishes. Thus, approximately, in 1,000 days of wind there will be ten 
rains exceeding an inch with a north-east wind, and nine with an east wind, while only 
two cases may be expected with a south wind. The values for the other winds are N. 6, 
S.E. 6, S.W. 3, W. 3, N.W. 4. The comparative infrequency of heavy rains with south- 
east winds is doubtless due to the fact that they have been deprived of much of their 
moisture by the Lammermoors over which they had previously passed. In Aberdeen- 
shire, as shown by Dr Buchan, the south winds blow against the cold slopes of the 
Grampians with the result that there they are by far the wettest. Mr Symons has 
stated that there is no part of the British Isles, however dry, where 4 inches of rain may 
not fall in twenty-four hours. The Edinburgh record bears this statement out, for 
although there are only three rains exceeding 3 inches in the ninety-two years, yet one 
was above 4 inches, no less a quantity than 4*20 inches having fallen on December 9th, 
1787. On that occasion there was a great flood in Leith Harbour, greater than ever 
remembered. The flood was as high at low water as at ordinary full tide. Much 
damage was done to the shipping, while several casualties involving loss of life were 
reported from Leith and other parts of the country. It cannot be too strongly urged 



76 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



on observers to have rain-gauges capable of holding at least 4 inches of rain, otherwise 
important facts of interest to meteorologists and engineers alike will be irretrievably 
lost. The following are the maximum daily rainfalls noted in each month during the 
period under review. 



Month. 


Jan. Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


Rainfall, 
Date, . 


1-59 
10/1809 


1-80 

3/1809 


1-55 

16/1891 


171 

5/1808 


1-50 

14/1795 


1-54 

26/1874 


2-95 
13/1879 


2-56 

18/1797 


3-80 

24/1785 


2-50 
5/1775 


2-89 
18/1795 


4-20 
9/1787 



Direction of the Wind. 

Table XXXII. shows the number of days on which each wind prevailed, from June 
1731 to May 1736, and from 1764 to 1896 ; for the months and the year. From 1764 
to 1769 the only values available are the summaries of east and west wind prepared by 
Hoy. The former includes observations from N., N.E., E., and S.E., the latter those 
from S., S.W., W., and N.W. As 50 per cent, of the winds in Edinburgh are from the 
8.W. and W., and 25 per cent, from N.E. and E., it follows that the above method of 
reducing the wind observations to the two principal directions gives a close approxima- 
tion to the truth. The registers employed are those utilised in the preparation of 
daily values.* From 1781 till the commencement of Waterston's observations 
in their complete form in 1805, the direction of the wind was not systematically 
observed. It was therefore necessary to interpolate from the Glendoich and Dunfermline 
registers, which in some measure help to supply the deficiency. Table XXXIII. shows 
the mean percentage frequency of the winds for the months and the year for the 133 
years 1764-1896. The mean values for 100 years are given in Part I., and are herewith 
compared with the longer record. 









Percentage Fi 


'equency 












N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


Calm or W. 


133 Years, . 
100J „ 


4 
4 


7 
7 


18 
16 


5 

7 


5 

6 


15 
17 


35 
32 


7 
7 


4 
4 



The means for the two periods are thus essentially the same. The observations were 
made twice a day during nearly the whole of the 133 years. 

In their reduction the values were resolved to eight points by counting N.N.E., for 
example, along with N.; S.S.E. along with S.; E.N.E. along with E., and so on. This 
was done in order to make the observations taken prior to 1856 comparable with those 
irivn in the Scottish Meteorological Society's Journal during the last forty years. 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. t vol. xxxviii. p. 691. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



77 



A disturbing element is introduced owing to some observers entering calms and 
variable winds, whilst others always give a direction, which in still weather was probably 
the point from which the wind last blew. Tables XXXIV. and XXXV. were accordingly 
prepared so as to make the results as uniform as possible. In these tables the percentage 
frequency was resolved to two directions as described above, calms being eliminated. 

Looking at Table XXXV., it will be seen that the years with the greatest percentage 
of west wind were 1854, 1887 and 1798, with values of 791 per cent., 77*8 per cent., 
and 76 "2 per cent, respectively. 

The effect of wind upon the temperature of the air is very apparent. Thus, in 
1854 the mean temperature was above the average in every month, and in 1798 in ten 
months. In 1887 the excess was not so noticeable. The years with the greatest per- 
centage of east wind were 1768, 47*5 per cent.; 1829, 47*3 per cent.; and 1816, 46*0 
per cent.; the prevalence of polar winds, as was to be expected, resulting in a marked 
fall of temperature during these years. 

Mean Relative Humidity. 

The mean relative humidity has been determined from the bi-daily observations 
made with the dry and wet bulb thermometer, the hours of observation being 9 a.m. 
and 9 p.m. The period under discussion is the thirty-five years 1862-1896. The mean 

Mean Relative Humidity, 1862-1896. 



Month. 


Mean. 


Highest. 


Year. 


Lowest. 


Year. 


Range. 




% 


% 




% 




% 


January, 


86-8 


96 


1879 


81 


j 1895 

\ 1896 

1895 

1868 
J 1868 
\ 1896 


15 


February, 

March, 

April, 








86-4 
84-1 
80-5 


97 
96 
93 


1879 
/ 1871 
\ 1879 

1872 


78 
77 
73 


19 
19 
20 


May, . 








78-1 


92 


1872 


72 


1881 


20 


Juue, . 








77-4 


94 


1875 


67 


1884 


27 


July, . 








79-1 


85 


1870 


74 


/ 1869 
| 1878 


11 


August, 








81-5 


90 


1877 


74 


1869 


16 


September, 








82-6 


92 


1875 


74 


1869 


18 


October, 
November, 








85-8 
86-8 


92 
94 


1882 

/ 1876 

\ 1881 

1876 

f February 

\ 1879 


80 
78 


f 1867 

I 1892 

1869 


12 
16 


December, 
Year, . 








86-4 
83-0 


92 

97 


83 
67 


1867 
J June 

\ 1884 


9 
30 



annual humidity is 83 (Saturation = 100). The air is driest in June, which has a mean 
humidity of 7 7 '4 per cent., and dampest in January and November with 86'8 per cent., 
the range being thus 9*4 per cent. As regards individual months, the dampest was 



■ 



78 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

February 1879 with a mean humidity of 97, the driest being June 1884 with a humidity 
of 67. In June 1878 the mean humidity was 69, but in no other month did the mean 
fall below 70. The month showing the greatest difference between the means is June, 
the highest being 94 per cent, in 1875, and the lowest 67 per cent, in 1884, the 
difference being 27, and the month of least difference, December, the highest being 92 
per cent, in 1876 and the lowest 83 per cent, in 1867, the difference being only 9 per 
cent. A completely saturated atmosphere is of rare occurrence, not more than two or 
three cases occurring on an avernge in the year, while in some years no such high value 
was attained. During the past six years a Eichard hair hygrometer has furnished a 
continuous record, the lowest value thus registered being 18 per cent, on February 8th, 
1895. An examination of the hygrograms shows that a humidity below 35 per cent, 
is of very rare occurrence, even with the shade temperature over 80°. 

Thunderstorms. (See Table XXXVI.) 

During the period 1770-1896, 811 thunderstorms were observed in Edinburgh, 
or at the rate of six per annum. Of these, 34 took place in winter, 145 in spring, 549 
in summer, and 83 in autumn. The months of greatest frequency were June with 169, 
July with 229, and August with 151 ; on the other hand, November and December had 
only 7 each, while February had 10, and March 11. During the six months, April to Sep- 
tember, 741 thunderstorms were observed, being 91 per cent, of the whole. Thunderstorms 
begin to diminish after the Lammas floods, few being observed after the 1 3th of August. 
The absolute minimum covered the nineteen days ending with December 5th without a 
single thunderstorm during the 127 years. Lightning without thunder is comparatively 
rare ; the average annual number of days being only one. Sheet lightning rises to a 
maximum in September, there being 18 cases in that month during the period under 
review. A secondary maximum occurs in December. The winter thunderstorms and 
other electrical phenomena are no doubt associated with deep cyclonic systems ; — the 
explanation being that in the winter months, ' warm, moist, ascending, and cold, dry 
descending currents are most frequently brought into close proximity during the great 
Atlantic storms of the season.' * The diurnal distribution of thunderstorms is well marked 
(see Table XXXVII.), 64 per cent, being observed during the six hours ending with 
5 p.m.; the maximum taking place in the two hours ending 3 p.m.; and the minimum in 
the early morning hours. Lightning without thunder, on the other hand, is essentially a 
nocturnal phenomenon, nearly all the cases taking place in the five hours ending with 
11 p.m. Thunderstorms appear to diminish at 1 p.m.; this being doubtless due to the 
loose way in which certain observers use the word noon. Entries of thunderstorms at noon 
have all been put down as having occurred in the hour ending noon, whereas half of such 
entries should have been entered to one o'clock. It was not until the investigation 
was completed that this anomalous result presented itself. 

The mean annual number of thunderstorms, as already remarked, is six, the year with 

* Ency. Brit., Art. ' Meteorology,' Buehan. 

A. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 79 

the greatest number being 1872, when twenty were experienced. During that year 
pressure was lower and the rainfall greater than in any other year, with perhaps the 
exception of 1789. Only one thunderstorm was recorded in the years 1773, 1780, 1784, 
1796, and 1801. During comparatively recent years, 1844, 1851, 1859, and 1865 
had two, but there is no record of a year without any. The months with the 
greatest number of thunderstorms were August 1831, and July 1893, which had 
eight each. 

Thunderstorms appear to be on the increase, the mean number from 1770 to 1809 
being 4*5 per annum. In the forty years ending with 1849, the number rose to 6*3 per 
annum, while during the period 1850 to 1889 a further increase to 9 per annum was 
recorded. During the six years ending with 1895, the mean annual number was ten. 
The increase can hardly be accounted for by the assumption that the early observers 
systematically neglected to record this meteor. Only for about twenty years are we 
dependent on one weather register for our information. 

The annual totals have been smoothed by Bloxam's method, taking continuous sets 
of five. The results were projected on a chart which was originally prepared in connec- 
tion with a paper on " Sunspots and Auroras." On comparing the two curves, little of a 
definite nature can be made out, it being very doubtful whether thunderstorms are 
phenomena of a fortuitous nature or are in some way connected with sunspots. There 
is some reason to think thunderstorms are subject to a long cycle, a wave crest of which 
we have lately passed. The wave shows distinct minima in 1802 and 1864, and maxima 
in 1829 and 1882. 

With the view of ascertaining the damage done by thunderstorms to life and 
property, every instance of a severe storm was examined, the newspaper reports for the 
days characterised by disturbances of an exceptional nature being extracted. The result 
of the inquiry is, that damage to property took place in thirteen thunderstorms, twenty- 
six people in all being injured, and only two killed. Of the very severe thunderstorms, 
seven occurred in June, three in July, two in August, and one in January, the latter 
occurring on January 26, 1792, when George Watson's Hospital was struck. 

The worst storm on record appears to have been that of July 22, 1873, when an 
observer of the Scottish Meteorological Society counted in one hour 680 flashes of light- 
ning with their accompanying thunder-claps. This gives a rate of fully eleven per minute. 

During recent years, the severest storm experienced was that of August 12, 1884, 
when the Earl of Lauderdale was killed. For notices of these storms see Appendix. 

Snow. 

Table XXXVIII. gives the number of days on which snow fell for each month, 
and the year from 1770 to 1896. Values are also given showing the results grouped 
by winters, with date of first and last snowfall. The total number of days on which 
snow fell was 2664, giving an average of 21 per annum. The snowiest year was 1782 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). P 



80 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



(the black auchty-twa), with forty-seven entries, closely followed by 1838 with forty-six 
days, and 1814 with forty-five days. On the other hand, snow fell on only three days 
in 1856, the number being below ten in eleven years. Grouping the results by winters, 
a slightly different arrangement obtains, the snowiest being the winter of 1836-37 with 
forty-nine days, while the winter of 1850-51 had but two snowfalls. With the exception 
of a little sleet on September 23, 1893, no snow fell in the months of June, July, 
August and September. 

The greatest number of cases in each month is as follows : — 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Number, 


15 


14 
1772 
1795 


16 


10 


5 


4 


7 


13 


Year, .... 


1823 


1855 


1812 


1837 


1802 


1895 


1807 


1874 



The snowiest month was thus March, 1812, with sixteen days on which snow 

fell. 

The earliest date of first snow was October 1 (see Table XXXIX.) in the year 

1817, and the latest January 31, in the winters of 1850-51 and 1857-58. The latest 

date of last snowfall was May 30, 1808, and the earliest January 17, 1853. The mean 

date of first snowfall is November 22, and the mean date of latest fall, April 10. 

Hail. 

Table XL. shows the number of times hail fell during the 127 years 1770-1896, 
for each month and the year. The mean annual number of days with hail is ten, the 
maximum being thirty-two days in 1824, and the minimum one day in 1848. The 
greatest number of days in each month is shown in the following Table : — 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year, . 






... 




1805 






1809 
1820 
1S89 






1795 
1801 
1821 






1808 


1843 


1824 


1803 


1894 


1895 


1891 


1891 


1889 


1819 


1824 


1784 


Number, 


7 


5 


9 


9 


7 


4 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


7 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 81 

Hail does not seem to be associated with thunderstorms, few cases being observed in 
summer. 

Gales. 

Table XLL, showing the number of gales, must be looked on as a tolerable 
approximation to the truth. As the entries depend on personal and not instrumental 
observation, the results are not strictly comparable. The greatest number of gales was 
seventy-two in 1818, and the least number, five in 1856. The mean annual number is 
twenty-nine. 

Fog or Mist. 

This is also an unsatisfactory Table (No. XLIL), although every effort has been 
made to eliminate entries of " haze " by comparing the Edinburgh records with those 
from contiguous stations. The foggiest year was 1808, with thirty-eight entries, while 
in 1784 no fog was reported. 

Auroras. 

Table XLIII. shows the number of auroras observed in Edinburgh from 1773 to 
1781, and from 1800 to 1896. 

I have to thank Professor Copeland for permission to examine the records of the 
Edinburgh Royal Observatory from 1862 to 1894. Many notices have also been 
obtained from the published records of that institution. 

The year of maximum auroral frequency was 1871, with twenty-one auroras, closely 
followed by 1870 with nineteen notices. The maximum observed in one month was six 
in March 1871. 

Lightning. 

Table XLIV. shows the number of cases of lightning without thunder recorded 
from 1807 to 1835, and from 1868 to 1896. During the other years this phenomenon 
was not systematically recorded, as there are only about a dozen entries. The greatest 
number of cases was six in 1818 and 1884. The maximum in any month was three in 
February 1818, and again in September 1884. Sheet lightning is a comparatively 
common occurrence in winter, being frequently seen during severe gales, especially when 
accompanied by a low barometer. 



Hourly Sunshine Values. 

Table XLV. shows the distribution of bright sunshine throughout the day for the 
months, seasons, and the year. The results are derived from the records of a Campbell- 



82 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

Stokes sunshine recorder, which occupies a good exposure at my meteorological station 
in the south side of Edinburgh. The hourly values have been tabulated for the six 
years ending with July 1896, the means given in the Table being for this period. 
Looking at the seasonal values, it will be seen that about four per cent, more sunshine 
is recorded after noon than before it, except in winter, when the afternoon hours are 
sunnier than the forenoon by nearly ten per cent. There is little doubt that the 
relatively greater clearness of the afternoons in winter is due to the prevalence of fog 
and haze during the morning hours. It will be observed that there is a well-marked 
seasonal swing in the hour characterised by the greatest amount of sunshine, which 
approximates closely to the time of highest mean temperature. Attention may also be 
drawn to the slow rate at which the sky clears in summer, compared with other seasons 
of the year. Thus in April, the mean amount of sunshine for the hours ending 7 a.m. 
and 11 a.m. is 37 hours and 13'1 hours, respectively, while in June the corresponding 
values are 9 '2 hours and 10*4 hours. This is probably due to the condensation 
accompanying the strong ascending currents so prevalent during summer. 

In Table XL VI. the number of days with different percentages of sunshine is 
shown for the six years ending with July 1896. It will be seen from the maximum 
values that on practically cloudless days in summer at least ten per cent, of the possible 
sunshine is lost, owing to haze at the horizon ; while in winter the amount so lost is 
about 25 per cent. Days with from 1 to 10 per cent, of the possible sunshine are the 
most frequent at all seasons of the year, sunless days excepted. The latter are at a 
maximum in winter when no sunshine is recorded in 42 per cent, of the cases. 



Rainband Observations. 

Observations of the thickness of the rainband in the spectrum of sunlight have been 
made three or four times a day since August 1887. The hours of observation were 
9 a.m., noon, 3 p.m., and 6 p.m., the latter observation being dispensed with in the 
winter owing to lack of sunlight. The instrument employed was a direct vision 
spectroscope, which was pointed to the N. W. at an angle of from 40° to 50°. The scale 
was an arbitrary one, ranging from to 6. The rainband was compared with the lines 
B, b, and F, to which values corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 were given. The following 
are the means for the ten years ending July 1896 : — 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Ang. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1-14 


0-92 


114 


0-98 


1-15 


118 


1-28 


1-27 


110 


114 


1-12 


1-12 


1-13 



There is little doubt that the rainband spectroscope is a valuable auxiliary to the 
ordinary instruments for forecasting weather. The following Table gives certain 
particulars for the days on which rainband observations were made during the three 
years 1888-90:— 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



83 



Rainband. 


Days. 


Rain fell Days. 


Per cent, of Cases 

followed by Rain within 

24 Hours. 


o-o 


44 


9 


20 


0-5 


146 


44 


27 


10 


347 


146 


42 


1-5 


256 


143 


56 


2-0 


123 


93 


76 


2 "5 and upwards 


66 


60 


91 



It will be seen that there is a regular rise in the frequency of rainfall with an 
increasing rainband. The principal drawback to the forecasting value of these 
spectroscopic indications lies in the fact that nearly two-thirds of the readings are 
normal. It will be seen on reference to the Table that the chances of rain or no rain, 
with values corresponding to l'O and 1'5 on our mental scale, are pretty evenly 
balanced. Under such circumstances the observer must turn to his other instruments 
for guidance in framing his prognostications. Many cases occurred during the ten years 
under review when a thick rainband was observed with a clear sky, and a thin one with 
a cloudy sky, the accompanying weather being wet in the one case and dry in the 
other. One point specially noticed is that days on which hail fell are characterised by 
low rainband values, while the same may be said regarding days with snow. An 
elaborate investigation into the whole subject was commenced some time ago, but it has 
not been found possible to include the results in this paper. 



Solar and Terrestrial Radiation. 

The following tabular statement shows the more prominent results deduced from the 
reduction of the daily observations taken in the south side of Edinburgh during the 
nine years 1888-96. The solar radiation thermometer is at a height of four feet above 
the ground, and the terrestrial radiation at a height of a quarter of an inch over short 
grass. 

It will be seen that solar radiation is at a maximum in May, and at a minimum in 
December ; while terrestrial radiation is at a maximum in November, and at a minimum 
in June. The greatest excess of sun over shade temperature occurred on March 27, 1892, 
viz., 76° '8 ; while on May 22, 1890, the grass minimum fell 12°'6 below the minimum 
in shade. A few cases have been observed when slight inversions of the normal 
condition of affairs took place, the air at the time being nearly saturated and the sky 
densely overcast. The maximum excesses of sun over shade were observed in spring or 
early summer on days when showers and bright sunshine alternated. 



S4 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 











Black Bulb in Vacuo. 




Bright Bulb on Grass. 








Excess over Shade 






Minus difference 








M 


IX. 






from Shade. 


Maximum. 


Mean. 


Mean. 


Greatest. 


Minimum. 


Mean. 


Mean. 


Greatest. 


January, 


84-5 


56-1 




13-8 


45-2 


7-5 


29-4 


4-3 


10-7 


February, 






103-3 


70-3 


26-7 


61-4 


7-0 


29-3 


3-8 


10-6 


March, . 






115-0 


84-6 


38-5 


76-8 


17-3 


30-6 


4-1 


12-2 


April, . 






129-0 


96-6 


44-3 


65-7 


20-0 


33-9 


4-2 


12-0 


May, . 






133-0 


107-5 


48-5 


67-7 


27-2 


39-5 


3-8 


12-6 


June, . 






139-3 


111-1 


47-7 


71-0 


31-3 


45-2 


2-8 


11-1 


July, . 






137-9 


111-2 


46-6 


69-5 


34-3 


47-8 


2-6 


8-5 


August, 






134-0 


111-0 


46-6 


67-2 


33-3 


47-7 


3-3 


8-9 


September, . 






126-5 


99-5 


39-1 


60-4 


28-1 


43-4 


4-2 


8-8 


October, 






112-5 


82-3 


30-1 


52-9 


21-2 


36-0 


4-6 


10-2 


November, . 






103-5 


64-9 


17-4 


48-9 


19-3 


33-4 


4-8 


9-7 


December, 






82-0 


51-8 


8-6 


32-0 


8-7 


30-2 


4-5 


12-4 


Year, . 






139-3 


87-2 


34-2 


76-8 


7-0 


37-2 


3-9 


12-6 



Reduction of the Observations taken in Edinburgh, from June 1731 to May 1736. — 
(The observations are given in extenso in Medical Essays and Observations, vol. i. to 
v. Edin., 1748, 3rd ed.) 

This register seems to have been kept with much care and regularity. The observa- 
tions were made twice a day, the first nearly always at 9 a.m., the second between 2 
and 7 p.m., but as a rule either at 4 or 5 p.m. The observations made include readings 
of pressure, humidity, temperature, wind direction and force, and a condensed state of 
the weather at the time. The daily rainfall was also measured from June 1731 to May 
1735. The observations, it may be remarked, are adapted to the Julian or old style. 



Pressure. 

The barometer is described as a simple portable one, with a tube about a fourth of 
an inch in diameter. The scale was probably of wood. The instrument was kept in a 
chamber at a height of 270 feet above the level of the sea, the height being determined 
experimentally by carrying the instrument to the sea-shore during an anti-cyclonic 
period. The values given in the Table below have been corrected and reduced to 32° 
and sea-level. There was no attached thermometer, but a mean value of 60° was 
assumed, and the corrections for reducing observations made with instruments having 
wooden scales applied.* The values may be looked upon as tolerable approximations. 
The mean annual pressure was 29877 inches. The highest mean pressure was 30 # 204 
inches in May 1733, and the lowest 29'530 inches in January 1736, showing a range of 
674 inches between the mean monthly pressures. 

* Si nil in. nd's Meteorological Tables, p. 23. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



85 



Jan. Feb. 

Ins. Ius. 

29-813 29-743 



Mar. 
Ins. 

29-778 



Apr. 
Ins. 
29-944 



Mean Pressure, 5 Years. 



May 
Ins. 
29-967 



June. 

Ins. 

30-021 



July. 

Ins. 

29-923 



Aug. 

Ins. 

29-913 



Sept. 
Ins. 

29-840 



Oct. 
Ins. 

29-876 



Nov. 

Ins. 

29-961 



Dec. Year. 

Ins. Ins. 

29-749 29-877 



Temperature. 

The thermometer was placed along with the hygrometer in a perforated case freely 
exposed to the air on the outside of a window facing north. As the observer says, 
" neither the sun, or rain, nor the fire and company in the chamber can have any bad 
effect on the instruments within it, and the air has open free access to them." * The 
instrument was filled with alcohol, and graduated into inches and tenths. " The freez- 
ing point is at 8 inches and 2 tenths, and the heat of a man in health raises the spirit 
to 22 inches 2 tenths." The conversion of the values to Fahrenheit's scale is thus 
rendered an easy matter, as a change of 14'0 inches in the reading of the thermometer 
is equivalent to an alteration in temperature of 66°'6, the normal blood heat being 98°'6. 
The highest temperature recorded during the five years under consideration was 78° at 
6 p.m. on June 30, 1734 (New Style), and the lowest, 19°"5 at 9 a.m. on January 8, 1732 
(New Style), thus giving an extreme range of 58° "5 at the hours of observation. The 
following are the highest and lowest temperatures recorded during the five years. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




° 


o 


= 


• 


o 


» 


o 


o 


o 


o 


° 


• 


Highest, 


51-5 


50-5 


64 5 


64-5 


70-5 


78-0 


73-5 


76-0 


64-5 


62-5 


49-5 


54-0 


Lowest, 


22-0 


22-5 


28-0 


33-5 


36-5 


41-5 


49-5 


48-5 


40-0 ' 


31-5 


27-0 


195 


Range, 


29-5 


28-0 


36 5 


31-0 


34-0 


36-5 


24-0 


27-5 


24-5 


31-0 


22-5 


34-5 



In the reduction of the observations, for the purpose of obtaining mean monthly 
values, the morning reading was alone employed. The 9 a.m. values were accordingly 
extracted and averaged, Table XL VII. containing the corrected means for the five 
years. 

Table XLVIII. contains the observations brought to the mean of the maximum 
and minimum, the corrections being found from a comparison of the 9 a.m. readings 
with the mean temperature deduced from the average of the maxima and minima, for 
the years 1888-1896. The following are the monthly corrections thus obtained after 
smoothing the curve : — 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year. 

+ 0°-6 +0°-8 +0°-7 -0°-0 -0°-4 -0°*2 -0°-0 + 0°-2 +0 o, 3 + 0°-3 + 0°-4 +0°-3 + 0°-2 



* Medical Essays, vol. i. p. 8. 



86 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

The mean annual temperature for the period was 47°'0, being highest, 59°'9, in July 
and lowest, 36°'8, in January, a difference of 23°"1 between the mean monthly averages. 
The warmest month during the five years was July 1734, 61 0, 8, and the coldest, February 
1736, 33°'6, showing a range in the mean monthly temperatures of 28°'2. 

Rainfall. (Table XL IX.) 

The rainfall was measured from June 1731 to May 1735. The gauge was 28 
inches in diameter, and was placed on the top of a garden wall. Precautions were 
taken to prevent loss through evaporation, and the measurements were made, as a 
rule, every day. 

The wettest month was March 1735, with 5'38 inches, and the driest, May 1733, 
with only 08 inch of rain. 

Variability of Temperature. ( Table L. ) 

The mean daily temperature variability has been determined from the observations 
made at 9 a.m. The average for the period was 3°'4, being greatest, 5°'3, in October 
1731, and least, 2°"3, in September 1733. The mean varied from 4°'0 in December to 
3°1 in May. 

Humidity. 

The hygrometer, or rather hygroscope, consisted of a piece of whip-cord with a 
plummet appended. The cord was alternately baked in an oven and saturated with 
moisture, before the scale was graduated. The operation was repeated four times until 
the difference in the length of the cord when fully dried to its length when saturated 
with moisture was constant at 4"5 inches. The point of greatest dryness on the scale 
was fixed at five-tenths of an inch, the scale extending to five inches, which was the 
point indicated in a completely saturated atmosphere. The instrument was inclosed in 
the perforated cnse containing the thermometer. Although this method of observation 
is crude, it may be of interest to give the results, as affording a tolerable approximation 
to the seasonal distribution of this element of climate. The mean annual humidity on 
this scale was 2*11, being at a maximum in December, viz., 2 '47 inches, and at a 
minimum in May, viz., 170 inches. The seasonal variation in humidity was, therefore, 
virtually the same as during the last thirty-five years. 

Wind Direction. 

The number of days the wind blew from the eight principal points of the compass is 
shown in Table XXXII. which summarise the results of all the wind observations taken 
in Edinburgh. During the five years under review, the mean percentage frequency was 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



87 



N. 5, N.E. 8, E. 12, S.E. 9, S. 9, S.W. 20, W. 28, N.W. 9. The wind vane on the steeple 
of St Giles' Cathedral was the instrument employed in the determination of the 
direction. 

Gales. 

In addition to the direction the force of the wind is also given. The scale ranged 
from to 4. The days on which the force was entered as 3 or above were picked out 
for the five years. The total was 154, equal to an annual average of 31. Their distri- 
bution throughout the year is shown in the followiug table : — 



Jan. 
13 



Feb. 
33 



Mar. 
19 



Apr. 
9 



May. 
12 



June. 
1 



July. 
6 



Aug. 
i 



Sept. 

14 



Oct. 
12 



Nov. 

15 



Dec. 
16 



Fog or Mist. 

The total number of fcgs recorded was 57, an average of 11 per annum. They were 
distributed throughout the year as follows : — 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec 


6 





7 


11 





3 


1 


2 


5 


3 


11 


8 



The cold weather fogs of winter and those associated with the easterly winds of 
spring manifest themselves very clearly during the period under review. 



Therm.al Windrose. 

The mean temperature of the winds is given in Table LIL, the observations utilised 
being those taken at 9 a.m. The 8 a.m. observations taken by Hoy at Hawkhill for 
seven years, 1770-1776, have also been analysed with reference to the temperature of 
the various winds (see Table LIIL). The values given in the Tables refer to the months 
and the seasons, and it may be pointed out that the latter means are not the averages of 
the months comprised in the season but have been derived by taking the gross totals 
and dividing by the number of days, which gives the true average temperature of the wind. 
A comparison of the seasonal values derived from these old registers with similar means 
calculated from the 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. observations from July 1887 to June 1894 # gives 
the following results : — 





Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Winter. 


Coldest. 


Warmest. 


Coldest. 


Warmest. 


Coldest. 


Warmest. 


Coldest. 


Warmest. 


1731-36 
1770-76 
1887-94 


N.W. 43-0 

N.W. 38-9 

N. 40-9 


S.W. 48-8 
S.W. 46-4 
S.W. 47-2 


N.E. 55-0 
N. 557 
E. 527 


S. 61-0 

S. 59-4 

S.W. 58-6 


N.W. 40-3 

N.W. 42-6 

N. 42-3 


E. 46-8 
N.E. 49-8 
S.W. 50'5 


N. 32-0 
N. 33 4 
N. 337 


S.W. 40-8 
S.W. 39-2 
S.W. 43-3 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



* Trans., vol. xxxviii. p. 750. 



88 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Hence the relative temperature of the winds has not appreciably changed during the 
last 160 years. The results are very accordant except the direction of the warmest 
point in Autumn, which was respectively E. from 1731-36, and N.E. from 1770-1776, 
while it was S.W. from 1887 to 1894. I incline to the belief that the unusual warmth 
of the sea winds during the earlier years is to be accounted for by the undue prevalence 
of anti-cyclonic weather in these months. It is evident that when we are calculating 
the mean temperature of a wind from a few values that the result will largely depend on 
the type of weather which predominated during the time the wind in question prevailed. 

The number of observations tabulated in - the calculation of the windrose from 1731 
to 1736 was 1,826, from 1770 to 1776, 2,557 were employed, while during the seven 
years ending June 1894, 5,114 were utilised, so that it is evident that the latter average 
gives the closest approximation. 

An inspection of the thermal windroses for the three periods will reveal many points 
of similarity (see Plate IV.). 

Hygrometric Windrose [Table LIV.). 

The mean relative humidity of the winds has been already determined from the 
9 a.m. and 9 p.m. readings of the dry and wet bulb thermometer for the seven years 
ending June 1894. Values have been calculated for the five years 1731-36 with 
a view of ascertaining whether any change has taken place in the humidity recorded 
with the various winds. We cannot compare the actual means, but the following Table 
showing the dampest and driest directions for the four seasons may be of interest : — 





Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Winter. 


Dampest. 


Driest. 


Dampest. 


Driest. 


Dampest. 


Driest. 


Dampest. 


Driest. 


1731-36 
1887-94 


E. 
E. 


N.W. 
( N. W. 

In. 


N.E. 
fN.E. 
IE. 


S. 
N.W. 


S.E. 

fN.E. 

E- 
U-E. 


N.W. 

rs.w. 
In.w. 


N.E. 

r 

(.S.E, 


N.W. 
S.W. 



There has, therefore, been no change of any importance in the wind with which our 
greatest and least humidities are experienced. Taking the mean annual values, the 
dampest wind from 1731-36 was N.E., and the driest N.W., while during recent years 
the points were E. and N.W. respectively. Sea winds were thus damp, and land winds 
dry, a result entirely in accordance with recent observations (see Plate IV). 



General Results. 

An examination of the facts aj>parent from a comparison of the reduced values for 
the five years 1731-1736 with observations taken during recent years, shows conclusively 
that no appreciable alteration has taken place in the climate of the east of Scotland 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxviii. p. 751. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 89 

during at least the last 165 years. The seasonal distribution of pressure, temperature, 
wind and rain is the same now as at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and so far as 
we can ascertain there has been no change in the annual means of the more prominent 
elements of climate, while the prevalent weather of special months does not appear to 
have altered in the slightest. These conclusions are entirely in accordance with what 
we should expect. As is well known, the climate of a place is largely determined by the 
prevailing winds ; these in turn are simply the result of the distribution of the weight of 
the earth's atmosphere over the globe. The latter is determined by the position and 
extent of the ]and and water surfaces, and as these have not materially altered within 
the last 200 years it may fairly be assumed that the circulation of the air and the 
climatic results springing therefrom are practically unchanged. Local influences, more 
especially drainage and deforesting, produce slight changes in climate ; but so far as 
Edinburgh is concerned no alteration appears to have taken place during the last 
century and a half. 

Does the Weather Move in Cycles ? 

Tables of continuous five year averages of the more important climatic elements have 
been calculated with the primary object of giving an answer to this question. The 
method adopted was as follows : — The mean temperature of the five Januarys 1764-68 
was calculated and found to be 1°'7 below the normal temperature of the 
month ; the difference, 1°"7 was accordingly entered in Table LV. opposite the 
year 1766 which is the middle year of the series. Then the mean of the five 
Januarys 1765-69 was similarly ascertained, and entered in the Table opposite 1767, and 
so on for each of the 129 groups of five year periods embraced in the 133 Januarys, 
means above the normal being entered in heavy and those below it in italic type. The 
eleven months and the year were similarly dealt with. The data discussed comprise 
temperature, pressure, wind direction, and rain (see Tables LV. to LVIIL). With 
regard to rainfall, the inquiry has been extended back to the year 1766 by differentiating 
during the missing years from registers kept at Peebles, Dumfries, and Branxholm. For 
copies of these registers I am indebted to Mr Gr. J. Symons, F.R.S. The hiatus thus 
completed comprises the years 1766-1769, 1777-79, July 1781 to Dec. 1784. The 
Peebles register was employed during most of this period, the rainfall of that spot 
approximating closely to the mean rainfall of Edinburgh during years which are common 
to both series. The mean monthly rainfalls for the period 1766-1896 were then 
ascertained, and the percentage of excess or defect calculated for each of the five year 
groups. Similar values were computed showing the percentage excess or defect of east 
and west winds. The winds were resolved to these two points by including S., S. W., W., 
and N. W. winds under west, and N., N.E., E., and S.E. winds under east. During some 
years calms were entered ; these were, however, eliminated from the discussion. It is not 
necessary to give the table showing the percentage excess or defect of east winds as they 
are simply the converse of west winds. 



90 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

The annual values of the non-instrumental phenomena during the last 127 years, 
1770-1896, have also been discussed (Table LIX.). The results are graphically shown 
along with other data on Plate III., the monthly departures of pressure, temperature, 
wind, and rain being shown on Plates I. to III. 

It may be here mentioned that we do not at present intend to discuss at any length 
or with any degree of elaboration the peculiarities, resemblances, and contrasts shown 
by an inspection of the diagrams, but merely to point out some of the more prominent 
features. 

Dr Buchan, in the results of an investigation into the mean temperature of the N.E. 
of Scotland,* says :- — "The tendency of types of high and low temperature to be pro- 
longed through terms of years, very unequal as regards duration, is shown, both as 
regards the months and the year, in a manner so decidedly as to suggest no appearance 
of a temperature cycle." I have only to add in this connection that the above remark 
is equally applicable to pressure, wind, and rain, as well as to the non-instrumental 
phenomena. The most casual glance at the diagrams will establish the truth of this 
assertion. There is, apparently, no periodicity in the recurrence of weather. If such a 
period could be found weather-forecasting would be a very simple matter, as it would 
only be necessary to have observations over one of the periods. Our weather, as is well 
known, is the result of the distribution of cyclonic and anti-cyclonic areas over western 
Europe and the adjacent parts of the Atlantic. The average path pursued by, and rate 
of motion of these areas, are known, but they are subject to many irregularities. In 
winter, for example, the normal condition of pressure in our immediate vicinity is low 
to the N. and W. , and high to the S. and E. The result of this pressure distribution is a 
predominance of warm equatorial winds, the atmospheric flow being from the Atlantic 
Ocean towards the interior of the Eurasian continent. In some winters, however, as in 
that of 1895, the normal distribution of pressure is reversed, with the result that the 
whole wind system of Europe passes from N.E. to S.W., the prevailing winds being there- 
fore from the N. and E. Little or nothing is at present known regarding the causes 
concurring in the production of these weather anomalies. All that can be done in the 
meantime is to steadily accumulate and reduce observations. 

The following is a condensed abstract of the prominent weather conditions prevailing 
during the past 133 years, the time under discussion being divided when possible into 
periods of twenty years. 

1766 to 1780. — This period was characterised by low pressure, there being also a 
great depression of temperature till 1776. The cold was pretty evenly partitioned 
throughout the months and the seasons, a noticeable feature, however, being the mild- 
ness of the Decembers. From 1777 to the end of this period very warm weather 
prevailed which culminated in 1779. Rainfall was above the average during the time, 
the excess being largely brought about by the wetness of the autumns and winters. 
After 1770, equatorial winds predominated. Snowfall was about normal, but hail, 

* Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, vol. ix. p. 227. 



THE METEOBOLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 91 

thunderstorms, and fog, were distinctly below the average. Gales were slightly in 
excess during the years of low pressure. 

1781 to 1800. — Pressure was above the mean till 1787, and then below the normal 
as a whole. Temperature was low during the period of high barometer, but thereafter 
much above the average. Speaking broadly, the temperature was below the normal from 
October to March, and above it during the other half of the year, the exceptional warmth 
of the summers being a striking feature. The unusual depression of temperature during 
some of the Marches and the Decembers is also of interest, the cold being brought about 
by the unusual excess of polar winds during these months. During most of the period 
rainfall was in excess. There was a marked deficit of westerly winds till about 1794. 
Snowstorms were frequent. Hail was just the average, and thunderstorms, gales, and 
fog, very much below their normal frequency. 

1801 to 1820. — The weather of this period was characterised by a low barometer, a 
low mean temperature, a deficiency of rainfall, and a marked deficiency of westerly 
winds. Warm summers continued to prevail till about 1808, but thereafter the 
depression of temperature manifested itself in a prominent degree throughout the 
months and the seasons. In the heart of this great cold occurred some of the worst 
harvests of the century. The outstanding feature of the meteorology of the period 
under review was, however, the frequency of hyperborean storms of the first order, 
these snowstorms being of a severity, extent, and duration which have not been 
equalled since. Hail was above, but thunderstorms on the whole below, the average. 
Gales were greatly above the normal, while fogs were rare, except from 1805 to 
1811. 

1821 to 1840. — The characteristic features of this period were a rather high pressure, 
normal rainfall, and excess of temperature. West winds were above the normal from 
1820 to 1826 and from 1831 to 1836. Snowstorms show a decided excess from 1836 to 
1840, during which time polar winds prevailed with a low temperature. Pressure was 
also low, and rainfall above the average during the time. With regard to the non- 
instrumental phenomena, hail, thunderstorms, gales, and fog, were all above their average 
frequency. 

1840 to 1860. — Low pressure prevailed with a very high temperature and small 
rainfall. The wet Junes and dry Aprils, Septembers, and Decembers, are striking 
features of the meteorology of this period. West winds show a marked excess after 
1848. Snow and hail storms were infrequent; thunderstorms about the average ; and 
fog much in excess of the normal. Gales were of common occurrence till 1850. 

1861 to 1880. — Pressure was above the average with but few and unimportant 
interruptions. Temperature was below the average from 1861 to 1866, and after 1876. 
During most of the time cold summers prevailed, the winters on the whole being mild. 
Rainfall was much above the average. West winds were greatly in excess during the 
first cold period, but in defect during the second spell of low temperature. Snowstorms 
were on the whole infrequent. Thunderstorms show an enormous excess after 1868 



92 MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 

with a slight dip during the time of maximum cold. Gales were below, but fog much 
above the normal. 

1881 to 1894. — Pressure was much above the normal ; the mean temperature, how- 
ever, being just about the average during the ten years ending 1890, when the warm 
winters were balanced by the cold summers. A drought prevailed during most of the 
time. West winds were in excess, thunderstorms much above average, and gales 
above the normal till 1888. During most of the time fog was uncommon. 

Frost Days. 

Table LX. shows the number of times the minimum temperature in shade fell to or 
below 32° in each month during eighty-one years; the data from 1802 to 1823 were 
obtained from the Edinburgh Advertiser record, while Adie's observations were utilised 
from 1824 to 1831 and from 1840 to 1851. The values from 1857 to 1896 are from the 
observations taken by the Edinburgh observers of the Scottish Meteorological Society. 
The total number of frosts recorded was 5294, equal to an average of 65 per annum. 
The annual number varied from 108 in 1879 to 33 in 1822. The maximum in one 
month was 29 in January 1814. 

Table LXI. shows the values grouped according to winters, with date of first and last 
frost. The maximum number of frosts was in the winter of 1878-79 with 116 cases, 
and the minimum in the winter of 1821-22 with 28 cases. The mean date of first 
frost is October 23, and the mean date of last frost, April 26. The earliest date of first 
frost was September 22 in 1844, and the latest December 4 in 1811. The latest date of 
last frost was June 8, 1814, and the earliest March 12, 1874. 

Table LXII. shows the values for each day in the year. 

Table LXIII. shows the number of times the minimum temperature fell to 20° or 
below. The total number of cases was 239, equal to an average of 3 per annum. The 
greatest number in any year was 19 in 1881, while there were twenty-two years without 
any. The maximum in one month was 14 in January 1814, closely followed by January 
1881 with 13 instances. The earliest date was October 15, 1824 with a minimum of 
20°0, and the latest April 2, 1831, when the temperature fell to 17°0. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



93 



APPENDIX OF EEMARKABLE ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA. 

The appended catalogue of phenomenal atmospheric occurrences in Edinburgh has 
been compiled from a variety of sources. Some of the notices prior to 1740 have been 
obtained from such works as Chambers' Domestic Annals, Low's Natural Phenomena 
and Chronology of the Seasons, and Short's General Chronological History of the Air. 
The method generally adopted, subsequent to 1764, was to examine the manuscript 
notes of the various Edinburgh observers, extract anything of interest, and go to the 
newspapers for further particulars. Copious extracts were made from such papers as 
the Caledonian Mercury, Scots Magazine, Edinburgh Magazine, Edinburgh Advertiser, 
and Scotsman. Condensed abstracts were then prepared and entered in the catalogue. 
The primary object in compiling this list is to place on record the more noteworthy 
and remarkable atmospheric occurrences. In this way, should any apparently un- 
wonted phenomenon occur, we shall at once be able to form an opinion as to whether it 
is unprecedented or otherwise. In dealing with such a long period it would be sanguine 
to imagine that every occurrence of a phenomenal nature has been brought to light. 
If any omissions come to the reader's notice. I should be much obliged for a 
reference. Care has been taken to avoid giving facts that are readily apparent from an 
inspection of the various tables scattered throughout the paper. 



Year. 



Phenomenon. 



REMARKS. 



1575 and 
1582 



1595 



Drought 



Snow 



1595 
1596 
1598 
1609 


Dearth 
Storms 
Eclipse 
Storm 


1614-15 


Frost 


1615 


Snow 


1624-25 
1625 
1625 


Frost 
Storm 
Rains 


1627 
1633 


Rains 
Snow 


1634-35 


Frost and Storms 



Maitland informs us that in these years there was such scarcity of 
water that the Magistrates strictly prohibited all the brewers from drawing 
any out of the town wells, " but to fetch what they had occasion for from 
the South Loch or Meadows." 

March 10. Commenced " ane horrible tempest of snaw, whilk lay upon 
the ground till the 14[th] of April thereafter." 

Dearth owing to failure of the harvest. 

July 1 to August 6. Severe gales ; no less than sixty-six ships lost at Leith. 

February 17. Total eclipse of sun between 9 and 10 a.m. 

January 5. Severe storm ; people lifted off the ground by the violence 
of the wind. 

Very intense frost. " In February the Tay was frozen over so strongly 
as to admit of passage for both man and horse." 

March 2. A great snowstorm ; all communication stopped throughout 
the country. 

Hard frost from Martinmas 1624, which lasted till February 23, 1625. 

March 28-30. Severe storm ; many vessels lost at Leith. 

Heavy rains prevailed from the middle of May till the end of June, 
doing serious injury to the crops. 

July. Great falls of rain. 

February 7. " There began a great storm of snow, with horrible high 
winds." The ordinary ebb and flow of the tide interrupted for twenty- 
four hours at Leith and other places on the East Coast. 

The winter is described as " the most tempestuous and stormy that has 
been seen in Scotland these sixty years past." Snow lay from the 9th of 
December to the 9th of March, the fall being particularly heavy from 
January 26 to February 16. 



94 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Ye 



1652 

1652 
1655 

1655 
1655 

1659 

1664 

1667 
1668 
1673 
1674 

1675 

1681 

1683-84 
1684 
1698 

1709 
1715 

1717 



1722 

1723 
1732 
1732 

1732 



1736 
1736 

1736 
1738 

1740 



1740 
1744 



Phenomenon. 



Total Solar Eclipse 

Hot summer 
Storms 

Rains 
Storm 

Thunderstorm 

Comet 

Drought 
Storm 
Rains 
Snowstorm 

Frost 

Drought 

Frost 
Snow 
Cold Spring 

Dearth 

Eclipse 

Thunderstorm 



Gale 

Drought 

Snow 

Frost 

Gale and Light- 
ning. 



Gale 
Frost 

Aurora 
Frost 

Hurricane 



Snowstorm 
Thunderstorm 



REMARKS. 



March 29. Eclipse observed between 8 and 11 a.m., the sky being 
perfectly clear. This day was long known as " Mirk Monday." 

September. Very hot summer and plentiful harvest. 

February. Severe and protracted storms, followed by a frost which 
continued till April. 

August very wet, threatening the crops with destruction. 

December 10. Great gale from N.E. ; many ships lost and much 
damage on land. 

September 1. Great thunderstorm with very heavy rain. Sixteen 
mills on the Water of Leith were destroyed. 

December. Remarkable comet, " in the head the breadth of ane reason- 
able man's hand, and sprang out in the tail the length of five or six ells." 

Severe in summer ; grass burned up. 

October. Violent storm ; many ships lost. 

Very wet summer. 

February 20 to March 4. Great fall of snow, long remembered as the 
" Thirteen Drifty Days." 

December 18. Great cold ; " the most aged never remembered the like." 
Ale froze. 

From March to June 24. Severe drought, with continuance of searching 
easterly winds. 

Severe frost from November to March. 

Gale at end of October with snow and thunder. 

An " unkindly cold and winter-like spring ; " great want of food and seed ; 
sheep and cattle died in great numbers. 

May. There was at this time a dearth of victual in Scotland. 

April 22. Total eclipse of the sun at 9 a.m. The darkness lasted over 
three minutes. 

June 10. Severe thunderstorm. A man and woman were killed 
instantaneously, and a gentleman so severely scorched that he died in a 
few hours. 

September 1. A high wind shook the crops in the Lothians, doing 
particular damage to the pease. 

Summer remarkably dry and sultry, with little wind. 

May 1. A great fall of snow. 

May 2. Ice so strong as to bear man and horse. Lambs succumbed 
to the excessive cold. 

September 10. Violent hurricane of wind and rain between 5 and 6 p.m. 
Very vivid lightning, " so that it appeared as if the whole horizon had 
been in a flame (which continued for about four minutes) ; the like has not 
been seen here in the memory of the oldest man living." — Caledonian 
Mercury. 

November 12. Great gale from N.W. 

November 12-18. "Frost so severe that in 24 hours after it began 
persons were walking on the lake." 

November 13. Brilliant aurora. 

In December 1738 and January and February 1739, very severe frost. 
Snow lay deep on the ground for six weeks. 

January 14. Hurricane from W.S.W. commenced at 1 a.m. accompanied 
with lightning. Sheet lead torn from roof of St Giles' Cathedral, and blown 
like paper through the air. Great damage to property ; many chimneys 
blown down, and streets strewn with tiles and slates. Trees which had 
stood at Penicuik for 200 years blown to the ground. 
May 4. Great quantity of snow. 

August 13. Severe thunderstorm ; several people and cattle stunned; 
very heavy rain and hail fell, flooding streets and cellars. The steeple of 
Liberton church was struck by lightning, and in the east end of the church 
a smooth round hole was made in one of the windows by a hailstone, some 
of which were nearly 2 inches in diameter. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



95 



Year. 


Phenomenon. 


REMARKS. 


1765 


Snowstorm 


January 24. Severe snowstorm ; many lives lost in the Border counties. 


1767 


Thunderstorm 


January 3. Thunderstorm from 9 p.m. continued till early morning 
of 4th. 


1768 


Snowstorm 


January 2. Great fall of snow, with thunder and lightning late on 
evening of 2nd and morning of 3rd. 


1768 


Sudden Thaw 


January 14. " Owing to a sudden thawing of the ice on the Water of 
Leith, it came down in great quantities into the harbour and did much 
damage to vessels there." 


1768 


Thunderstorm 


July 30. Severe thunderstorm at 11 a.m. lasting one and a half hours. 
Royal Infirmary struck, the glass in four windows being broken. Three 
men injured. 


1769 


Aurora 


October 24. Red aurora seen in south at 8 p.m. 


1769 


Comet 


Well observed in August. 


1773 


Hurricane 


January 20. Severe W.S.W. gale, blowing a perfect hurricane between 
3 and 5 a.m. A stack of chimneys on the west gable of a house situated in 
Gosford's Close, Lawnmarket, fell and killed three persons. A whole range 
of the heavy stone balustrade of the (then) New Bridge was fairly shifted 
from its position, carried down to the foot pavement in a regular order, and 
most of the stones broken. 


1773 


Aurora 


July 26. 


1773 


Aurora 


September 1 1 . 


1774 


Aurora 


March 3, 14. 


1774 


Aurora 


August 10. 


1774 


Aurora 


November 13 and 14. 


1774 


Aurora 


December 25. 


1775 


Aurora 


February 21. 


1776 


Frost 


Very severe frost all January. Ice on lochs 12 to 16 inches thick at 
beginning of February. On January 31 it is recorded that on this morning, 
at Hawkhill House, the milk froze in milking the cow. 


1776 


Aurora 


March 28. 


1776 


Aurora 


April 16, 20. 


1778 


Aurora 


February 25. 


1778 


Aurora 


March 31. 


1778 


Aurora 


April 15. 


1778 


Aurora 


October 13, 14, 19. 


1779 


Aurora 


February 10, 13, 14, 15. 


1779 


Aurora 


March 24, 25. 


1779 


Aurora 


April 8, 9, 22. 


1779 


Aurora 


July 15. 


1780 


Aurora 


February 29. 


1780 


Aurora 


November 19, 22, 23. 


1780 


Aurora 


December 19. 


1781 


Aurora 


April 25. 


1783 


Thunderstorms 


July 2 and 10. Very severe. 


1784-85 


Protracted cold 


"A meteorological correspondent assures us from observation, that from 
the 18th of October 1784 till the present time, which is a period of 143 days, 
there have been only 26 in which the thermometer has not been from 1 to 
18 degrees and a half below the freezing point, which is a more constant 
succession of cold weather than has been known in this climate. Last year 
there were 89 days of frost, and in the year 1779 there were 84 ; in 1763 
there were 94 days of frost, and in the celebrated winter of 1739 there 
were only 103, which are 12 fewer than in the present winter." — Edinburgh 
Magazine. 


1786 


Thunderstorm 


July 26. Great storm from 3 to 7 p.m., with heavy rain and hail. 


1786 


Earthquake 


August 11. Slight shock in Edinburgh and Leith; severe in other 
places. 


1787 


Rainstorm 


December 9. Great rainstorm, 4*20 inches falling within 24 hours. 
Much damage done in Leith harbour. 


1789 


Earthquake 


September 30. Slight shock. ' 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



R 



96 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 




REMARKS. 



Gale 

Lightning 
Great frost 



1795 



1796 
1796 



1797 

1799 
1799 

1800 

1800 

1801 
1801 



Gale and rainstorm 



Storm 

Lunar rainbow 



Thunderstorm 

Suowstorm 
Cold summer 

Snowstorm 

Frost 

Rainstorm 
Earthquake 



January 13. Heavy gale of wind from 4 to 5.30 a.m., attended with 
rain and flashes of very vivid lightning from the S.W. 

January 20. A hash of lightning came down the chimney into the 
porter's room in Watson's Hospital, doing slight damage. 

January 20-27. Continued snowstorm. Mail coaches delayed. 

February 9. In the High Street a woman was dangerously wounded on 
the head owing to a huge mass of snow falling off the roof of one of the 
houses. 

February 11. Very heavy snowfall; so deep was the snow that the 
hackney coaches were frequently obliged to draw with four horses. Mail 
coaches snowed up. 

February 12. The snow lies excessively deep in the streets of 
Edinburgh and in the neighbourhood. Three hundred soldiers and 
labourers employed by the Magistrates to clear the roads to the 
coal-hills. 

February 14. A gentle thaw commences, with the thermometer from 34 
to 40 degrees ; this, however, is soon again succeeded by frost. Frost broke 
up on 3rd of March, having lasted 53 days. 

November 18. Severe N.E. gale with great rainstorm, supposed to have 
been the worst for 30 years. About 10 a.m. the Water of Leith rose to such 
a height that the low grounds adjacent to it were submerged ; bridge at 
Bonnington Mills swept away; ground floors of houses in back of Canongate, 
Cowgate, etc., submerged ; roads impassable. Meadow near Hope Place like 
large lake, p.m., snow. 

January 23. Severe storm from S.S.W. that blew down trees and un- 
roofed houses. 

December 27. This evening, about five minutes before ten o'clock, there 
was observed in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh a most beautiful prismatic 
rainbow of considerable extent, in the north-west quarter of the horizon, 
directly opposite to the moon, then two days past full, and shining very 
dazzlingly from the south-east through cold, stormy, flying clouds or showers. 
This phenomenon, which is believed to be a very unusual one, continued with 
little alteration for more than five minutes, differing nothing in appearance 
from a faint solar rainbow, the red, yellow, and green colours, and even a 
shade of the blue or purple being distinctly marked, without any resem- 
blance whatever to an Aurora Borealis. 

July 14. Sharp thunderstorm ; "a flash of lightning darted down the 
chimney and entered a room on the ground floor of a house in the Water of 
Leith village near this city." A girl eleven years of age was burnt in a 
severe manner. A number of copper and iron articles which were near the 
chimney changed colour. 

February 9. This day " was remarkable for the most violent storm of 
wind and snow that is remembered in this country." — Playfair. 

The period from the 20th of March to the 20th October was characterised 
by a great depression of temperature, so much so that the harvest was not 
generally got in till the end of November, and in high grounds till nearly 
the end of December. 

January 2. Heavy fall of snow accompanied by a strong gale from the 
S.E. Snow lying from 2 to 3 feet in depth. Great damage on east coast ; 
many vessels lost. It was computed that 80 seamen belonging to the port 
of Aberdeen alone perished on this occasion. 

February 7 to 14. Severe frost; the new basin at Leith was nearly 
covered with ice. Severe snowstorms in England, the London mail due 
on the 14th not arriving till Wednesday the 17th. 

September 4. Exceedingly heavy shower of rain at 7 p.m. " The 
heaviest shower in my remembrance." — Waterston. 

September 7. Slight shock of earthquake felt in Edinburgh at 6 a.m. 
Beds, tables, chairs, etc., shook violently in some houses. The motion was 
from N. to S. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



97 




1801 



1801 



1803 
1806 



Phenomenon. 



Meteor 



Aurora 



Gales 
Thunderstorm 



1807 
1807 
1807 



Gale 

Comet 

Frost 



1808 


Snow 


1808 
1808 


Thunderstorm 

and hail 
Great heat 


1808 


Snow and meteor 


1808 


Gale 


1808 


High tides 


1808 


Snow 


1809 


Great cold 



REMARKS. 



December 5. A little before midnight, a large meteor, with a globular 
head and a long tail, was seen, the whole atmosphere being surrounded 
with a blaze of light, so that the smallest object could have been picked up 
on the streets. It was seen for about two seconds. 

December 5. Very fine red and violet aurora. " During the evening a 
whizzing kind of noise was heard in the air, exactly similar to the sound 
which always accompanies the electric spark from the glass cylinder to the 
conductor. During the time when the coruscations were most vivid, the top 
of St Giles' steeple seemed to emit rays of light in all directions (St Elmo's 
Fire ?), in every respect similar to a glass jar when surcharged with the 
electric fluid." 

From January 8 to 10 a severe gale blew, doing much damage to the 
shipping along the east coast. 

August 9. A storm, exceeding in violence perhaps anything in remem- 
brance, was experienced at Edinburgh and the neighbourhood. The thunder 
and lightning continued, without intermission, from 2 o'clock in the after- 
noon till past 8 o'clock in the evening. The lightning was forked and ex- 
tremely vivid, and the peals of thunder tremendously loud. The rain fell 
in torrents, and continued to fall till 5 o'clock on Sunday morning. The 
storm was preceded by a heavy gust of wind, which seemed to darken the 
atmosphere by the quantity of dust it hurled into the air. The morning 
was very sultry, and the thermometer stood at 73° in the shade. 

During the storm a most violent squall of wind arose from the south- 
west, which overset and sunk a pleasure boat, belonging to a gentleman in 
South Queensferry, then near the island of Inchcolm. The owner of the 
boat, his servant, a skipper, and two tradesmen, all residing in Queensferry, 
were on board, and all unfortunately perished. On Sunday different boats 
and expresses were despatched from Queensferry in quest of them. The 
Ferry Custom-house boat found one of the oars, the water ballast-box, 
and two deals, used as tables. A vessel off St Abb's Head had her mast 
shivered. Waterston describes this as " one of the worst storms in my 
remembrance." 

September 6. Strong northerly gale with very heavy rain. Much corn 
swept away in viciuity of Edinburgh. 

October 4. Comet observed. It continued visible till the beginning of 
November. 

November. An exceptionally cold month, mean temperature 34° "0. 
" The quantity of snow fallen and the number of frosty days this month, 
as also the circumstance of the Clyde being frozen at Glasgow, and the 
Tweed at Kelso, are said to be unprecedented in the memory of the oldest 
inhabitant so early as November." — Waterston. 

April 8 and 22. Heavy snowfall, the depth in Edinburgh being over 
half-a-foot. 

May 7. The hailstones to-day were of uncommon size, some being half- 
ah-inch in circumference. 

July 13-15. Very hot, the thermometer varying from 76° to 86° in 
the shade. In London the temperature rose to 100°. 

October 14. Heavy snow fell in morning to the depth of 6 inches. At 
7.30 p.m. a meteor passed over the city. 

October 21. Heavy S.W. gale. Building at foot of the Mound con- 
taining model panorama of the Battle of Trafalgar blown down. 

November 17-20. The tides at Leith were of uncommon height. Tides 
equally great are on record, but four successive tides of such height and im- 
petus no one recollects to have observed. 

Dec. 23, 24. Heavy snowfall ; depth on the average being 9 
inches. 

January . By the end of December, the large quantity of snow 
which had fallen in that month had disappeared from off the ground. The 
wind, however, remained chiefly at E. and N.E. On 2nd January, the cold 



98 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 




1809 



REMARKS. 



1809 

1809 
1809 
1809 

1810 



1810 
1810 



Great cold — contd.\ became pretty severe, and it continued so for several succeeding days, ac- 
companied with much drifting snow, and some hail. On the 7th, the wind 
veering for some time towards the south, a gentle thaw commenced. This 
continued till the 12th, when frost again set in. The quantity of snow near 
Edinburgh, was, at this time, nothing to what occurred to the north of the 
Forth. Between Queensferry and Kinross, it lay from 6 to 10 feet deep 
for many days. On Wednesday the 18th, in the evening, the frost became 
exceedingly intense, the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer falling as low 
as 11° or 21° below the freezing point in the neighbourhood of this city. 
At Foxhall, about eight miles west from Edinburgh, in a window exposed 
to the current of air from the N.E., it was observed as low as 6°, or 26° be- 
low the freezing point. During the three following days, the thermometer 
indicated from 22° to 28°. Sunday the 22nd was one of the coldest days 
in the remembrance of the present generation. At 8 o'clock in the morning, 
in this city, the mercury stood at 11°. A little way from town it was 
observed at 8°. In Queen Street, exposed to the north, it was as low 
as 6°. In the evening it was perhaps still colder ; for, at Foxhall, it was 
noticed as low as 5°, or 27° below the freezing point. The large basin of 
the new harbour at Leith, though filled with salt water, was so completely 
frozen over, that the sailors could pass from ship to ship upon the ice. 
From the 22nd to the 25th, the thermometer varied from 15° to 
25°. 

January 26. The intensity of the cold began this day to abate. Snow 
fell copiously, drifting in some places to the depth of many feet. The ice 
on the lakes in this neighbourhood has been observed to be from 18 to 22 
inches thick. 

January 27. In the morning the mercury rose 15° above the freezing 
point ; and a breeze springing up from the S. W., the snow began to dis- 
appear rapidly. 

January 29. " Squalls from S.W., accompanied with heavy showers of 
rain, have produced so rapid a solution of the immense quantity of snow 
which covered the high grounds, that all the meadows are flooded, and the 
level parts of the country around Edinburgh appear as if spotted with small 
lakes." — Neill. 

Snow May 29. A heavy fall of snow and hail has rendered the whole country 

around Edinburgh quite white. The snow and hail continuing at intervals 
on the 30th and 31st, in some places, to the south of this, lay on the 
ground a foot and a half deep. 

Thunderstorm August 3. At half past 7 p.m. a thunderstorm passed over Leith and 

Edinburgh. The lightning killed a boy at the former place. 

Meteor August 11. At half past 9 p.m. a meteor was seen in the north-west. It 

appeared about the same time at Glasgow. 

Thunderstorm August 13. Violent thunderstorm with torrents of rain at 1 p.m. 

Streets inundated, and part of a garden wall at the west end of Queen 
Street washed away. 

Snowstorm January 15. On this day a heavy fall of snow came on. On the follow- 

ing morning the depth around Edinburgh was 18 inches. So much has not 
fallen in such a short space of time for fourteen years past, since the re- 
markable winter of 1795. The fall was but local, extending j little beyond 
Dunbar to the S. and Glasgow to the W. Thick fog on the 20th, which 
covered trees and shrubs with beautiful frost crystals. 

Snow May 4-7. A good deal of snow and hail has fallen, with the wind from 

E. and N.E. 

Meteor August 28. A few minutes past 12 p.m. a very brilliant meteor ap- 

peared here, in the S.W., and rapidly proceeded in a north-easterly direc- 
tion. Its apparent size and shape were those of a large tun or hogshead. 
It had stripes or bands of bright light along its sides, which continued a 
short way beyond the ball, and formed a sort of fringed tail. No noise 
was heard. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



99 




1810 



1811 



1811 



1811 



1811 



1811 
1811 



1812 



1812 
1812 



Phenomenon. 



Gale and lightning 



Snow and frost 



Thunderstorm 



Thunderstorm 



Comet 



Tides 
High tides 



Protracted Snow- 
storm 



High Tide 
Snow and Frost 



REMAKES. 



December 20. After a rapid thaw and change of wind, at half past 10 
p.m., with a strong south-westerly gale, and heavy showers of rain, there 
occurred a great deal of lightning. It continued with little intermission for 
several hours. No thunder was heard. 

April 7 and 8. Intense frost, with showers of hail and snow, and a 
strong gale from N.W., continued for these two days. The mercury in the 
thermometer was several times at 24°, and once as low as 20°, or 12° below 
the freezing point. Vegetation had been proceeding rapidly, and has thus 
met with a very severe check. 

On the afternoon of the 8th June, a thunder-cloud passed over the south 
side of the city of Edinburgh, makingfrequent discharges of electric matter 
into the earth. A house situated in Fountainbridge Street, at the head of 
the Lothian Road, unfortunately became the conductor of one of these 
discharges. The fluid penetrated one of the chimneys shattering many 
large stones, and projecting some of them violently to a distance. The 
fluid passed through several apartments in the house, conducted chiefly by 
the bell wires, which it twisted, melted, and oxidated in its progress. The 
gilding on a picture-frame was partly converted into a purple oxide ; and 
a large oil-painting was completely disfigured, the oil and colours having 
undergone chemical changes. A maid-servant was slightly struck by the 
fluid, as appeared from arborescent marks on one of her shoulders, and at 
the same time she was severely scorched by her clothes catching fire. 

June 25. This morning, another thunder cloud passed in the vicinity 
of this city, making very frequent discharges. A labouring man, going to 
his work at Craigleith quarry, a little before 6 o'clock, was suddenly and 
forcibly thrown to the ground, where he lay stunned for some time. 

August 30. A faint, nebulous comet was seen this evening, which con- 
tinued to grow in brightness till about November 8, when it was of great 
magnitude and brilliancy. 

October 31. Exceptionally high tide at Leith ; much damage done. 

On the night between Friday the 1st and Saturday the 2nd of November 
the waters of the North Sea rose to a very unusual height. The rise 
exceeded 20 feet in the Firth of Forth. 

March 19. Early on the morning of the 19th a sudden and heavy fall 
of snow took place. In about three hours it lay near a foot thick all 
around Edinburgh. All kinds of country labour were therefore com- 
pletely stopped. 

March 21. A strong gale from N.E., with continued snow, has rendered 
most of the roads in this neighbourhood impassable. In many places the 
snow, where drifted, lies 8 feet deep on the roads, hiding hedges and walls 
from the view. The mail-coaches could no longer make their way, even 
with six horses. In the valleys about Arthur's Seat hills, the snow, in 
some hollows, is from 15 to 20 feet deep. 

March 22. The London mail came into and left town this day on horse- 
back, the roads being so blocked up by snow as to be totally impassable to 
coaches. 

March 23. The snow ceased ; but this evening an intense frost set in, 
the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer falling to 23°, or 9° below freezing 
point. 

March 26. The severe frost still continues, the mercury at 8 this morn- 
ing standing at 24°, and having been observed, more early, as low as 21°, 
or 11° below freezing. 

" Even now (27th March) all the lakes and pools are thickly frozen over, 
and to see boys skating on the North Loch ditches, on Good Friday, is 
perhaps rather a novelty." — Neill. 

October 21. Very high tide at Leith. Streets inundated. 

December 10. Heavy fall of snow, followed by intense cold. On the 
12th, in the evening, the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer stood at 
13J°, or 18|° below the freezing point. 



100 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 




1813 
1814 



1814 

1814 

1814 
1814 

1814 

1815 

1815 

1815 
1815 
1816 
1816 
1816 



Phenomenon. 



Drought 
Great Frost 



Heat 

Aurora 

Lunar Rainbow 
Aurora 

Frost 

Snow and Frost 

Oale 

Aurora 

Thunderstorm 

Snow 

Earthquake 

Aurora 



REMARKS. 



September. This month and the last have seldom been surpassed for 
dryness, sunshine, and warmth. During a period of ten weeks only two 
rainy days occurred. 

On Sunday, 2d January, there was a good deal of rain, but towards even- 
ing the atmosphere became clear, accompanied by such intense cold during 
the night that next morning boys were venturing on the ice which covered 
the mill-pond at Canonmills. The snow soon after began to fall, and it lay 
on the open fields about Edinburgh nearly 1 6 inches deep on an average ; 
where drifted, it was from 3 to 6 feet in depth. The cold was very 
great, the temperature ranging from 17° to 22°, but at 8 a.m. of the 
15th January it was, at Canonmills, as low as 10°'5, while during the early 
morning it had, in the New Town, fallen as low as 9°. On the 18th, at 
8 A.M., a reading of 11° was recorded, and it had at the same time been 
observed 3° lower in the neighbourhood. At Glasgow it is stated to have 
fallen to - 5°. 

The Firth of Forth was nearly covered with floating ice from Queensferry 
upwards. From the interstices which remained free the vapour ascending 
from the water became suddenly condensed, producing the appearance of 
smoke rising from the surface, exactly as is described to happen in Hudson's 
Bay and West Greenland, at the edges of the ice. Many birds were 
benumbed with the cold, and easily surprised and caught. The frost con- 
tinued unabated till the 24th of January, when a gentle thaw commenced. 
The ice in the vicinity of Edinburgh varied from 7 inches in the large lochs 
to over a foot on the rivers. During February, alternate frosts and thaws 
succeeded each other, but the ice which covered the lakes on the 3rd of 
January did not wholly disappear till the 24th of February, having thus 
lasted 52 days. The effect of the severe weather was to delay the London 
mails considerably, — the one on the 13th, due at 7 a.m., not arriving till 
past 5 p.m. On the 14th and 15th it was also much behind time. From 
the 17th to the 21st it was one day later, and all the other mails, except 
from Glasgow, were also one or two days behind. The London mails due 
on the 22nd, 23rd, 24th, and 25th did not reach Edinburgh till the evening 
of the 26th, a circumstance unprecedented, there never before having been 
more than three London mails due at one time. Two still remained due 
on the 27th, and there was always one behind till after the 31st. Much 
damage was done to bridges, etc., on the breaking-up of the ice on the Esk 
and other places. 

August 25. The shade temperature at the Calton Hill observatory rose 
to 84° at 2 p.m. 

September 11. Very bright aurora. So bright was the light that it 
was possible to read a book of a large type. 

September 15, Fine lunar rainbow. 

September 11. At 7.30 p.m. a column of light was observed stretching 
along the northern hemisphere from S.W. to N.E., in appearance not unlike 
the Milky Way. 

November 20. Sharp frost. During the following night the tempera- 
ture fell to 21°. Next morning the margins of the lochs around Edinburgh 
were covered with skaters. 

A severe storm of snow and frost continued from the 20th of January to 
the end of month. 

January 27 and 28. Severe E.N.E. gale with very high tide at Leith. 
Solid masonry on the pier broken down by the huge waves. 

September 26. Aurora. 

November 24. Thunderstorm with hail. 

April 18. Heavy snowstorm. 

August 13. Slight shock at 11 p.m. 

September 24. Brilliant aurora, assuming the form of a vast luminous 
arch of purple or red colours. Slight tremulous motions of the light were 
seen at intervals. The arch extended from N.E. to S.W. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



101 




Phenomenon. 



REMARKS. 



1817 
1817 
1817 



1817 



1817 
1818 

1818 



1819 

1819 
1819 

1820 



1820 
1820 
1820 



1821 



1822 



1822 
1822 
1822 
1823 



1823 



1823 
1824 

1824 

1825 
1825 

1825 

1825 

1825 



Aurora 

Thunderstorm 

Thunderstorm 



Thunderstorm 



Lunar rainbow 
Gale 



Gale 



Comet 

Snow 
Snow 



Solar eclipse 



Snow 

Snowstorm 

Gale 



Gale 
Thunderstorm 



Gale 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Snow 



Snowstorm 



Lunar eclipse 
Gale 

Gale 

Thunder 

Rapid barometric 

fall 
Rapid barometric 

rise 
Aurora 

Snow 



February 8. Brilliant aurora. 

February 16. 

June 10. Severe thunderstorm, with torrents of rain and hail from 11 
to 12 o'clock. The lightning struck several buildings, including Messrs 
Ballantine & Co.'s printing office, and a hat factory adjoining. Several 
people injured. 

August 26. Severe thunderstorm with heavy rain. The water flowing 
down the Cowgate for some time presented the appearance of a rapid river. 
The parapet of the Earl of Moray's pleasure ground was undermined, nearly 
30 yards of it giving way. 

August 31. 

January 12. Severe gale. Lead stripped off the dome of St George's 
church, and several other buildings injured. 

January 14 and 15. Another heavy gale from S.W. to N.W. Turret 
and other ornaments upon the tower of Bishop Sandford's chapel at West 
end of Princes Street blown down. 

July 1. A very large comet seen, described as " not much inferior in 
magnitude and brilliancy to the celebrated comet of 1811." 

December 9 and 10. Snow 6 inches deep. 

December 28 and 29. Heavy snowstorm j a foot in depth where not 
drifted. 

January 7. " Great eclipse of the sun ; weather so thick, hardly visible 
here. I had some distinct glimpses of it, however, after two o'clock, half- 
an-hour past the middle of the eclipse." — Waterston. 

January 16. Snow 9 inches deep. 

January 19. Snow 18 inches deep, but 2 to 3 feet in drifts. 

January 22. Heavy gale. A caravan weighing about six tons and 
containing several wild animals blown over at Wombell's menagerie on the 
Mound. 

November 4. " On the morning of the 4th we had a most severe gale 
from the N.E., which did great damage to the shipping on the east coast of 
Scotland." — Waterston. 

July 21. Severe thunderstorm, accompanied by heavy showers of pieces 
of clear ice. House in Gibb's Entry, Nicolson Street, struck. Lower 
parts of town flooded. 

September 11. Severe S.W. gale; much damage at sea. 

November 7. Beautiful auroral arch to north. 

November 8. Brilliant aurora. 

January 12-27. Heavy snow showers almost every day. Depth on 
23rd nearly a foot. " We have had a longer continuance of snow on the 
ground this month than at any time siuce January 1814." — Waterston. 

February 1-4. Great snowstorm from E.N.E., the heaviest since 1795. 
During the first week hardly any mails arrived in Edinburgh. On the 9th 
no less than twenty-two mails were due at the Post Office, six of these 
London. Hundreds of men had to be employed clearing the roads, the 
snow where not drifted averaging two feet in depth. 

July 23. Total eclipse of the moon. 

October 9-13. Severe gale from N.E. About 150 vessels stranded or 
lost on the eastern coasts of Scotland and England. 

December 29. Heavy S.W. gale in Edinburgh ; blew down house walls, 
trees, etc. 

January 2. Some thunder in the morning. 

January 18. Barometer fell an inch in about 10 hours. 

February 6. Iu twelve hours the barometer rose something more than 
an inch. 

March 19. Very fine aurora. (See Edin, Phil. Jour., vol. xiii. pp. 
178-179.) 

May 27. Snow and sleet. Pentland hills white on the 28th. 



102 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Year 



Phenomenon. 



REMARKS. 



1825 



1825 
1825 
1825 

1825 
1825 

1826 
1826 
1826 

1826 



1826 
1826 



1826 



1826 



1827 
1827 

1827 

1827 
1827 

1827 
1827 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 

1829 
1829 



1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 



1829 



Drought 



Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 

Aurora 
Meteor 

Gale 

Aurora 

Heat 

Early harvest 



Thunderstorm 
Dearth 



Double crop 



Snowstorm 



Aurora 
Snowstorm 

Snowstorm 

Aurora 
Gale 

Eclipse 

Thunderstorm 

Aurora 

Aurora 

Lightning 

Snow 

Aurora 

Aurora 

Rainfall 

Thunderstorm 
Rainfall 



Aurora 
Lunar eclipse 
Aurora 
Gale 



Gale 



July. Very warm and dry ; slight showers on the 1st and 15th. " The 
river Tay hardly ever remembered lower than it has been this month." 
— Waterston. 

August 17. Aurora seen at 10 p.m. 

September 11. Aurora at 10 p.m., just after a thunderstorm. 

October 7. Aurora in the evening, observed synchronously in the north 
of Scotland. 

November 3 and 4, that of the 4th being of great beauty. 

November 14. At 8 p.m. a large meteor was seen to pass from E. to 
W. through a space equal to 25°. It left a luminous trail behind. 

February 13. Severe S.S.W. gale. 

March 29. Brilliant aurora. 

June 24-30. " Hotter than any seven successive days in my remem- 
brance." — Waterston. 

July. Cutting began in the Edinburgh district about the 10th, and by 
the 29th many fields were cleared. " Harvest mostly finished by middle 
of August, about the time it usually commences in a tolerably early season." 
— Waterston. 

August 27. Thunderstorm with very heavy rain. 

September. " Owing to the sudden rise and acknowledged deficiency of 
the oats, barley, and peas crops, Government, by an extraordinary Order of 
Council, have allowed the importation of these articles, the quarterly 
average struck immediately before not allowing the ports to open. Even 
hay from Holland has been imported into different parts." — Waterston. 

October. "It is rather remarkable this season that in more than one 
place two distinct crops of barley have come to maturity over the same 
ground in succession, one after the other." — Waterston. 

November 25 and 26. Dreadful storm of wind and snow from the 
N.N.W. Several vessels lost. From thirty to forty people perished in 
different parts of the country, and many thousand sheep. 

January 9. Aurora. 

March 3-4. Great snowstorm. Snow fell to the depth of nearly 4 feet 
in 24 hours, with strong east wind ; many lives lost both on land and sea. 

April 23 and 24. Snow fell to the depth of nearly 2 feet, with stormy 
east wind. 

Remarkable aurora. 
Severe gale with very high sea at Leith, doing damage 



September 25. 
October 22-23. 
to the harbour. 
November 3. 
December 15. 
September 15. 
September 29. 
December 31. 
January 24. 
February 18. 



Lunar eclipse. 
Thunderstorm. 
Aurora. 
Bright aurora. 
A great deal of lightning. 
Snow fell to the depth of a foot. 
Brilliant aurora. 
April 19. Bright aurora. 
July. A very wet month, rainfall 6^ inches, half of which fell on the 
4th and 5th, when the precipitation amounted to 3'80 inches. 
July 30. Severe thunderstorm with very heavy rain. 
August. Wettest month for many years. Waterston gives the rainfall 
as 8'75 inches. The rain exceeded an inch on the following days : — 3rd, L90 
inch; 4th, 1 '40 inch; 19th, Ml inch; 22nd, I'll inch; and 27th, M2inch. 
August 19, 20 and 26. Bright aurora. 
September 2. Eclipse of the moon, nearly total. 
September 25. Bright aurora. 

October 13 and 14. Severe gale from the N.E. Several vessels stranded 
or lost on the east coast, and a very high tide at Leith. 2*50 inches of rain 
fell. 

November 25. E.N.E. gale, many ships lost. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



103 



Year. 



1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1831 
1831 



1831 
1831 
1831 



1831 

1832 

1832 
1832 
1833 

1833 

1833 
1833 
1833 



Phenomenon. 



Aurora 

Aurora 

Thunder 

Aurora 

Aurora 

Aurora 

Aurora 



Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 



Rainstorm 

Thunderstorm 

Rain 
Rain 
Gale 

Aurora 

Rain 

Aurora 

Gale 



1833 
1833 
1S33 
1833 


Aurora 
Aurora 
Lightning 
Thunderstorm 


1833 
1834 
1834 
1834 


Lunar Eclipse 
Thunderstorm 
Lightning 
High Tide 


1834 
1834 
1835 
1835 


Aurora 
Aurora 
Storm 
Aurora 


1835 
1835 
1836 


Comet 
Aurora 
Gale 


1836 


Gale and Light 


1836 
1836 
1836 


mng 
Thunderstorm 
Storm 
Thunderstorm 


1836 


Snowstorm 



REMARKS. 



October 6. Luminous auroral arch. 

October 22. Bright aurora. 

November 4. Thunder. 

November 11. Bright aurora. 

December 12. Bright aurora. 

January 7. Bright aurora at 7 p.m. 

January 11. "Bright aurora at 11 p.m. when I observed it northward 
and to enlighten St Giles' spire most beautifully. This aurora was seen in 
Paris. " — Gairdnee. 

March 4. Aurora to northward. 

March 7. Serpentine Aurora. 

March 11-12. At 10 p.m. a tint of light as if the rising moon waning 
N.W. Zenith in one mass from the horizon, and at 4 a.m. on the 12th 
streamers were seen to dart up beyond the height of St Giles' in same 
direction. 

July 15. "Between 3 and 5 o'clock one of the heaviest rains ever 
experienced in this country." — Gairdnbr. 

June 13. Alarming thunderstorm, several houses struck and people 
injured. 

October 8. Heavy rain, 2 '2 inches, with strong N.E. wind. 

October 12. Two inches of rain, wind N.E. 

February 20. Severe N.E. gale, many vessels lost. Four or five fishing 
boats with several men lost in the Firth of Forth. 

March 17. " At 8 p.m. it was said there was a glowing aurora in the 
zenith which lasted only 10 or 15 minutes." — Gairdnbr. 

June 11. Two inches of rain. 

August 18. Bright aurora. 

August 30. Violent N.E. gale ; much damage done to the ripe grain by 
shaking. 

September 18. Bright aurora. 

October 12. Splendid aurora. 

December 2. Lightning to N.W. at midnight. 

December 6. "At 4 a.m. I was awoke with thunder and lightning with 
wind." — Gairdnbr. 

December 26. Total eclipse of the moon. 

January 18. Thunderstorm. 

January 23. Very squally, with lightning. 

October 4. The water in Leith dock rose to within a foot of the edge of 
the quay, and presented the novel spectacle of vessels lying to appearance 
almost out of the water. Some houses in Baltic Street flooded. 

October 6. Bright aurora. 

December 22. Bright aurora. 

January 19. Storm from N.E. did much damage along coast. 

February 7. At 7 p.m. splendid aurora to N. and W. consisting of two 
oval amphitheatres. At 8 p.m. it began to blow and rain. 

October 10. Halley's comet distinctly visible in the Great Bear. 

November 18. Bright aurora N.W. to S.E. at 9.30 p.m. 

January 21 to 23. Severe gale ; several persons injured through falling 
masonry. 

January 27 to 29. Severe gale with lightning. Some damage done to 
the Presbytery Hall, North St David Street, and other buildings, 

January 30. Thunderstorm. 

March 17. Violent storm, with hail and sleet. 

July 5. Violent thunderstorm, attended with damage to crops and loss 
of life in many places. Continued from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. 

October 28. Snow fell this evening to the depth of 4 or 5 inches. Hard 
frost continued till the 31st. " Such an early appearance of winter has not 
been observed for many years, probably since 1782. Harvest has been much 
protracted, and in some places oats are hardly ripe yet." — Waterston. 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



104 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Year. 


Phenomenon. 


REMARKS. 


1836 


Aurora 


October 18. Remarkable aurora ; bright red and white. 


1837 


Gale 


February 19. Violent S.W. gale. Thunder in the evening. 


1837 


Snowstorm 


Mar. 11. Six inches of snow fell. 


1837 


Rainstorm 


August 2 to 4. " More than 3 inches of rain fell." — Waterston. 


1837 


Aurora 


October 6. Bright aurora. 


1837 


Aurora 


October 18. Reddish aurora. 


1837 


Lunar Eclipse 


October 13. Total eclipse of moon. 


1838 


Frost 


In January and February the frost was very hard. Waterston says 
with reference to January, " We have had a longer continuance of frost and 
snow than any month since February 1823." 


1838 


Rainstorm 


September 6. Two inches of rain. 


1839 


Ice Accideuts 


January 18. Skating at Duddingston ; three people drowned by the ice 
giving way. 


1839 


Aurora 


January 14, 16, 19. Bright aurora. 


1839 


Aurora 


September 3 and 4. Bright aurora. 


1839 


Aurora 


October 13. Bright aurora. 


1839 


Earthquake 


October 23. At 10.15 p.m. a sharp shock of earthquake was felt. It 
was accompanied with no noise and lasted about four seconds. 


1841 


Aurora 


December 14. Bright aurora. 


1842 


Aurora 


February 11. Bright aurora. 


1843 


Gale 


July 3. Severe gale from W.; fruit trees and bushes stripped, and the 
wall fruit which was fast ripening destroyed. " So wild a tempest has not 
been experienced at this season for at least twenty years." 


1843 


Thunderstorm 


July 5. Violent thunderstorm ; house struck in Lothian Road. 


1843 


Storm 


October 11. Violent storm from the E. did much damage. 


1843 


Storm 


October 28. Severe storm from E. ; very injurious to shipping. 


1845 


Gale 


January 25. Severe S.W. gale. 


1845 


Rainstorm 


October 3. Severe rainstorm. 


1846 


Thunderstorm 


June 22. Severe thunderstorm. 


1846 


Thunderstorm 


July 5. Severe thunderstorm. 


1846 


Gale 


November 20. Stormy S.E. gale. 


1847 


Aurora 


September 27. Brilliant aurora. 


1849 


Meteor 


December 18. Bright meteor. 


1851 


Snow 


June 1. Pentlaud Hills covered with fresh snow. 


1852 


Aurora 


February 18. Fine aurora at 10 p.m. 


1852 


Aurora 


February 19. At 10.30 p.m. aurora over the whole sky, all shooting up 
to a point very nearly to the true pole, and of red and green colours. 


1852 


Thunderstorm 


December 24. Gale of wind with lightning and thunder, from 4 to 5 
a.m. (25th). 


1854 


Comet 


March 29. Brilliant comet in the west this evening. 


1854 


Thunderstorm 


May 9. Thunderstorm with very large hail. 


1858 


Thunderstorm 


June 17. Severe thunderstorm with torrents of rain. A portion of the 
new road from St Leonards to Duddingston gave way at a point about 200 
yards to the east of Samson's Ribs. The lightning struck a house in the 
Pleasance. 


1859 


Aurora 


August 29. Most brilliant purple aurora australis at 1 a.m. 


1860 


Storm 


October 3. Severe storm ; windows of the Church of Scotland Normal 
School blown in. Scaffolding at a church under repair blown away. Gable 
end of an old house blown in. Three large trees were blown down in the 
Meadows and had their trunks broken across, twisted and shattered re- 
markably. Wind veered from W.S.W. to W.N.W. 


1860 


Great Frost 


December 22 to 28. Great cold prevailed during this period, mean 
temperatuie being only 20°'3. 

The following are the maximum, minimum and mean temperatures for 
the week : — 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



105 




Phenomenon. 



REMARKS. 



1860 



1868 
1868 
1868 
1868 
1869 
1869 

1869 



1870 
1870 



Great Frost — con- 
tinued 



1861 


Rainstorm 


1862 


Gale 


1862 


Aurora 


1862 


Aurora 


1863 


Storm 


1863 


Aurora 


1863 


Aurora 


1863 


Aurora 


1863 


Aurora 


1864 


Gale 


1864 


Gale 


1866 


Meteor 


1867 


Aurora 


1867 


Aurora 


1867 


Darkness 


1867 


Aurora 


1867 


Aurora 


1868 


Lightning 


1868 


Hurricane 



Thunderstorm 

Aurora 

Aurora 

Thunderstorm 

Lightning 

Aurora 

Storm 



Snow 
Snowstorm 



Dec. 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



Max. 

30-1 
30-0 
19-8 
19-0 
230 
26-7 
29-2 



Min. 

21-5 
21-6 

5-0 
13-0 

8-8 
19-8 
170 



Mean. 

o 

25 8 
25-8 
12-4 
160 
15-9 
23-4 
23-1 



25-4 



15-2 



20-3 



Dense fog prevailed with few interruptions. See Jour. Scot. Met. Soc. 
for quarter ending 30th December I860, pp. 6-14. 

September 23. Great rainstorm ; 2*40 inches of rain fell in two hours. 

October 14. Very severe gale in morning. 

November 17. Aurora in N.W. 

December 24. Aurora in W. 

February 4. Great storm all day with thunder, lightning, and hail. 

April 15. Aurora in N. 

May 8. Aurora in N.W. 

November 5. Aurora near horizon. 

December 9. Aurora in S. extending from horizon to zenith. 

October 22. Strong gale with heavy rain. Several buildings damaged, 
including St Mary's Roman Catholic Chapel, Broughton Street. The 
Water of Leith higher than it had been for seven or eight years. 

February 13. Severe storm of wind and rain. Much damage to property. 

November 13. At 2 h. 53 m. (Sidereal time) a very bright meteor 
descended from near the zenith in a N.W. direction, at an angle of 75° to 
the horizon. 

January 11. Aurora in N.W. 

February 8. Aurora in N.W. 

September 10. A very dark cloud passed between 11 and 12 noon, so 
dark that gas had to be lighted. 

October 2. Aurora in N.W. 

October 29. Aurora in N.W. near horizon. 

January 15. Lightning from 7 to 8 p.m. 

January 24 (Windy Friday). Great storm of wind reaching the force of 
a tropical hurricane from 1 to 4 p.m. Gable in Duke Street blown down, 
cabs overturned, etc. " Many buildings much damaged, 21 instances of 
injured masonry being reported, the first at 12.15 and the last at 4.30 p.m. 
In the hour ending 2.20 p.m. nine of the 21 buildings were damaged." — 
(See Scot. Met. Soc. Jour., vol. ii. pp. 169-180.) 

February 1. Thunderstorm at 8 a.m. 

April 27. Aurora between 10 and 11 p.m. 

October 19. Bright aurora in N.W. 

November 4. Thunderstorm with hail. 

March 1. Lightning from 7 to 10 p.m. with small snow. 

May 1 3. Very beautiful aurora ; radiating from the zenith towards the 
horizon in all directions. 

June 15. Severe gale from N.E. At 11 a.m. the wind, which was 
S.S.E., of a sudden chopped round to the N.E., and without warning blew 
a violent gale. A tremendous sea was raised on the east coast, many 
shipwrecks occurring with serious loss of life. 

February 25. Very heavy snowfall; depth 13J inches where hot 
drifted. 

February 27. Severe snowstorm, drifts forming in the streets to the 
depth of 3 to 4 feet, while the average depth where not drifted was 
20 inches. 



106 



MR ROBERT COCKBTJRN MOSSMAN ON 




REMARKS. 



1870 
1870 
1870 
1870 
1870 
1870 

1870 
1870 
1871 

1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 

1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 

1871 
1871 
1872 

1872 

1873 
1873 



1874 



1874 

1874 
1876 
1877 



1878 
1878-79 

1879 

1879 

1879 

1879-80 

1880 



Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 

Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 

Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 

Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 
Aurora 

Aurora 
Aurora 
Gale 
Thunderstorm 

Thunderstorm 
Thunderstorm 



Thunderstorm 



Gale 

Thunderstorm 
Mock Suns 
Great Rainfall 



Thunderstorm 
Frost 

Gale 

Gale and Rain 

Gale 
Frost 
(Lunar Rainbow 



August 28. Low circular arc to N.N.W 

August 29. Low circular arc to N.W, 

September 3. Low arc to N.N.W. 

September 24. Auroral light, sky clouded 

September 25. Auroral light, sky clouded. 

October 14. Low arc to N.N.W. witli transverse streamers shooting 
from N. to S. over all the sky. 

October 20. Red and green aurora chiefly to N.E. 

October 25. Grand aurora, red, green and blue over all the sky. 

February 12 Transverse band, S. and S.E. of zenith, occasionally red 
and radiating, 

March 9. Low auroral arch N., 10° W. 

March 14. Auroral gleam to N.W. 

March 16. Auroral arch to N.W. 

March 17. Auroral arch to N.N.W. 

March 27. Auroral arch, low to N.W. 

March 28. Auroral arch, low to N.W. 

April 9. General auroral light through sky heavily clouded ; said to 
have been a red aurora elsewhere. 

April 12. Upward shooting beams of aurora N. to N.W. 

April 20. Long low arc of auroral glow to N.W. 

April 28. Elliptical arches, low to N.W. and N. 

May 8. Long low auroral arc N. and N.W. 

August 6. Midnight auroral arc to the N.W. ; mean rising to N.E. 

August 21. Auroral arc, bright and large from W., round by N.W. to 
N. and N.N.E. ; a few dark clouds in front. 

September 7. Auroral lights N. and N.W., in upward shooting beams. 

October 14. Auroral light to the N.W. amongst clouds. 

January 1. Severe gale. Property damaged and many people injured. 

October 30. A thunderstorm of unusual violence from 5 to 6 p.m., with 
heavy rain and hail causing much flooding. 

March 14. Thunder aod lightning at 8 p.m. 

July 22. Very severe thunderstorm. An observer of the Scottish 
Meteorologicial Society counted in one hour 680 flashes of lightning with 
their accompanying thunderclaps. This gives a rate of fully 11 per 
minute. 

June 25. Thunderstorm from 11.35 a.m. to 12.35 p.m. No less than 
81 flashes of lightning were observed, of which 43 were seen in the first 
26 minutes. 

October 21. Worst gale since the hurricane of January 1868. Much 
damage done to property all over the city. Several people injured. 

December 30. Snow showers, with thunder and lightning at 10.45 p.m. 

May 10. Solar halo and mock suns seen. 

August 18 to 22. Very heavy and continuous rain with east (N.E. to 
S.E.) winds, 7"07 inches fell in the five days, the amounts for each of the 
days being as follows, 18th, L54 inch ; 19th, 0*89 inch ; 20th, L88 inch ; 
21st, L96 inch ; 22nd, - 80 inch. The Water of Leith overflowed its banks, 
houses in Warriston Crescent being flooded to the depth of 7 feet. All 
over the town extensive inundations took place in low-lying situations. 

June 27. Severe thunderstorm ; the lightning struck several buildings. 

Very cold winter ; skating and curling carried on at Duddingston un- 
interruptedly for 12 weeks. 

March 4. Severe gale; several buildings damaged, and people injured. 

July 13. N.E. gale and heavy rain, no less a quantity than 2 - 95 inches 
falling within the 24 hours. Flooding throughout the town. 

December 28. Heavy gale ; Tay Bridge blown down. 

Skating for eight weeks on Duddingston Loch. 

January 1. Fine lunar rainbow between 11 o'clock and midnight, the 
colours being well defined. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



107 




1880-81 

1881 

1881 
1881 
1881 

1881 
1881 
1882 

1882 
1882 

1883 

1884 



Phenomenon. 



Frost 

Fog 

Snow 
Rain 
Storm 

Gale 

Meteor 

Gale 

Thunderstorm 
Gale and Snow- 
storm 
Gale 

Low Pressure 



1884 


Thunderstorm 


1884 


Gale 


1885 
1885 


Meteor 
Meteors 


1886 


Thunderstorm 


1886 


Snowstorm 


1886 


Low Pressure 


1887 
1887 


Heat and Drought 
Thunderstorm 


1888 
1888 
1888 

1888 


Snowstorm 
Snowstorm 
Fall of Temper- 
ature 
Gale 


1889 
1889 
1890 
1890 
1890 


Earthquake 
Rise in Pressure 
Lightning 
Mock Sun 
Sunless Weather 


1891 

1891 
1892 


Aurora 
Aurora 
Squall 


1892 
1892 


Thunderstorm 
Aurora 



REMARKS. 



During this winter there was skating and curling at Duddingston for 
thirteen weeks. 

January 4. Very dense fog. At night objects could hardly be dis- 
tinguished at a few yards distance. Vehicular traffic much impeded. 

January 17 and 21. Heavy snowstorms. Traffic seriously deranged. 

August 10. A quarter of an inch of rain fell in 15 minutes. 

October 14. Severe N.E. gale; occasioned much damage of property as 
well as lamentable loss of life, 

November 15 to 22. Continued gale; numerous casualties. 

November 15. Brilliant meteor at 5.52 p.m. 

January 5. Severe gale. An unusually large amount of damage done 
to property throughout the city. Several people injured. 

March 9. Thunderstorm at 4 p.m. 

December 5. Heavy east gale with snow. Tramway service suspended. 

January 24. Strong east gale ; average velocity of wind 56*6 miles per 
hour, rising to 70 miles an hour in gusts. Several buildings damaged. 

January 26. Barometer fell to 27'451 inches at 10 p.m., being the 
lowest recorded since the commencement of pressure observations in 1769. 
The fluctuations previous to this great depression were remarkable, the 
following being the corrected readings, 9 a.m. of the 21st. 30*243 ; 5 p.m. 
of the 23rd, 28-466 , 4 p.m. of the 24th, 29-583 ; 10 p.m. of the 26th, 
27-451 ; and 11 p.m. of the 28th, 29-598 inches. 

August 12. Thunderstorm of tropical severity for several hours. The 
storm was general over the country. Very heavy rain fell. 

February 10. Severe gale "from 5 to 5.20 p.m. the gusts exceeded in 
force any previous storm here." — Blackwood. 

April 15. Intensely blue meteor in east at 10.20 p.m. 

November 27. Grand meteoric shower. A modest computation 
would be 50 per minute from 5 to 8 p.m. wheu it reached its maximum. 

January 16 and 17. Thunderstorm both days, a very unusual circum- 
stance at this season. 

March 2. Severe snowstorm from E. Trains blocked on east coast. 
On March 4th there were taken out of Edinburgh 1434 cart-loads of snow. 

December 8. Barometer at 32° and sea-level fell to 27'651 inches at 7.30 
p.m., having fallen P52 inch since 10 p.m. of the previous day. 

June. A very dry and hot month. No rain after 14th. 

September 2. At 10 a.m. during a thunderstorm - 29 inch of rain fell 
in fourteen minutes, while on the 4th 0'33 inch of rain fell in ten minutes. 

February 19. Fierce N.E. gale with snow and hail squalls. 

March 15. Snowstorm from E. 

March 22. Temperature fell 7° in fifteen minutes at 9 a.m. 

November 16. Heaviest gale experienced for many years. Average 
velocity of wind from 9 a.m. to noon over 50 miles per hour. Very stormy 
till the 25th. 

January 18. Slight shock of earthquake at 6.50 a.m. 

February 4. Barometer rose 1*26 inch in 24 hours. 

January 5. Lightning at 9.10 p.m. 

September 4. Mock sun at 6.30 p.m. 

December. The sun only shone for seven hours ; four and a half hours 
being recorded on 1st. 

March 31. Aurora, single arch, no streamers. 

November 6. Faint aurora. 

February 1. Severe squall at 7 a.m. Wind veered from S.W. to W. 
Temperature fell 9° and barometer rose - 06 inch in three minutes (see 
Journ. Scot. Met. Soc, vol. ix. p. 237). 

February 16. Thunderstorm at 8.33 a.m. with hail. 

March 1, 2, 3. Aurora. 



108 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Year. 



1892 
1892 
1893 

1893 

1893 



1894 
1894 
1894 



1894 
1894 

1894 
1894 
1894 

1895 



1895 
1895 

1895 
1895 

1895 
1895 



Phenomenon. 



Aurora 

Lightning 

Meteor 

Snow and Sleet 

Gale 

Low Temperature 

Increase in 

Pressure 
Rainfall 



Thunderstorm 

Rise in Tempera- 
ture 

Aurora 

Snow 

Rain from a 
Cloudless Sky 

Frost 



Lightning 
Cold 

Aurora 
Rain 

Rain 
Snow 



REMARKS. 



May 1. Aurora. 

December 6. Lightning at 10.4 p.m. 

September 5. Very fine meteor at 11.38 p.m., travelled from S.E. to 
E.N.E. 

September 23. Observer at Blacket Place reports "slight showers of 
rain and sleet." The report from Leith is " slight snow and hail at 1 1.5 a.m." 

December 8. Heavy gale from S.W. Average wind velocity from 10 
a.m. to 6 p.m. was 44 miles per hour, and that in a somewhat sheltered 
situation. 

January 6. In the twelve hours ending 9 p.m. the highest temperature 
recorded was 17°'8. 

February 12. The barometer rose 0"31 inch between 4 and 5 a.m. 

February. An exceptionally wet, stormy month ; rainfall, 6 - 81 inches. 
Thunderstorms occurred on the 24th at 8 a.m., and on the 25th at 3.30 p.m. 
Lightning was seen on the latter date at 8.5 p.m. 

March 11. Thunder at times, 2.25 to 3 p.m. 

March 29. Temperature rose 30° in six hours ending with noon. 

May 7. Aurora after 7 p.m. Pale white streamers. 

May 20. Snow and hail. Pentland Hills white to base at 8 p.m. 

November 16. A shower of rain fell from a cloudless sky at 10.45 p.m. 

January and February. Very severe weather prevailed throughout, 
with hard frost, but little snow, in the immediate vicinity of Edinburgh 
(see Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, vol. x. pp. 163-173). 

January 24. Lightning at 8.40 p.m. 

February 8. Minimum in shade 11°9, lowest in February since Feb- 
ruary 5, 1823. 

March 13. Aurora in south at 9 p.m. stretching from W. to E. 

June 19. Thunderstorm with heavy rain; - 53 inch of rain fell in 39 
minutes, of which 0'40 inch fell in 21 minutes. 

August 22. Between 4.15 and 5.7 a.m. 0"86 inch of rain fell. 

October. Snow fell on the 24th, 25th, 26th, and 28th, covering the 
ground to a depth of 2 inches. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



109 



Table I. 

Showing the Mean Barometric Pressure of the Air in Edinburgh from 1769 to 1896. 
Corrected to 32° and Reduced to Mean Sea-Level. 



Note. — During six months the Observations were incomplete. These months are marked with an asterisk. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


1769 


f 


29-602* 


*29-928 


29-806 


29-959 


29-837 


29-976* 


29-598* 


? 


? 


29-838* 


29-625 


29-797* 


1770 


29-977 


29-851 


29-778 


29-734 


29-900 


29-697 


29-943 


29-994 


29-703 


29 616 


29-577 


29-602 


29-781 


1771 


29-691 


29-938 


29-945 


30 021 


29-842 


30-055 


29-881 


29-758 


29-952 


29-632 


30-003 


29-513 


29-853 


1772 


29-771 


29-551 


29-637 


29-900 


30-129 


30-006 


29-894 


29 795 


29-784* 


29-364* 


29-492 


29-880 


29-767 


1773 


29-679 


29-842 


30-144 


29-792 


29-911 


29-905 


30-013 


29-944 


29-565 


29 644 


29-706 


29-734 


29-823 


1774 


29-642 


29-640 


29-925 


29-773 


30-022 


29-817 


29-842 


29-845 


29-766 


30-060 


29-944 


30-141 


29 868 


1775 


29-758 


29-552 


29-716 


30 040 


30-109 


29-974 


29-794 


29-737 


29-733 


29-757 


29 915 


29-952 


29-836 


1776 


29-909 


29-202 


29-854 


30-060 


30-070 


29-798 


29-815 


29 796 


29-855 


29-988 


29-807 


29-865 


29-835 


1777 


29 859 


29719 


29-766 


30-065 


29-784 


29-824 


29-868 


29-886 


30009 


29-754 


29-836 


29-869 


29-853 


1778 


29-710 


29-720 


29-797 


29-779 


29-799 


29-925 


29-837 


30-026 


30-014 


29-704 


29-616 


29-759 


29-807 


1779 


30111 


29-889 


30-021 


29-716 


29-698 


30-076 


29959 


30124 


29-859 


29-980 


29-726 


29-746 


29-909 


1780 


29-999 


29-702 


29714 


29-660 


29-827 


29-907 


29-791 


30-107 


29-704 


29-990 


29-936 


30-266 


29-883 


1781 


29-977 


29-622 


30155 


29-861 


30-086 


29-893 


29-950 


29-777 


29-864 


30-121 


29-758 


29-736 


29-900 


1782 


29-628 


29-973 


29-627 


29-858 


29-702 


29-942 


29-923 


29-988 


29-878 


30 059 


29 950 


29-985 


29-876 


1783 


29-410 


29-659 


29 768 


30-201 


30 009 


29-844 


29 949 


29-888 


29-696 


29-827 


29-932 


29-999 


29-848 


1784 


29-941 


29-835 


29-874 


29-695 


29-991 


29-796 


29-841 


29-894 


29-899 


30-202 


29-768 


29-963 


29-892 


1785 


29-812 


30-014 


30-252 


30-167 


29-971 


30-087 


29-780 


29-784 


29-747 


29-877 


29-662 


29-977 


29-928 


1786 


29-589 


29-878 


30-023 


30-050 


29-862 


30-053 


30-023 


29-826 


29-641 


30-065 


30-039 


29-521 


29-889 


1787 


30*123 


29-697 


29-676 


30-007 


29-946 


29-828 


29-771 


29-900 


29-863 


29-696 


29-770 


29-794 


29 839 


1788 


29-977 


29714 


29-734 


30 055 


30-094 


30-058 


29-926 


29-901 


29-830 


30-128 


29-938 


29-994 


29-946 


1789 


29-636 


29-420 


29-788 


29-644 


29-839 


29-770 


29-794 


29-918 


29-764 


29-644 


29-673 


29-583 


29-706 


1790 


29-949 


29-959 


30-217 


29-934 


29-941 


29-980 


29-660 


29-717 


29-849 


29-816 


29-774 


29-667 


29-872 


1791 


29-186 


29 789 


29 990 


29-810 


29-903 


29-877 


29-716 


29-978 


30-063 


29 692 


29-626 


29-542 


29-764 


1792 


29-742 


29-920 


29-582 


29-849 


29-893 


29-911 


29-766 


29-898 


29-652 


29-794 


29-865 


29-642 


29-793 


1793 


29-916 


29-666 


29-869 


29-967 


30-150 


29-884 


29-970 


29-878 


29-960 


29-811 


29-923 


29-710 


29-892 


1794 


29-909 


29-614 


29-871 


29 818 


29-973 


30-075 


29-950 


29-909 


29-874 


29740 


29-662 


29-937 


29-861 


1795 


30-163 


29-756 


29-827 


29-739 


30-135 


29-953 


30-003 


29-866 


30-054 


29-500 


29-818 


29-803 


29-885 


1796 


29-434 


29 802 


30-133 


30-092 


29-803 


29-871 


29-645 


30-015 


29-942 


29-769 


29-867 


29-937 


29-859 


1797 


30-020 


30-189 


29-881 


29 836 


29-795 


29-909 


29-839 


29 716 


29-702 


29-809 


29-920 


29-603 


29-852 


1798 


29-798 


29-938 


29-995 


29-895 


30-074 


30-046 


29-633 


29-985 


29 666 


29-761 


29-550 


29-968 


29-859 


1799 


29-904 


29 657 


29 901 


29-716 


29-851 


30-027 


29 745 


29-625 


29-741 


29-695 


29-693 


30-094 


29-804 


1800 


29-505 


29-970 


29-926 


29-578 


29-834 


29-974 


30-047 


30-011 


29 720 


29-700 


29-551 


29-586 


29-775 


1801 


29-713 


29 718 


29-726 


29-986 


29-891 


30-047 


29-840 


30-115 


29-930 


29-741 


29-673 


29-490 


29-822 


1802 


29-378 


29-665 


29-957 


29-865 


30-077 


29-762 


29-754 


29-923 


29-991 


29-684 


29-821 


29-701 


29-840 


1803 


29-889 


29-709 


30-042 


29-829 


29-814 


29-970 


30-075 


29-962 


30-082 


30-048 


29-528 


29-601 


29-879 


1804 


29-568 


30 088 


29-697 


29-775 


29-808 


30-005 


29-832 


29-854 


30-053 


29-643 


29-961 


29-958 


29-854 


1805 


29-654 


29-721 


29-869 


29 910 


29949 


29-978 


29-901 


29-883 


29-934 


29-994 


30-234 


29-633 


29-888 


1806 


29-434 


29-751 


29-845 


30-149 


30018 


30-081 


29-806 


29-772 


29-972 


29-884 


29-601 


29-364 


29-806 


1807 


29-972 


29-621 


30-093 


29-912 


29-888 


30-001 


29-883 


29-863 


29-764 


29-809 


29-533 


29-819 


29-846 


1808 


29-684 


30-067 


30-209 


29847 


29-886 


29-993 


29-990 


29-874 


29-859 


29-654 


29-839 


29-817 


29-893 


1809 


29-612 


29-624 


30*098 


29 896 


29-920 


29-915 


29-942 


29-708 


29-729 


30-064 


29-940 


29-399 


29-821 


1810 


30-102 


29-796 


29-703 


29-878 


30-017 


30-065 


29-767 


29-830 


30-027 


29-929 


29-541 


29 664 


29-860 


1811 


29-901 


29-461 


30-125 


29-764 


29-815 


29-916 


30-056 


29-873 


30-098 


29-613 


29-904 


29-662 


29 849 


1812 


29-835 


29-514 


29817 


29-972 


29-912 


29-951 


29-986 


30-042 


29 960 


29-436 


29-873 


30-071 


29-864 


1813 


30-031 


29-556 


30-017 


29-970 


29-789 


30-046 


29-832 


30-036 


29-996 


29-766 


29-668 


29-861 


29-881 


1814 


29-736 


30-026 


29 850 


29-840 


30-086 


30-059 


29-941 


29-862 


30054 


29-760 


29-688 


29.641 


29-879 


1815 


29-920 


29-664 


29-576 


29-971 


29-879 


29-889 


30-037 


29-816 


29-886 


29-802 


29-977 


29-747 


29-847 


1816 


29-613 


29-840 


29-798 


29-814 


29-870 


29-889 


29-692 


29-912 


29-841 


29-850 


29-754 


29-634 


29-767 


1817 


29-629 


29-708 


29-670 


30-298 


29*774 


29-806 


29-737 


29-676 


29-962 


30-058 


29-837 


29-582 


29-814 


1818 


29-605 


29-615 


29-471 


29-910 


30-002 


29-967 


30-030 


30-083 


29-757 


29-844 


29-829 


30-070 


29-849 


1819 


29-679 


29-627 


29-900 


29-830 


29-978 


29-833 


29-967 


30-025 


29-941 


29-883 


29-808 


29-772 


29-854 


1820 


29-955 


30-071 


29 920 


29-947 


29-779 


29 966 


29-972 


29-776 


29-947 


29-648 


29-921 


30-018 


29-910 































110 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table I. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 




1821 


29-966 


30-278 


29-487 


29-635 


29-926 


30-219 


29-918 


29-931 


29-796 


29-817 


29-631 


29-318 


29-827 


1822 


30-102 


29-867 


29-788 


29-984 


30-092 


30-103 


29-790 


29-825 


29-980 


29-627 


29-518 


30-078 


29-896 


1823 


29-874 


29-386 


29-768 


29-903 


20-853 


29-888 


29762 


29-795 


29-881 


29-699 


30-058 


29-567 


29-786 


1824 


29-962 


29 854 


29-861 


29-922 


30-052 


29 994 


29 951 


29-889 


29-880 


29-654 


29 498 


29-600 


29-843 


1825 


30 -124 


30-055 


30-134 


29-997 


30-014 


29-921 


30-153 


29-857 


29-836 


29-853 


29-637 


29-556 


29-920 


1826 


30-081 


29-688 


30-052 


29-899 


30166 


30-257 


29-903 


29-874 


29-920 


29-782 


29-898 


29-846 


29-947 


1827 


29-795 


30-078 


29-543 


29-967 


29-733 


29-831 


29-974 


30-054 


29 938 


29-775 


29-971 


29-628 


29-857 


1828 


29-906 


29-703 


29-853 


29-755 


29-902 


29 921 


29-667 


29-784 


29-904 


29-982 


29-800 


29-788 


29-830 


1829 


29-926 


29-980 


30-112 


29-529 


30-057 


30-003 


29-701 


29-813 


29-664 


29-928 


30-056 


30-190 


29-913 


1830 


30-076 


29-689 


29-992 


29-650 


29 865 


29-772 


29-811 


29-774 


29-630 


30-135 


29-741 


29-706 


29-820 


1831 


29-838 


29-652 


29-854 


29-787 


30-019 


29-885 


29 951 


29-909 


29-841 


29-616 


29-735 


29-628 


29-810 


1832 


29-929 


29-984 


29-795 


30-048 


29-952 


29-849 


30-068 


29-812 


30-010 


29-891 


29-782 


29-777 


29-908 


1833 


30-270 


29-382 


29-978 


29-719 


30-047 


29-725 


29-987 


29-911 


29-876 


29-730 


29-736 


29-437 


29-816 


1834 


29-514 


29-950 


30-051 


30-219 


29-991 


29-873 


29-989 


29-824 


30-012 


29-880 


29-911 


30-185 


29-950 


1835 


30-028 


29-616 


29-896 


30-127 


29-879 


30044 


29-942 


29948 


29 585 


29-736 


29-903 


30-164 


29-906 


1836 


29-795 


29-842 


29-401 


29-863 


30-312 


29-764 


29-831 


29-976 


29-839 


•29-730 


29-534 


29-762 


29-804 


1837 


30 004 


29816 


30-046 


29-876 


29948 


29-916 


29-889 


29932 


29-856 


29-889 


29-644 


29-834 


29-888 


1838 


30-104 


29-789 


29-692 


29-698 


29-968 


29-822 


29-910 


29-768 


29-977 


29-911 


29-612 


29-950 


29-850 


1839 


29-759 


29-746 


29-762 


30-034 


30-016 


29-923 


29-830 


29-904 


29-525 


30-070 


29-694 


29-637 


29-825 


1840 


29-529 


29-914 


30-361 


30-043 


29-896 


29-835 


29-752 


29-843 


29-664 


29-985 


29-543 


30-192 


29-880 


1841 


29-785 


29-866 


29-741 


29-817 


29-804 


29-916 


29-773 


29-778 


29-722 


29-570 


29-701 


29-570 


29-754 


1842 


29-987 


29-835 


29-706 


30-187 


29-854 


29989 


29-896 


29-968 


29-888 


29-943 


29-709 


29-871 


29-903 


1843 


29-564 


29-765 


29-922 


29-734 


29-843 


29-881 


29-879 


29-885 


30-173 


29-627 


29-721 


30-172 


29 847 


1844 


29-927 


29-573 


29-754 


30030 


30-237 


29-869 


29-859 


29-723 


30-042 


29-620 


29795 


30-113 


29-878 


1845 


29-728 


29-927 


29-996 


29-867 


29-925 


29-820 


29-859 


29-795 


29-868 


29-840 


29-589 


29-626 


29-820 


1846 


29-625 


29-833 


29 -650 


29-752 


29-873 


29 952 


29-778 


29 912 


29-953 


29-541 


29-905 


29-847 


29-802 


1847 


29-828 


29-882 


29-999 


29-683 


29-819 


29-902 


30-032 


29-935 


29-794 


29-875 


29-843 


29-707 


29-858 


1848 


29-939 


29-412 


29 579 


29-766 


29-989 


29-708 


29-837 


29-740 


29 930 


29-763 


29-829 


29-771 


29-772 


1849 


29718 


30-042 


30-038 


29-693 


29-932 


29-963 


29-833 


29-873 


30-004 


29-827 


29-741 


29-993 


29-888 


1850 


29966 


29-675 


30171 


29-646 


29-837 


29-912 


29-900 


29-810 


30-053 


29-763 


29-689 


29-866 


29-857 


1851 


29-561 


29-931 


29-701 


29-877 


30-018 


29-894 


29-787 


29-969 


30-179 


29-832 


29-940 


30-169 


29-905 


1852 


29-427 


29-899 


30 206 


30-140 


29-875 


29-628 


29-969 


29-725 


29-930 


29-813 


29-505 


29-434 


29-796 


1853 


29-527 


29-758 


29-919 


29-751 


30-008 


29-825 


29-707 


29-877 


29-884 


29-587 


29-956 


30-012 


29-818 


1854 


29-592 


30-018 


30-068 


30-035 


29-702 


29-822 


29-887 


29-917 


30-022 


29-736 


29-782 


29-624 29-850 


1855 


30-150 


29-840 


29-615 


29-951 


29-873 


29-935 


29-852 


29-850 


30018 


29-538 


30-058 


29*790 j 29872 j 


1856 


29-437 


39-803 


30 094 


29-764 


29-857 


29 913 


29-866 


29-869 


29-770 


30-111 


30-037 


29-629 29-846 


1857 


29-734 


29-910 


29-806 


29-938 


29962 


30-016 


29-862 


30-041 


29-871 


29813 


30-134 


30-028 


29-926 


1858 


30149 


30-0-22 


29-865 


29-800 


29810 


30-032 


29-891 


29-946 


29-908 


29-901 


29 954 


29-733 


29-918 . 


1859 


29-930 


29-750 


29-734 


29-742 


30-018 


29-950 


30-064 


29-850 


29-725 


29 662 


29-854 


29-642 


29-827 


1860 


29-513 


29-924 


29-640 


29-960 


29-837 


29-643 


29-986 


29-571 


29-884 


29-801 


29-935 


29-700 


29-783 | 


1861 


30-058 


29-702 


29-551 


30-191 


30-076 


29-960 


29-611 


29-785 


29-720 


29-953 


29-531 


30-034 ' 29 848 


18<>2 


29-691 


30-058 


29-738 


29-893 


29-805 


29-765 


29-709 


29-862 


30-020 


29-689 


29 919 


29-816 29-830 


1863 


29-568 


30-078 


29-786 


29-874 


29-990 


•29 810 


30-123 


29-792 


29-639 


29-688 


29-884 


29-898 129-844 


1864 


30-080 


29-930 


29 669 


30-066 


30-032 


29-910 


30-012 


30-138 


29-868 


30-022 


29-816 


29-996 29-962 


1865 


29-566 


29-894 


29-942 


30-168 


29-918 


30-213 


29-896 


29-8-14 


30-122 


29-644 


29-826 


30-042 29-923 


1866 


29-64 i 


29-596 


29-753 


29-976 


30-032 


29-915 


29-914 


29 752 


29 619 


30-122 


29-851 


29-753 29-830 


1867 


29*692 


29 906 


29-932 


29-658 


29-989 


30-027 


29-815 


29-823 


29-902 


29-746 


30-196 


29-908 29-883 


1868 


29-736 


29-816 


29-756 


29-834 


29-S68 


30-004 


30-024 


29-782 


29-868 


29-772 


29-949 


29-318 29-811 


1869 


29-785 


29-697 


29-885 


29-916 


29-881 


30-020 


29-950 


30-058 


29-578 


29-989 


29 818 


29-772 ! 29 862 


1870 


29-892 


29 886 


30-085 


30-046 


29-952 


30-072 


29-982 


30-044 


29-979 


29-662 


29-679 


29-980 


29-938 


1871 


29-764 


29-868 


•29 944 


29-818 


30-105 


30-000 


29 738 


29-945 


29-955 


29-912 


30-022 


29-958 


29-919 


1872 


29-432 


29-727 


•--9-768 


29-920 


29 856 


29-801 


•j:<-'.n;-2 


29-986 


29-722 


29-628 


29-554 


29-482 


29-737 


1873 


29-500 


30118 


29-831 


30-078 


29 934 


29-913 


29817 


29 825 


29-868 


29-780 


29-876 


30-038 


29-882 


1874 


29-808 


29-903 


30-036 


29-766 


30 003 


30-100 


29-908 


29-687 


29-756 


29-678 


27-876 


29-817 


29-861 


1875 


29-718 


30-1)2 


30-177 


30-049 


29-916 


29 831 


30-002 


29 993 


29-987 


29-787 


29-846 


29-978 


29-950 


1876 


30-168 


29 685 


29-420 


29-841 


30-184 


29-949 


29-994 


29-884 


29-749 


29-8S7 


29-874 


29 420 


29-833 


1877 


29-669 ! 


29-737 


29-696 


29-846 


29-884 


29 934 


29-792 


29-795 


30-066 


29-817 


29422 


29-864 


29794 


1878 


30-032 


30-142 


30-006 


29-876 


'^9-734 


29-929 


30-027 


29-780 


29-870 


29-602 


29-823 


29-692 


29-876 


1879 


30-079 


29-530 


29-934 


29-766 


30-018 


29-727 


29-716 


29727 


29-851 


30-094 


30-244 


30-170 


29-905 


1880 


30-252 


29-590 


30-063 


29'834 


30-110 


29-929 


29-838 


30-058 


29-916 


29-978 


29 804 


29-767 


29-928 j 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



Ill 



Table I. — continued. 



Year. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. ! May. June. ' July. | Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Year. 



1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 

1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



ins. 
29-920 
30-145 
29-758 
29-794 
29-796 
29-554 
29-809 
30-115 
30-049 
29-602 

29-991 
29-744 
30-007 
29-650 
29-766 
30-222 



ins. 
29-823 
30-029 
29-866 
29-768 
29-468 
30-090 
30-177 
30043 
29-830 
30-242 

30-337 
29-776 
29-540 
29-755 
30-162 
30-202 



IDS. 

29-792 
29-794 
29-974 
29-810 
30-010 
29-895 
30-032 
29 631 
29-910 
29-684 

29-758 
30-047 
30-008 
29-813 
29-631 
29 633 



ins. 
30-028 
29-785 
30-014 
29872 
29-783 
29-877 
29-984 
29-875 
29-738 
29-816 

30-040 
30-012 
30-192 
29-877 
29-850 
30-054 



ins. 
30-052 
30-030 
29-927 
29-878 
29-712 
29-893 
30-046 
29-9-10 
29-823 
29-847 

29-790 
29 926 
30-058 
29-940 
30-116 
30-266 



ins. 
29-899 
29-820 
29-964 
30-017 
30-000 
29-934 
30-182 
29 981 
30-067 
29-874 

30-084 
29-940 
29-9S8 
29-971 
30-045 
29-908 



ins. 


ins. 


29-863 


29-750 


29-714 


29-819 


29-785 


29-857 


29-943 


29-943 


29-982 


29-982 


29-887 


29-887 


29-921 


29-921 


29-902 


29-902 


29-743 


29-743 


29-800 


29-800 

1 



29-672 
29-808 
29-928 
29-832 
29-784 
29-868 



29-672 
29-808 
29-928 
29-826 
29-765 
29-985 



ins. 
30-008 
29-857 
29-764 
29-928 
29-723 
29-949 
29-870 
30-141 
30-000 
30-007 

29-822 
29-800 
29-739 
30-229 
30-053 
29-660 



ms. 
30-046 
29-834 
29-852 
29-950 
29-724 
29-796 
30-039 
29-936 
29-668 
29-950 

29-635 
29-700 
29-730 
29-926 
29-800 
29-702 



1 . 
ms. 


ins. 


29-666 


29 802 


29-558 


29-628 


29-632 


30-028 


30-077 


29-676 


29-876 


30-037 


29-792 


29-492 



29-665 
29-671 
30-082 
29-736 

29-785 
29-921 
29-966 
29-786 
29-784 
30-121 



29-702 
29-807 
30-013 
30-104 

29-738 
29-891 
29-739 
29-854 
29-691 
29-682 



29-887 
29-835 
29-868 
29-888 
29-842 
29829 
! 29-946 
! 29-912 
129-889 
29-872 

i 29-860 
29-864 
29-902 

'29-872 
29-870 
29-942 



Decennial Means. 



1771-80 
1781-90 
1791-1800 
1801-10 
1811-20 
1821-30 
1831-40 
1841-50 
1851-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 
1881-90 
1891-96 
Means 
1770-1896 
127 Yrs 



| 29-813 


29-675 


29-852 


29-881 


29-919 


29-929 


29-870 


29-901 


29-824 


29-787 


1 29-804 


29-777 


29 910 


29-947 


29945 


29-925 


29-862 


29-859 


29-803 


29-944 


29-758 


29-820 


29-898 


29-830 


29-941 


29 953 


29-831 


29-888 


29-837 


29-727 


29-751 


29-776 


29-924 


29 905 


29-927 


29982 


29-879 


29-878 


29-934 


29-845 


29-790 


29-708 


29-814 


29-932 


29-888 


29-922 


29 925 


29-910 


29-944 


29-766 | 


29-981 


29-838 


29-859 


29-824 


29-966 


29991 


29-863 


29-878 


29-843 


29-825 


' 29-877 


29-769 


29-884 


29-941 


30 003 


29-864 


29-915 


29-883 


29-818 


29-843 


29-807 


29-781 


29-856 


29-817 


29-911 


29-891 


29-865 


29-842 


29-943 


29-737 


29-702 


29-886 


29-865 


29-895 


29-896 


29-866 


29-887 


29-861 


29-919 


29-780 


29-771 


29-856 


29-810 


29-963 


29-953 


29 970 


29-907 


29-888 


29-831 


29-829 


29-842 


29-838 


29-888 


29-880 


29-974 


29-912 


29-880 


29-868 


29-874 


29-919 


29-854 


29-933 


29-853 


29-877 


29-915 


29 974 


29-854 


29-860 


29-925 


29-879 


29-897 


29 962 


29-815 


30-004 


30016 


29-989 


29-815 


29-831 


29-884 


29-749 


29 818 


29-813 


29-864 


29-895 


29-940 


29-932 


29-876 


29-875 


29-874 


29-810 



29-798 
29-827 
29-748 
29-767 
29-826 
29-781 
29-709 
29752 
29-916 
29-847 
29-833 
29-775 
29-894 



29-872 
29-822 
29-782 
29-645 
29-806 
29-728 
29-857 
29-853 
29-776 
29-852 
29-819 
29-829 
29-766 



29-801 ! 29-800 



•843 
•S69 
•834 
•851 
•851 
•864 
•864 
•838 
•854 
•873 
•869 
•877 
•885 



29-858 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



112 



MB ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table II. 

Showing the Highest Barometric Pressure in each Month from 1840 to 1896. 

At 32° and Mean Sea-Level. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 

ins. 


Mar. 
ins. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 

1 
I 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


1840 


30-415 


30-717 


30-725 


30-407 1 


30-390 


30-126 


30-315 | 


30-305 


30-161 


30-618 


30-454 


30-803 


1841 


30-31 S 


30-662 


30-479 


30-297 


30-524 


30-236 


30-206 


30-250 ! 


30-315 


30-262 


30-437 


30-121 


18*2 


30-567 


30-419 


30-375 1 


30-427 


30-516 


30-434 


30-357 


30-336 


30-524 


30-551 


30-527 


30-501 


184:5 


30-408 


30-353 


30-406 


30-397 


3 )-453 


30-255 


30-274 


30-280 


30-602 


30-383 


30-356 


30-429 


1844 


30-515 


30-135 


30-482 


30-376 


30-601 


30-176 


30-190 


30-318 


30-337 


30-332 


30-340 


30 551 


1845 


30-284 


30-252 | 


30-441 


30-582 


30-326 


30-230 


30-364 


30-403 


30-352 


30-417 


30-357 


30-498 


1846 


30-504 


30-381 ! 


30-521 


30-277 i 


30-271 


30-356 


30-187 


30-350 


30-546 


30-300 


30-596 


30-540 


1847 


30-560 


30-456 


30-712 '• 


30-188 


30-582 


30-515 


30-426 


30-451 


30-448 


30-349 


30-428 


30-428 


1848 


30-599 


30-218 


30-208 


30-128 ' 


30-363 


30-198 


30-471 


30-041 


30-366 


30-372 


30-632 


30-575 


1849 


30166 


30-649 


30-361 


30-377 1 


30-326 


30-184 


30-426 


30-198 


30-595 


30-440 


30-227 


30-867 


1850 


30*499 


30-265 


30-621 


30-490 


30-271 


30-381 


30-222 


30-277 


30-557 


30-416 


30322 


30-410 


1851 


30-190 


30-520 


30-469 


30-237 


30-479 


30-331 


30-267 


30-380 


30-637 


30-404 


30-437 


30-629 


1852 


30 190 


30-732 


30-797 


30-377 


30-329 


29-939 


30-232 


30-372 


30-324 


30-417 


30-134 


30-185 


1853 


30-301 


30*195 


30-256 


30-287 


30-362 


30-282 


30-116 


30-394 


30-500 


30-972 


30-398 


30-517 


1854 


30179 


30-530 


30-902 


30-514 


30-236 


30-248 


30.271 


30-389 


30-510 


30-511 


30-377 


30-343 


1855 


30 653 ; 


30-291 


30-524 


30-513 


30-355 


30-420 


30-188 


30-261 


30-624 


30-131 


30-485 


30-297 


1856 


30-595 


30.581 ' 


30-750 


30-453 


30-402 


30-280 


30-250 


30-319 


30-305 


30-586 


30671 


30-380 


1857 


30-430 


30-470 


30.660 


30-262 


30-352 


30-414 


30-264 


30-393 


30-495 


30-406 


30-810 


30-622 


1858 


30-693 


30-538 


30-545 


30-395 


30-434 


30-386 


30-262 


30-385 


30-393 


30-586 


30-621 


30-257 


185!* 


30-740 


30-521 


30-305 


30-303 


30-347 


30-252 


30-286 


30-277 


30-218 


30-106 


30-717 


30-684 


1860 


30255 


30-782 


30-564 


30-524 


30.505 


30-186 


30-319 


29-947 


30-411 


30-295 


30-649 


30-290 


1861 


30-374 


30-508 


30-212 


30-536 


30-349 


30-242 


30-005 


30-184 


30-208 


30-373 


30-294 


30-583 


1862 


30-448 


30-693 


30-377 


30-467 


30-304 


30 -259 


30-203 


30-341 


30-363 


30-521 


30-555 


30-225 


1863 


30-546 


30-756 


30-486 


30-287 


30-496 


30-316 


30-616 


30-246 


30-236 


30-356 


30-566 


30-456 


1864 


30-726 


30616 


30-186 


30-536 


30-416 


30-286 


30-416 


30-686 


30-416 


30-556 


30-776 


30-676 


1865 


30176 


30 616 


30-276 


30-536 


30-456 


30-636 


30-436 


30-316 


30-556 


30-386 


30-536 


30-856 


186 ! 


30486 


30-356 


30-486 


30-616 


30-586 


30-326 


30-376 


30-186 


30-256 


30-616 


30-276 


30-456 


1867 


30-216 


30-556 


30-846 


30-216 


30-326 


30-636 


30-356 


30-096 


30-516 


30-316 


30-616 


30-406 


1868 


30 -3.-.6 


30-396 


30-526 


30-386 


30-326 


30-436 


30-486 


30-216 


30-486 


30-166 


30-606 


30-136 


1869 


30-326 


30-131 


30-370 


3H-540 


30-320 


30-304 


30-216 


30-336 


30-433 


30-334 


30-313 


30-670 


1870 


30-656 


30-608 


30-560 


30-440 


30-412 


30-570 


30-305 


30-408 


30-515 


30-620 


30-561 


30-673 


1871 


30-394 


30-406 


30 616 


30-221 


30-416 


30-351 


30-021 


30-368 


30-458 


30-448 


30-305 


30-431 


1872 


29-926 


30-213 


30-260 


30-432 


30-340 


30-268 


30-188 


30-328 


30-184 


30-354 


30-408 


29-978 


1873 


30-282 


30-623 


30-276 


30-508 


30-426 


30-345 


30-122 


30-092 


30-480 


30-434 


30-602 


30-574 


1874 


30-507 


30-607 


30-879 


30-427 


30-440 


30-691 


30-256 


30-564 


30-297 


30-513 


30-348 


30-401 


1875 


30-570 


30-506 


30-732 


30-576 


30-480 


30-406 


30-406 


30-244 


30-432 


30-208 


30-580 


30-574 


1876 


30-677 


30-240 


30-224 


30-426 


30-584 


30-263 


30-456 


30-290 


30-375 


30-390 


30-387 


30-197 


1877 


30-496 


30-348 


30-254 


30-410 


30-450 


30-293 


30-150 


30-240 


30-550 


30-627 


30-337 


30-620 


1878 


30 624 


30-545 


30-685 


30-280 


30-136 


30-180 


30-436 


30-382 


30-190 


30-269 


30-396 


30-382 


1879 


30-504 


30-295 


30-543 


30-339 


30-520 


30-155 


30-044 


30-162 


30-297 


30-570 


30-526 


30-685 


1880 


30-650 


30-365 


30516 


30-546 


30-402 


30-480 


30-246 


30-376 


30-392 


30 454 


30-433 


30-452 


1881 


3.1-778 


30498 


30-346 


.'io-305 


30-769 


30268 


30-138 


30-170 


30-461 


30-496 


30-188 


30-400 


1882 


30-866 


30-664 


30-486 


; 30-596 


30-467 


30-383 


30-375 


30-363 


30 390 


30-670 


30-341 


30-140 


1883 


:;0-:,:;s 


30-632 


30-734 


30-690 


30 1 16 


30-362 


30-304 


30-270 


30-570 


30-468 


30-300 


30-620 


1884 


30-547 


30-290 


30-321 


! 30-272 


30-404 


30-318 


30-189 


30-216 


30-520 


30-736 


30-661 


30-419 


1885 


30-133 


30-189 


30-638 


30-242 


30-183 


30-387 


30-441 


30-285 


30-160 


30-455 


30-443 


30-611 


1886 


30116 


30-499 


30-589 


30-402 


30-360 


30-312 


30 282 


30-254 


30-634 


30-549 


30-661 


30 476 


1887 


30-451 


30-700 


30-506 


30-598 


30-459 


30-484 


30-356 


30-337 


30-558 


30-595 


30-286 


30280 


1-- 


30-691 


30-574 


30-509 


30-332 


30-566 


30-377 


30-055 


30-286 


30-519 


30-511 


30-134 


30-390 


1889 


30-580 


30-456 


BO-607 


30-03- 


30-074 


30-488 


30-447 


30-223 


30-499 


30-388 


30-613 


30-733 


1890 




30-735 


30-543 


. 30-278 


30-3OI 


30-366 


30-220 


30-218 


30-454 


30-450 


30-323 


30-593 


1891 


30 795 


30-662 


30-146 


30-429 


30-327 


30 392 


30-407 


30-016 


30-164 


30-751 


30-731 


30-614 


1892 


30-411 


30-619 


30 621 


30-457 


30-499 


30-383 


30-384 


30-255 


30-377 


30-379 


30-437 


30-272 


1893 


30- 1*5 


30-295 


30-447 


30-653 


30-582 


30-434 


30-221 


30-331 


30-330 


30-376 


30-553 


30-643 


1894 




30-466 


30-509 


30-424 


30-519 


30-477 




30-323 


30-568 


30-497 


30-528 


30-642 


189E 


30-676 


30-711 


30-242 


80-40J 


30-616 


80-486 


30-230 


30-185 


30-389 


30-558 


30-590 


30-447 


1896 


31-071 


30-689 


30-190 


30-450 


30-537 


30-170 


30' ; ' i 


30-327 


30-362 


30-543 


30-644 


30-392 

1 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



113 



Table III. 

Showing the Lowest Barometric Pressure in each Month from 1840 to 189(5. 

At 32 and Mean Sea-Level. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


1840 


28-241 


28-615 


29-589 


29-392 


29-254 


29-300 


29-163 


28-846 


28-928 


29-065 


28-401 


29105 


1841 


28-653 


29-042 


29-020 


29-264 


28-901 


29-462 


29-436 


29-336 


28-835 


28-820 


28-620 


28-825 


1842 


28-786 


28-885 


29-037 


29-277 


28 787 


29-154 


29-204 


29-593 


29-295 


28-703 


28-901 


29-029 


1843 


28-082 


28-997 


29-349 


29-276 


29-354 


28-913 


29-384 


29-271 


29-698 


28-770 


2S-995 


29-513 


1844 


29-044 


28-952 


28-798 


29-603 


29-823 


29-480 


-9-156 


29-001 


29-615 


28-850 


28-885 


29-490 


1845 


28-624 


29-452 


29-048 


29-124 


29-404 


29-109 


29-246 


29-283 


29-026 


29-142 


28-413 


28-500 


1846 


28-790 


29-036 


28-870 


29-087 


29-017 


29-216 


29-178 


29-323 


29-303 


28-771 


28-920 


28-963 


1847 


28-850 


29 -225 


29-239 


28-984 


29-278 


29-329 


29-726 


29-248 


28-635 


29-091 


28-984 


28-439 


1848 


29-297 


28-580 


28-535 


29-342 


29-203 


29-269 


28-996 


29-316 


29-485 


29-182 


28-949 


28-810 


1849 


29-287 


28-920 


29-349 


29-232 


29-115 


29-487 


29-266 


29153 


29-217 


29.364 


29-142 


29-407 


1850 


29-217 


28-695 


29-539 


28-775 


29-241 


29-251 


29-168 


29-293 


29-323 


28-893 


28-340 


28-785 


1851 


29-019 


29-134 


28-999 


29-250 


29-565 


29-465 


28-855 


29-576 


29-131 


28-851 


29-194 


29-449 


1852 


28-710 


25-962 


29-389 


29-627 


29-391 


29 231 


29-714 


29-038 


29-226 


29-027 


28-685 


28-051 


1853 


28-720 


29-222 


29-504 


28-707 


29-566 


29-200 


29-098 


28-987 


28-832 


29 095 


29-584 


29-584 


1854 


28-960 


29-069 


29526 


29-115 


28-854 


29-306 


29-303 


29-460 


29-516 


29-068 


28-676 


28-682 


1855 


29-646 


•29-407 


28-751 


28-859 


29-423 


29-145 


29-485 


29-420 


29-332 


28-740 


29168 


28-884 


1856 


28-606 


29-243 


29-916 


29-214 


29-226 


29-486 


20-274 


29-414 


28 963 


29-427 


29-587 


28 854 


1857 


28-829 


29-196 


28-474 


29-300 


29-499 


29-324 


29-402 


29 674 


29-899 


29 095 


28-977 


29-246 


1858 


•29-555 


29-031 


28-985 


28-869 


29-287 


29-666 


29-318 


29-368 


29-449 


28-798 


28-860 


29 020 


1859 


28-939 


29-078 


28-920 


29-000 


29 766 


29-582 


29 247 


29-113 


29-227 


28-998 


28-455 


28-846 


1860 


28-464 


28-673 


28-602 


29-676 


29335 


29-102 


29-606 


28-909 


29-236 


29-070 


29-072 


28-866 


1861 


29-421 


28-908 


28-852 


29813 


29 467 


29-625 


29-212 


29-371 


28-903 


29 217 


29-092 


29-091 


1862 


29-097 


29-252 


29-003 


29-279 


29-477 


29-169 


29-391 


29-341 


29-519 


28621 


29-029 


29-339 


1863 


28'646 


29-396 


29-216 


29-251 


29-396 


29-466 


29-716 


29-456 


28-736 


29-756 


29-136 


28 -926 


1864 


29416 


29-106 


29-086 


29-416 


29-766 


29-716 


29-616 


29-586 


29-536 


28-786 


28-636 


29-546 


186f. 


28-466 


29-216 


29-356 


29-926 


29-678 


29-836 


29-626 


29-616 


29-756 


28-876 


28916 


29-046 


1866 


29-766 


29-166 


28-866 


29-446 


29-376 


29-436 


29-206 


29-306 


29-216 


29-536 


29-366 


28-846 


1867 


28-816 


28-556 


28-916 


28-886 


29-526 


29-486 


29-236 


29-496 


29-486 


29-036 


29 '256 


29-096 


1868 


•29-016 


29-616 


28-796 


28-856 


29-366 


29-656 


29-526 


29-276 


29-066 


29-246 


28-906 


28-446 


1869 


28-708 


28-678 


28-910 


29-143 


29-188 


29-450 


29-387 


29-493 


28-940 


29-127 


29144 


28-331 


1870 


28-547 


29-080 


29-186 


29-397 


29-092 


29-517 


29514 


29-537 


28-854 


28-482 


28-900 


28-843 


1871 


28-493 


29-208 


29-192 


29-138 


29-462 


29-474 


29-187 


29-463 


29-345 


29-120 


29-393 


29-180 


1872 


28-215 


29-186 


29-125 


29-360 


28-900 


29-288 


29-648 


29-464 


29-086 


29 0)4 


28 578 


28-716 


1873 


28-232 


28-872 


29-080 


29-632 


29-320 


29-424 


29-488 


29-410 


29-306 


28-795 


28-561 


29-146 


1874 


28-898 


28-898 


29-316 


28-647 


29-554 


29-632 


29-522 


29-300 


29-207 


28-660 


28-707 


28-720 


1875 


28-630 


29-670 


29447 


28-997 


29-276 


29 074 


29-399 


29-528 


29-180 


29-174 


29-044 


29-069 


1876 


29-476 


28-881 


28-260 


28-995 


29-560 


29-371 


29-392 


29-026 


29-229 


28-725 


29-357 


28-497 


1877 


28-744 


29-102 


29-178 


28-908 


28-803 


29-220 


29-157 


29-322 


28 930 


28-804 


28-255 


29-053 


1878 


29-133 


29-530 


28-892 


28-831 


29 254 


29-286 


29-641 


29-318 


28-983 


28 862 


29-064 


28-823 


1879 


29-462 


28-871 


29-320 


29-053 


29-531 


29-410 


29-016 


28.893 


29-126 


29-058 


29-415 


29-075 


1880 


29-406 


28-642 


28-761 


29-100 


29-410 


29-480 


29-380 


29-412 


29-501 


29-212 


28-766 


28-802 


1881 


28-891 


28-722 


29-003 


29-509 


29-163 


29-282 


29-420 


28-881 


29-456 


28-418 


28-171 


28-601 


1882 


28 -853 


28-872 


28-990 


29-131 


29-102 


29-300 


29-090 


29-169 


29-004 


29111 


28-817 


28-957 


1883 


28-732 


28-946 


28-875 


29-276 


29-478 


29-450 


29 227 


29-086 


29-070 


28-922 


28-594 


28-757 


1884 


27-451 


28-807 


29-050 


29-177 


28-914 


29-530 


29-372 


29 464 


29-287 


28-855 


29-237 


28 -874 


1885 


28-349 


28-548 


29-223 


29-009 


29-156 


29-208 


29-610 


29-099 


29-033 


28-805 


28-802 


28-891 


1886 


28-865 


28-916 


29-054 


28-839 


29-189 


29-474 


29-103 


29-483 


29-361 


28-778 


29-125 


27 -651 


1887 


28-779 


29-271 


29-075 


29-105 


29-212 


29-680 


29-253 


29-205 


29-025 


29-133 


28-835 


29-069 


1888 


29-069 


29342 


28-859 


29-372 


29-106 


29-502 


29-277 


29-424 


29-681 


29-189 


28-960 


28-975 


1889 


29-215 


28-999 


29-031 


29-228 


29-473 


29-705 


29-365 


29-127 


29-453 


28-660 


28-827 


29-078 


1890 


28-726 


29-514 


29-049 


29-213 


29-381 


29-307 


29-375 


29-011 


29-340 


29-231 


28-660 


29-323 


1891 


29-138 


29-640 


29-038 


29-431 


29-187 


29-534 


29-426 


28-698 


28-801 


28 370 


28-363 


28-558 


1892 


29-150 


28-708 


29-188 


29-454 


29-297 


29-258 


29.168 


29-209 


29-221 


2S-820 


29-249 


29-145 


1893 


29-244 


28-668 


29-272 


29-691 


29-470 


29-244 


29-254 


29-147 


28-796 


28-992 


28-510 


28-569 


1894 


28-939 


28-319 


28-789 


29-288 


29-466 


29-561 


29-188 


29-074 


29-885 


28-646 


28-802 


28-121 


1895 


29-000 


29-508 


28-643 


28-996 


29-660 


29-517 


29-399 


29-245 


29-249 


28-823 


28-357 


28-769 


1896 


28-857 


29-525 


28-299 


29-524 


29-755 


29-399 


29-510 


29-551 


28-821 


28-907 


29-081 


28-769 






114 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



TAULK IV. 



Showing the Monthly Range of Pressure. From Observations 
made daily at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


1840 


2-174 


2-102 


1-146 


1-015 


1-136 


0-826 


1-152 


1-459 


1-232 


1-553 


2-053 


1-698 


1841 


1-665 


1-620 


1-459 


1-033 


1-623 


0-774 


0-770 


0-914 


1-480 


1-442 


1-817 


1-296 


1842 


1-781 


1-534 


1-338 


1-150 


1-729 


1-280 


1-153 


0-743 


1-229 


1-848 


1-626 


1-472 


1844 


2-326 


1-356 


1-057 


1-121 


1-099 


1-342 


0-890 


1-109 


0-904 


1-613 


1-361 


0-916 


1844 


1-471 


1-183 


1-684 


0-773 


0-788 


0-696 


1-034 


1-317 


0-722 


1-482 


1-455 


1-061 


1845 


1-660 


0-801 


1-393 


1-458 


0-922 


1-121 


1-118 


1-120 


1-326 


1-275 


1-944 


1-998 


1846 


1-714 


1-345 


1-651 


1-190 


1-257 


1-140 


1-109 


1-027 


1-243 


1-509 


1-776 


1-577 


1847 


1-710 


1-231 


1 -473 


1-204 


1-304 


1-186 


0-700 


1-203 


1-813 


1-258 


1-444 


1-949 


184S 


1-302 


1-638 


1-673 


0-786 


1-160 


0-929 


1 -475 


0-725 


0-881 


1-190 


1-683 


1-727 


1849 


0-879 


1-729 


1-012 


1-145 


1-211 


0-697 


1-160 


1-045 


1-578 


1-076 


1-085 


1-460 


1850 


1-282 


1-570 


1-082 


1-715 


1-030 


1130 


1-054 


0-974 


1-234 


1-523 


1-982 


1-625 


1851 


1-171 


1-393 


1-470 


0-997 


0-914 


0-866 


1-512 


0-804 


1-506 


1-553 


1-243 


1-180 


1852 


1-420 


1-770 


1-408 


0-750 


0-938 


0758 


0-515 


1-334 


1-098 


1-390 


1-449 


2-134 


1853 


1 581 


0-873 


0-742 


1-580 


0-796 


1-082 


1-018 


1-407 


0-648 


0-877 


0-819 


0-933 


1854 


1 219 


1-461 


1-376 


1-399 


1-382 


0-942 


0-968 


0-929 


0-994 


1-443 


1-703 


1-662 


1855 


1-007 


0-884 


1-773 


1-654 


0-932 


1-275 


0-705 


0-841 


1-286 


1-391 


1-317 


1-413 


1856 


1-989 


1-338 


0-834 


1-234 


1-176 


0-794 


0-802 


0-905 


1-342 


1-159 


1-084 


1-568 


1857 


1-601 


1-174 


2-021 


1-850 


0-853 


1-090 


0-862 


0-719 


1-096 


1-311 


1-833 


1-376 


1858 


1-138 


1-507 


1-560 


1-526 


1-147 


0-720 


0-889 


1-017 


0-944 


1-788 


2-211 


1-237 


1859 


1-801 


1-443 


1-285 


1-303 


0-581 


0-670 


1-039 


1-164 


0-991 


1-108 


2-262 


1-838 


1860 


1-791 


2-109 


1-962 


1-848 


1-170 


1-084 


0-713 


1 -038 


1-175 


1-225 


1-577 


1-424 


1861 


0-953 


1-600 


1-360 


0-723 


0-884 


0-617 


0-793 


0813 


1-255 


1-156 


1-202 


1-492 


1862 


1 351 


1-441 


1-361 


1-188 


0-827 


1-090 


0-812 


1-000 


1-044 


1-900 


1-472 


1-150 


1863 


1-900 


1-360 


1-270 


1 -030 


1-100 


0-850 


0-900 


0-790 


1-500 


1-600 


1-430 


1-530 


1864 


1-310 


1-510 


1-100 


1-120 


0-650 


0-570 


800 


1-100 


0-880 


1-770 


2-140 


1-130 


1865 


1-710 


1-400 


0-920 


0-610 


0-780 


0-800 


0-810 


0-700 


0-800 


1-510 


1-620 


1-810 


1866 


1-720 


1-190 


1-620 


1-170 


1-210 


0-890 


1-170 


0-880 


1-040 


1-080 


0-910 


1-610 


1867 


1-400 


2-000 


1-930 


1-330 


0-800 


1-150 


1-120 


0-600 


1-030 


1-280 


1-360 


1-310 


1868 


1-92H 


1-780 


1-730 


1-530 


0-960 


0-780 


0-960 


0-940 


1-420 


0-920 


1-700 


1-690 


1869 


1-630 


1-460 


1-470 


1-400 


1-150 


0-930 


0-750 


0-860 


1-480 


1-230 


1-110 


2-180 


1870 


2 030 


1-530 


1-330 


1-200 


1-430 


1-050 


0-770 


0-870 


1-580 


2-130 


1-590 


1-760 


1871 


1-870 


1-220 


1-410 


1-060 


0-860 


0-830 


0-860 


1-180 


1-110 


1-260 


0-940 


1-190 


1872 


1-700 


0-990 


1-040 


1-000 


1-270 


0-980 


0-540 


0-864 


1-098 


1-268 


1-798 


1-274 


1873 


2-023 


1 -842 


1-201 


0-878 


1-095 


0-874 


0-608 


0-758 


1-174 


1-674 


1-976 


1-452 


1874 


1-400 


1-707 


1-512 


1-661 


0-842 


1-050 


0-724 


1-250 


1-015 


1-758 


1-637 


1-658 


1875 


1-857 


0-847 


1-286 


1-530 


1-024 


1-295 


1-014 


0-664 


1-185 


1081 


1-392 


1-404 


1876 


1-170 


1-294 


1-930 


1-416 


1-000 


0-793 


1-031 


1-240 


1-133 


1-591 


1-012 


1-638 


1877 


1-692 


1-185 


1-019 


1-453 


1-655 


1-031 


0-980 


0-901 


1-142 


1-823 


1-982 


1-586 


1878 


1-452 


0-962 


1-703 


1-461 


900 


0-899 


0-721 


1-058 


1-176 


1-388 


1-261 


1-462 


1879 


T036 


1-406 


1-162 


1-264 


0-983 


0737 


1019 


1-264 


1-166 


1-693 


1-098 


1-444 


1880 


1249 


1-724 


1-715 


1-445 


0-954 


0-963 


0-866 


0964 


0-986 


1-242 


1-667 


1-610 


1881 


1-910 


1-772 


1-356 


776 


1-605 


1-000 


0-693 


1-444 


1-005 


2-070 


2-017 


1-796 


1882 


2-022 


1-789 


1-510 


1-173 


1-364 


1-102 


1-254 


1-120 


1-280 


1-579 


1-518 


1-177 


18S3 


1 -809 


1-615 


1-768 


1-350 


0-963 


0-850 


1-048 


1-110 


1-360 


1 -542 


1-690 


1-736 


1884 


3 035 


1-445 


1-243 


1-069 


1-469 


0-816 


0-826 


0-682 


1-189 


1-513 


1-377 


1-498 


1885 


1-916 


1-352 


1-333 


1131 


0-974 


1-149 


0-818 


1-158 


1-061 


1-583 


1-578 


1-609 


1886 


1 -230 


1-482 


1-453 


1-505 


1-118 


0-829 


1-134 


0-751 


1-227 


1-737 


1-526 


2-565 


1887 


1-594 


1-414 


1-446 


1-467 


1-213 


0-804 


1-103 


1-132 


1-533 


1-462 


1-743 


1-445 


1888 


1 -622 


1-232 


1-650 


0-960 


1-460 


0-853 


0-778 


0-862 


0-838 


1-322 


1-119 


1-414 


1889 


T365 


1-457 


1-476 


0-810 


0-629 


0-783 


1-082 


1-098 


1-046 


1-728 


1-550 


1-655 


1890 


1 524 


1-198 


1-494 


1-065 


923 


1-041 


0-845 


1-140 


1-083 


1-219 


1-502 


1-270 


1891 


1-614 


0.871 


1-081 


0-998 


1-140 


0-858 


0-980 


1030 


1-301 


2-327 


2-226 


1-992 


1892 


1 -251 


1-745 


1-347 


0-959 


1-132 


0-921 


1-166 


0-986 


1-158 


1-558 


1-llf 


1-114 


1893 


1-205 


1-607 


1-159 


0-902 


1-107 


1-160 


0-917 


1-126 


1-447 


1-384 


2-048 


2-074 


1894 


1-754 


2-147 


1-720 


1-038 


1-023 


0-855 


1-114 


1-129 


0-707 


1-835 


1-706 


2-521 


1895 


1-778 


1-177 


1-579 


1-359 


0-950 


0-959 


0-831 


0-937 


1-140 


1-543 


1-963 


1-616 


1M«I 
Means 
1840-96 


2-164 


1-164 


1-730 


0-922 


0-768 


0-718 


0-815 


0-776 


1-528 


1-636 


1-563 


1-633 


1-611 


1-437 


1-418 


1-210 


1077 


0-935 


0-935 


0-999 


1-173 


1-481 


1-566 


1-558 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



115 



Table V. 
Pressure at 32° and Mean Sea-Level. 



Years 1770-1896. 


Highest Mean. 


Lowest Mean. 


Difference. 


Range of Pressure. 
1840-1896. 


Difference. 




















Inches. 


Year. 


Inches. 


Year. 


Inches. 


Greatest. 


Year. 


Least. 


Year. 




January, 


30-270 


1833 


29-196 


1791 


1-074 


3-035 


1884 


0-879 


1849 


2-156 


February, 


30-337 


1891 


29-202 


1776 


1-135 


2-147 


1894 


0-801 


1845 


1-346 


March, 


30-361 


1840 


29-401 


1836 


0-960 


2-021 


1857 


0-742 


1853 


1-279 


April 


30-298 


1817 


29-529 


1829 


0-769 


1-848 


1860 


0-750 


1852 


1-098 


May 


30-312 


1836 


29-698 


1779 


0-614 


1-729 


1842 


0-581 


1859 


1-148 


June, .... 


30-257 


1826 


29-628 


1852 


0-629 


1-342 


1843 


0-570 


1864 


0-772 


July, .... 


30-153 


1825 


29-633 1798 


0-520 


1-512 


1851 


0-515 


1852 


0.997 


August, 


30-138 


1861 


29-571 ' 1860 


0-567 


1-459 


1840 


0-600 


1867 


0-859 


September, . 


30-229 


1894 


29-525 i 1839 


0-704 


1-813 


1847 


0-648 


1852 


1-165 


October, 


30-202 


1784 


29-436 


1812 


0-766 


2-327 


1891 


0-877 


1853 


1-450 


November, . . 


30-244 


1879 


29-422 


1877 


0-822 


2-262 


1859 


0-814 


1853 


1-448 


December, , 

Year 


30-266 


1780 


29-318 


/ 1821 | 
\ 1868 I 


0-948 


2-565 


1886 


0-916 

515 


1843 
July 


1-649 


29-962 


1864 


29-706 '< 1789 


0-256 


3-035 


Jan. 


2-520 












1884 




1852 








Highest Pressure. 




Lowest Pressure. 






1840-1896. 




1840-1896. 




Years 1770-1896. 




Range. 




Range. 












Maxi- 


Year. 


Mini- 






Maxi- 


Year. 


Mini- 


Year. 






mum. 




mum. 


Year. 




mum. 




mum. 






January, 


31-071 


1896 


29-926 


1872 


1-145 


29-646 


1855 


27-451 


1884 


2-195 


February, 


30-782 


1860 


30-131 


1869 


0-652 


29-670 


1875 


28-319 


1894 


1-351 


March, 


30-902 


1854 


30-146 


1891 


0-756 


29-916 


1856 


28-260 


1876 


1-656 


April 


30-690 


1883 


30-038 


1889 


0-652 


29-926 


1865 


28-647 


1872 


1-279 


May 


30-769 


1881 


30-074 


1889 


0-695 


29-823 


1844 


28-787 


1842 


1-036 


June, .... 


30-691 


1874 


29-939 


1852 


0-752 


29-836 


1865 


28-913 


1843 


0-923 


i July 


30-616 


1863 


30-005 


1861 


0-611 


29-726 


1847 


28-855 


1851 


0-871 


August, 


30-686 


1864 


29-947 


1860 


0-739 


29-674 


1857 


28-698 


1891 


0-976 


September, . 


30-637 


1851 


30-160 


1885 


0-477 


29-899 


1857 


28-635 


1847 


1-264 


October, 


30751 


1891 


29-972 


1853 


0-779 


29-536 


1866 


28-370 


1891 


1-166 


November, . 


30-810 


1857 


30-134 


1852 


2-676 


29-587 


1856 


28-171 


1881 


1-476 


December, . 


30-867 


1849 


29-978 


1872 


0-889 


29-584 


1853 


27-651 


1886 


0-933 




Jan. 9 




Jan. 9 






April 3 




Jan. 26 






31-071 


1896 


29-926 


1872 


1-145 


29-926 


1865 


27-451 


1884 


2-475 



Table VI. 
High and Low Pressures. 

The following Table shows all the sea-level pressures above 30*90 inches or below 
28-20 inches during the period 1770-1896. 



High Pressure. 


Low Pressure. 


Bate. Reading. 


Date. 


Reading. 


1774 November 23, 
1789 January 6, . 
1808 February 25, 
1820 January 9, . 
1825 January 9, . 

1834 December 15, 

1835 January 2, . 
1854 March 4, ' . 
1896 January 9, . 






Inches. 
30-902 
30-937 
31-004 
31-058 
30-961 
30-950 
30-941 
30-902 
31-071 


1773 January 18, 
1789 January 18, 
1818 March 5, . 
1839 January 7, . 
1843 January 13, 
1852 December 27, 
1881 November 27, 
1884 January 26, 
1886 December 8, 
1894 December 22, 








Inches. 
28-089 
28-070 
28-198 
28-112 
28-082 
28-051 
28-171 
27-451 
27-651 
28-121 



110 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table VII. 

Showing the Mean Temperature of the Air in Edinburgh from 1 764-1 89G. 

Note. — The means where not the average of the maximum and minimum values have been 
corrected. The height above mean sea-level is 250 feet. 



1 

Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1764, . 


36-3 


38-0 


38-7 


44-0 


52-2 


55-6 


59-9 


57-6 


51'0 


46-5 


38-4 


36-1 


46-2 


1765, . 






39-8 


32 9 


40-0 


44-5 


519 


537 


58-5 


56-8 


517 


47-2 


37-1 


35-6 


45-8 


1766, 






34-7 


34-5 


38-1 


45'8 


45-8 


540 


58-9 


59-5 


51'6 


46-6 


43-0 


37-6 


45'8 


1767, . 






31-7 


41-1 


38-9 


44-8 


487 


53-1 


56'4 


59-8 


54 6 


457 


43-0 


39-3 


46-4 


1768, . 




33-2 


38-2 


40*2 


46-5 


52-5 


54-5 


58-3 


587 


51-0 


47-0 


40-1 


39-1 


46-5 


1769, 




35-3 


36-6 


40-6 


45-5 


50-4 


54-4 


60-1 


56-3 


53-9 


457 


40-1 


40-4 


467 


1770, 




39'9 


41-1 


35-8 


415 


47-9 


53-3 


57-1 


58'2 


55-1 


44'4 


38-3 


37-6 


45-8 


1771, 




33-8 


38-2 


36-5 


417 


49-5 


54-3 


57-4 


56-3 


51-0 


47-2 


42'1 


417 


45-8 


1772, 




32 6 


32-6 


37*8 


427 


48-6 


56-1 


58'0 


57-4 


51-0 


49-0 


424 


39 6 


45-6 


1773, 




38-5 


362 


43-0 


45-4 


47-9 


54-0 


56-2 


5S-3 


51-3 


46-1 


39-2 


36-5 


46-0 


1774, . 




| 30-1 


367 


38-2 


43*6 


45'5 


54-0 


56-8 


567 


52-1 


487 


39-0 


377 


44-9 


1775, . 




I 38-3 


39-9 


40-2 


47-2 


53-0 


55-1 


597 


57'5 


53-4 


45-9 


38-5 


39'1 


47-3 


1776, 




i 29-2 


367 


42-1 


46-5 


49-4 


54 3 


59-6 


567 


51-5 


47-8 


41'0 


38-1 


46-1 


1777, 




| 35-4 


35-2 


40-1 


42'6 


51-2 


537 


57-5 


59-2 


55-8 


48-8 


42-9 


38-8 


46'9 


1778, 




37-8 


39-5 


40-1 


44*0 


53-1 


59-1 


61-2 


587 


51-3 


42*6 


40-8 


43-4 


47-6 


1779, . 




37-6 


47-2 


46-5 


47*1 


51-0 


58-1 


65-2 


637 


56-0 


48-8 


40'9 


33*1 


49-6 


1780, 




28-4 


35-1 


447 


42-0 


53-2 


57 


607 


63-2 


57-4 


45-9 


38-8 


39-5 


47-2 


1781, 




36*3 


40-3 


44-5 


47 - 5 


51-9 


59-8 


60-4 


58-6 


527 


48-5 


43'4 


41 1 


48 8 


1782, 






39-4 


34-7 


37'8 


407 


47-2 


57*2 


60'1 


56-1 


51-4 


44-0 


35-6 


35-9 


450 


1783, 






37-1 


38-9 


37-5 


48-5 


49-9 


54-2 


63-2 


58'4 


53'6 


47-2 


41-2 


37-1 


47'2 


1784, 






32-2 


348 


35-0 


41-1 


55'4 


53-5 


58-5 


56-4 


547 


46-4 


397 


34-0 


45'2 


1785, 






38-2 


32-8 


34'2 


49-2 


50-6 


607 


58-3 


54-1 


54-3 


457 


43-2 


36-1 


46-4 


1786, 






37 '0 


35-4 


45-1 


497 


57-6 


56-4 


587 


51 '1 


44'0 


39 


36 3 


45-5 


1787, 






40-0 


43-8 


44'4 


43-9 


497 


53-8 


60-0 


600 


53-6 


48-0 


38-0 


36-8 


477 


1788, 






38-8 


37-2 


37-4 


49-2 


50-2 


57-2 


60-3 


58-8 


54-4 


47-8 


42-4 


32-2 


47-2 


1789, 






34-6 


40-2 


34 6 


43-8 


53 '2 


56-9 


60'9 


61-6 


55-0 


47-6 


41-0 


43-9 


47-8 


1790, 






39-4 


44-7 


43-2 


42'6 


52-8 


58-8 


59-0 


57-8 


52'8 


48-8 


39-9 


37-9 


48-1 


1791, 






38-8 


39-3 


43 9 


47'5 


52-0 


56-9 


58 '6 


58-4 


547 


467 


41'2 


327 


47-6 


1792, 






34-8 


39-8 


40-9 


49-8 


48-6 


537 


58-4 


60-3 


51-0 


46-2 


44-5 


37-6 


47-1 


1793, 






37-4 


40-1 


37-6 


40-4 


49-5 


53-9 


60-0 


57-8 


52-9 


517 


41-0 


40-6 


46-9 


1794, 






38-2 


13-0 


43-2 


46-8 


50-6 


58-4 


607 


56-4 


52'2 


47-0 


40-8 


40-2 


48-1 


1795, 






29-9 


31-6 


37-5 


45'2 


49-4 


52-9 


57-6 


59'3 


57-0 


50-8 


37-9 


42-9 


46-0 


1796, 






43-8 


40-5 


39-0 


48-9 


49-0 


55-8 


57-6 


59-5 


55-1 


44-8 


39'2 


31-8 


47-1 


1797, 






407 


43-8 


39-5 


44-6 


52 


54-4 


60-9 


58-0 


53-8 


447 


38-5 


40-0 


47-6 


1798, 






38-4 


38-9 


40-6 


49-8 


53-3 


60-8 


60-6 


59-4 


54-9 


48-2 


39-0 


35-8 


48-3 


1799, 






37-2 


36-2 


38-0 


41-1 


48-5 


55 '4 


58-0 


55-9 


54-6 


45-1 


40-3 


35-1 


45-4 


1800, 






35-3 


36-3 


38-5 


46-9 


51-1 


555 


61-6 


597 


55-1 


477 


40-1 


36-2 


47-0 


1801, 






89'] 


39-9 


42 5 


46-3 


52-0 


57-4 


58-9 


60-4 


56'2 


49-4 


40-0 


34-0 


48-0 


1802, 






36-9 


37-8 


420 


46-6 


49-0 


55-5 


56-3 


60-1 


55-1 


49-6 


41-5 


37-9 


47-4 


1-'-, 






35-6 


377 


41-9 


46-5 


501 


556 


D2-8 


59-1 


52-5 


47 -2 


39-0 


38-5 


47-2 


1804, 






10-2 


36-4 


387 


43'0 


54-1 


59-6 


59-1 


58-6 


51 -1 


494 


41-6 


36 2 


47-3 


1805, 






37-2 


38-9 


42'5 


46-3 


47-9 


53-8 


59-3 


59-4 


56'4 


46'3 


42-1 


367 


47-2 


1806, 






35-1 


36 7 


39 3 


41-5 


50 


56-6 


57-5 


58-8 


55 5 


49-5 


42 '9 


39-9 


46-9 


1807, 






36-3 


35-7 


39-3 


447 


47-8 


55-1 


61-0 


59-8 


48-2 


50 6 


34 


35-1 


45-6 


1808, 






35-2 


35-5 


37-3 


41-6 


54'3 


56'3 


62-5 


60-4 


54-1 


43-6 


40-1 


35-4 


46-1 


1809, 






36-3 


387 


42-5 


40-4 


52 


55-1 


57-3 


57-4 


52-8 


51-0 


39-8 


36-6 


467 


1810, 






36-8 


36 2 


36-6 


44-5 


45-1 


55-8 


57-2 


58-0 


55-8 


48-4 


39-1 


357 


45-8 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



117 



Table VII. — continued. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1811, . 


33-6 


377 


43 5 


43-6 


52-2 


54-8 


59-3 


567 


54-8 


51-5 


43-8 


35-9 


47 -3 


1812, 




36 '3 


39-4 


36-8 


40-7 


49-0 


55-3 


57-0 


57-2 


53-3 


47 '3 


39-8 


34-9 


45-6' 


1813, 




35-6 


39-7 


43-3 


44'8 


49-3 


55-9 


59-3 


575 


53*4 


44-3 


377 


37-3 


46-5 


1814, . 




26-5 


35-1 


37-7 


48-2 


47-7 


52-9 


59'4 


57-2 


54-4 


45-4 


38-9 


36-6 


45-0 


1815, 




33-5 


41-6 


41-5 


45-3 


52-0 


55-9 


58-2 


57-8 


53-6 


477 


37-6 


33-8 


46 5 


1816, 




35-4 


35-8 


36-4 


40-9 


48-2 


53-2 


557 


55-6 


50-9 


46-3 


38-5 


35-2 


44'3 


1817, . 




387 


40-3 


39-6 


445 


45'4 


547 


57-2 


54-1 


53-8 


42-0 


447 


35-6 


45-9 


1818, 




37-2 


35-5 


37 '1 


40-8 


50'3 


58-8 


60-0 


56-5 


52-9 


52 4 


467 


38-9 


47 3 


1819, 




377 


36'4 


42-2 


45 


50'6 


54-8 


59-5 


627 


537 


46-4 


37'5 


33-3 


467 


1820, 




30-4 


40-0 


40-9 


46-9 


50*4 


55-0 


59-0 


56-3 


52-2 


43 9 


41-6 


397 


46-3 


1821, 




39-1 


40-2 


42-8 


48-9 


47*6 


52-9 


57-5 


58 7 


57-4 


50-6 


43-0 


411 


48-3 


! 1822, 




39-0 


40-6 


437 


45-5 


52*4 


59-2 


58-0 


57-0 


50-3 


47-8 


44-0 


36-1 


47-8 


1823, 




81 '1 


34-4 


40-5 


42-4 


51-3 


53-3 


56-4 


55-6 


519 


44-8 


44-6 


37-3 


45-3 


1824, 




39'8 


39 


39-6 


45-2 


50-1 


56-6 


59-9 


57-2 


54-6 


45-8 


40-8 


38-4 


47-2 


1825, 




39-1 


39-0 


41-2 


46-6 


507 


567 


61-4 


60-0 


56-9 


50-1 


38-5 


39-0 


48-3 


1826, 




31-6 


41-8 


41-8 


46-8 


51-8 


61'4 


62-0 


61-3 


54-6 


50-0 


38-8 


41-0 


48-6 


1827, 




35-4 


31-0 


40-1 


45-0 


50-8 


56-1 


58-4 


55-2 


55-0 


50-1 


42-8 


42-2 


477 


1828, 




39-4 


40-1 


42-8 


45-2 


51-2 


56-9 


57-6 


57-0 


54-6 


48-4 


44'8 


43-4 


48-4 


1829, 




32-1 


38-8 


39-6 


41-9 


51-6 


56-3 


56-5 


54-0 


50 3 


46-0 


39-6 


36-0 


45-2 


1830, 




34-3 


36-0 


44-2 


46-6 


49-8 


52 


577 


52-6 


52'2 


48-5 


42-6 


35-4 


46'0 


1831, 




34-7 


38-6 


42-3 


45-0 


48*8 


58-0 


59-4 


60-1 


55-3 


527 


40-2 


41-8 


487 


1832, 




39-1 


40-6 


41-8 


45-8 


487 


55-9 


577 


57-4 


54-0 


497 


41-4 


40-6 


477 


1833, 




34-7 


39'5 


38-9 


44-4 


55-8 


55-6 


58-9 


54-6 


53 '0 


48-9 


41-8 


40 3 


47-2 


1834, 




41-4 


40 '5 


43-0 


45-0 


52-3 


56-9 


59-3 


58-4 


54-0 


48-8 


43-2 


42 2 


487 


1835, 




37 9 


39-6 


40-6 


44-6 


49-0 


54-3 


57'6 


59-1 


52-2 


45-6 


42-4 


38-8 


46-8 


! 1836, 




38-1 


37-2 


39-6 


42-8 


50-9 


55-9 


56-0 


54-9 


50-0 


45-1 


40-0 


38*9 


457 


1837, 




35'0 


38-9 


34-8 


38-9 


48-0 


56-0 


59-6 


55-6 


517 


49-2 


40-1 


41-0 


457 


1838, 




30-6 


29-8 


39-1 


41-1 


46-0 


54-5 


59-2 


56 9 


53-5 


47-4 


37-9 


40-5 


447 


1839, 




35-5 


37-8 


38-2 


43-5 


49-1 


55-8 


58-6 


56 6 


53-4 


47-4 


42-3 


38 7 


46-4 


1840, 




39-2 


37-5 


40-8 


48-4 


48-2 


55-2 


59-9 


597 


51-4 


46-3 


41"6 


36-6 


467 


1841, 




33-4 


37-9 


46-5 


45'0 


52-0 


53-5 


56-2 


57-3 


54-6 


44-6 


39-0 


38-9 


46-6 


1842, . 




35-0 


40-0 


42-4 


46'0 


517 


57-1 


56-5 


607 


557 


45-6 


40-9 


45-6 


48-0 


1843, . 




39-4 


34-3 


42'3 


45-6 


47-1 


52-2 


58-9 


57-9 


57-1 


44-9 


44-1 


47'8 


47-6 


1844, . 




41 -2 


36-2 


41-4 


49-5 


48-8 


55-0 


56-9 


557 


537 


47-1 


43-1 


33-0 


46-8 


1845, . 




36-6 


35-4 


36-6 


45-2 


481 


56-8 


54-8 


557 


54-1 


49-4 


43'6 


387 


46-2 


1846, 




42-1 


44-9 


43-0 


44-7 


53-2 


61'9 


59-3 


59 9 


59-5 


481 


447 


34-4 


49-6 


1847, 




362 


357 


42-0 


43-2 


50-6 


56'0 


61-6 


57-6 


51-5 


49-1 


45-6 


39 6 


47-4 


1848, 




33-6 


40-4 


41-6 


43-8 


55 5 


55-0 


59 2 


547 


53-8 


467 


40*2 


40-5 


47-0 


1849, 




36-8 


42'1 


42-6 


42-9 


51-0 


52-8 


56-8 


577 


52-6 


45-0 


41-6 


36-8 


46-5 


1850, 




31-5 


41-8 


42-4 


46-4 


48-3 


58-4 


59-1 


56-8 


52-4 


45-3 


42 9 


397 


477 


1851, 




40-6 


40-8 


41 '0 


43-7 


50'4 


55-4 


561 


56-6 


52-5 


50'2 


37-3 


407 


47-1 


1852, 




39-0 


40-2 


40 a 


48-6 


51*0 


54-8 


64-0 


60-0 


54-0 


46-3 


42-8 


42-2 


48-6 


1853, 




38-8 


33-8 


37'8 


45-6 


49-3 


58-2 


59-2 


57*8 


537 


48-4 


43-2 


37-0 


46'9 


1854, 




36-P 


39-9 


45-3 


46-4 


50-9 


56-5 


59-6 


60-5 


57-0 


47-9 


42-0 


39-9 


48-6 


1855, 




37-5 


30-6 


37-5 


45-2 


46-3 


57-2 


61-6 


597 


54-1 


47-5 


41-2 


37-3 


46-3 


1856, 




36-8 


41-4 


41 "J 


45-8 


487 


58'8 


59-4 


58-6 


527 


51-4 


42-8 


40-4 


48-1 


1857, 




37-9 


41-1 


40 9 


44-9 


51-2 


55-8 


60-9 


607 


56-9 


51-3 


45 6 


46'5 


49-5 


1858, 




40-6 


36-2 


40-8 


42-9 


50-9 


58-5 


55-5 


56-9 


54-8 


447 


39-5 


39-6 


46-8 


1859, 




39-9 


39-8 


43-3 


40'6 


49-9 


53-6 


58-6 


57-0 


52-8 


45-6 


38-8 


33-3 


461 


1860, 




34-5 


33-6 


38-4 


40-7 


506 


51-5 


57-5 


55'0 


51-2 


46-4 


38-5 


33-4 


44-3 


1861, 




36-3 


39-0 


41-6 


43-8 


49 -8 


54-9 


56-6 


58-4 


53 '5 


49-5 


38-0 


37-0 


46-5 


1862, 




38-1 


40-3 


37-4 


45-0 


50-6 


53-4 


54-5 


56-4 


52-6 


47'2 


36-8 


42-4 


46-2 


1863, 




387 


41-2 


43-0 


44-6 


49'4 


55-6 


58-0 


56-0 


50-0 


46-8 


44-1 


41-4 


47-4 


1864, 




36-0 


33-3 


37-2 


46-3 


51-0 


54-1 


57-0 


54-8 


53-0 


45-4 


41-3 


39-4 


457 


1865, 




35-0 


33-4 


36-6 


45-7 


50-6 


57-0 


58-8 


56-5 


587 


46-0 


41-2 


43-2 


46-8 


1866, 




400 


37-6 


37-2 


427 


48-0 


57-0 


58-0 


56-2 


537 


49-4 


42-1 


41-8 


46-9 


1867, 




32-8 


42-8 


37-0 


46-4 


47-8 


56-6 


56-2 


59-0 


54-4 


47-1 


41-8 


40'4 


46-9 


1868, 




38-0 


43-0 


44-0 


46-6 


53-2 


57-4 


62-2 


59-8 


547 


45-5 


39-4 


41-4 


48-8 


1869, 




40-2 


42-4 


38-0 


47-6 


45-5 


54-4 


60-0 


577 


54-6 


47-8 


42-0 


36-9 


47*2 


1870, . 


36-5 


348 


39-2 


48-8 


527 


57*6 


60-8 


58-8 


55-2 


47-1 


40-0 


35-2 


47-2 



118 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table VII. — continued. 





Jan. 


Fob. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1871, . 


35'4 


o 

41-8 


43'3 


42-8 


50-4 


52-7 


58-0 


59 '8 


52-6 


47-2 


38-2 


37 7 


467 


1872, 




38*5 


406 


41-4 


44-6 


46-4 


57-4 


59-1 


56-9 


, 52-1 


45-6 


41-4 


39-5 


47 '0 


1873, 




40-6 


36-0 


39-0 


44-7 


48-3 


54-9 


60-0 


57-9 


| 52-4 


45 3 


42-5 


42-0 


47-0 


1874, 




40 7 


39-0 


44-6 


47-2 


46-6 


55-6 


60'1 


56-8 


53-9 


47-8 


41'6 


31*8 


477 


1875, 




40-9 


37 4 


40-6 


46-6 


52-4 


55-4 


57-0 


58-6 


i 54-4 


47-4 


39-9 


40-0 


47-6 


1876, 




40-4 


37-1 


38-9 


44-4 


48-8 


55-4 


59-2 


57-5 


52'6 


50-4 


40-8 


40-4 


47-2 


1877, 




.Jit -2 


41-2 


38-4 


41-6 


46-4 


56-6 


57-8 


55-4 


517 


47-4 


43-3 


40-0 


46'5 


1878, 




38-5 


42-4 


41-0 


46-0 


51-4 


56-8 


61-0 


58-8 


54-8 


48-9 


38-0 


31-0 


47-4 


1879, 




31-2 


34-8 


37-4 


40-6 


46-2 


52-4 


54-4 


56-4 


52-0 


45-6 


39-8 


34-8 


43-8 


1880, 




37'0 


43-2 


41-6 


45-8 


49-6 


55-5 


57-6 


60-8 


55-4 


44-0 


39-4 


37-8 


47-3 


1881, 




29-1 


357 


38-5 


42-8 


51-3 


54-8 


58-4 


55-2 


53-8 


44-4 


46 -3 


387 


45-8 


1882, 




42 


43-3 


44-4 


44-1 


50-0 


54-3 


57-8 


57-1 


57-3 


48-4 


40-0 


33'6 


47-2 


1883, 




39-1 


41-2 


36-8 


45-8 


48-8 


53'8 


56-2 


57-5 


54-0 


47-6 


41'6 


417 


47-0 


1884, 




41-3 


40-7 


42-3 


44-5 


49-6 


55-0 


57'0 


58-5 


54-8 


48-6 


41-8 


38-0 


477 


1885, 




37-0 


406 


40-4 


437 


46-6 


54-7 


60-0 


54-8 


52-5 


43-8 


41-0 


39-0 


46-2 


1886, 




34-8 


35-2 


38-0 


42 6 


48-1 


54-3 


58-4 


58-1 


53-8 


50-5 


44-8 


35 "2 


46-2 


1887, 




39-2 


397 


39-2 


42 -8 


49-1 


58-5 


61-3 


587 


52'6 


457 


39-8 


36-8 


46-8 


1888, 




39-3 


35-9 


36-5 


42-8 


50-2 


517 


55-2 


557 


52-5 


47-9 


43-2 


41-4 


46 -0 


1889, 




397 


37-4 


40-4 


43-1 


52-0 


57-8 


58-4 


57-2 


53-0 


46-2 


44-0 


39-6 


47-4 


1890, 




41-6 


37-8 


42-8 


446 


51-0 


55-1 


56-6 


577 


58'3 


49-4 


41-6 


35-3 


47-6 


1891, 




36-8 


43-4 


38-2 


42-8 


48-0 


55-0 


58-9 


56-8 


56-0 


47-8 


41-4 


397 


471 


1892, 




36-6 


37-4 


37-4 


43-8 


50'8 


54-4 


55 -9 


57-2 


51'9 


43-8 


43-1 


34-8 


45-6 


1893, 




37-6 


39-8 


43'9 


47-8 


54-0 


58-6 


57-8 


61-6 


53 -6 


49-0 


40-6 


42-0 


48-9 


1894, 




38-0 


40-4 


44-1 


47-6 


47-1 


547 


59-0 


56-9 


52-2 


46'4 


46-0 


40-9 


47-8 


1895, 




31-8 


31-2 


41-0 


46'0 


53-0 


56-6 


57-2 


59-4 


58-6 


44-2 


43 -4 


377 


467 


1896, 




41-2 


42-0 


42 4 


48-8 


54-8 


567 


58-4 


56 -8 


53-3 


43-2 


42-0 


39-0 


48-2 










Decen 


nial j 


Means 


. 












1764-70, 


S5-8 


37-5 


38-9 


44-7 


49'9 


54-1 


58 5 


587 


527 


46'2 


40-0 


38 


46-2 


1771-80, 


35 -2 


377 


40-9 


443 


50-2 


55-6 


59 2 


58-8 


537 


477 


39-0 


39-2 


467 


1781-90, 


37-2 


38-4 


38-4 


45-2 


51-1 


57-0 


59 7 


58-0 


53-4 


46-8 


40-3 


37-1 


46-9 


1791-1800, . 


37-4 


38-9 


40-1 


46-1 


50-4 


55-8 


59-4 


58-5 


547 


473 


40-2 


37-3 


477 


1801-10, 


36-9 


37-2 


40-3 


44-1 


48-2 


56-1 


59 2 


592 


53-8 


48-5 


40'0 


36-6 


46'8 


1811-20, 


34-5 


38'1 


39-9 


44-1 


49-5 


55-1 


58 5 


57-2 


53-3 


467 


407 


36 1 


46-1 


1821-30, 


36-1 


38-4 


416 


45-4 


50-7 


56-1 


58 5 


56-9 


53-8 


48-2 


41-9 


39'0 


47-2 


1831-40, 


36-6 


38-0 


39-9 


43-9 


48-7 


55-8 


58 2 


57-3 


52-8 


487 


417 


39-9 


467 


1841-50, 


36-4 


38-8 


42-1 


45-2 


50-6 


55-9 


579 


57-3 


54-4 


46-6 


42-5 


39-5 


473 


1851-60, 


38-2 


377 


40-6 


44-4 I 


49-9 


56-0 


59 2 


58-3 


54-0 


48-0 


41-2 


39-0 


47-2 


1861-70, 


37-2 


38-8 


39-1 


45-8 


49-9 


55-8 


582 


57-3 


53 9 


47 -2 


407 


39'9 


47-0 


1871-80, 


38-2 


39-3 


40-6 


44'4 


48-6 


55-2 


58 4 


57-9 


537 


47-0 


40-5 


37-5 


467 


1881-90, 


38-3 


387 


39-9 


43-7 


49-7 


55-0 


579 


56-9 


54-3 


47-2 


42-4 


37-9 


46-8 


1891-96, 


37 '0 


39-0 


41-2 


46-1 


51-3 


56-0 


57-8 


581 


54-3 


457 


42'8 


39-0 


47-4 


Means. 




























1764-18 


96, . 


36-8 


38 3 


40-3 


44-8 


49 9 


557 


58 6 


57-8 


53*6 


47-2 


40 '9 


38-3 


46'8 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 

Table VIII. 

Reduction of the "Edinburgh Advertiser" Observations, showing the Mean 
Temperature deduced from Observations made at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. 



119 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1787 


1 


? 


? 


? 


| 
1 


54-4 


58-0 


58-5 


52-6 


47-9 


38-5 


37-8 


1 


1788 


38-8 


372 


36-4 


47-0 


56-8 


55-6 


59-3 


58-4 


54-4 


46-5 


43-0 


31-8 


47-1 


1789 


34-6 


38-6 


33-8 


41-5 


51-5 


54-2 


58-6 


60-2 


53-5 


46-3 


39-8 


42-0 


46-2 


1790 


38-8 


42-7 


42'2 


39-8 


50-4 


55-9 


58-3 


56-8 


, 52-2 


49-0 


39-6 


36-5 


46-8 


1791 


37-7 


365 


419 


44-2 


49-4 


54-6 


56-6 


56T 


54-0 


46-5 


399 


314 


45-7 


1792 


33-9 


36-9 


38-2 


48-4 


45-5 


50-8 


55-8 


57-3 


50-2 


46-1 


44-6 


37-0 


45-4 


1793 


36-2 


39-5 


36-0 


40'5 


48-8 


52-3 


576 


55-0 


51-2 


50-3 


40-5 


39-7 


45-6 


i 1794 


37-0 


41-1 


41-7 


46-0 


47-6 


56-8 


58'2 


55-4 


51-2 


45-7 


40-5 


39-2 


46-7 


1795 


30-2 


30-2 


361 


43-0 


47-1 


51-2 


56-1 


57-6 


54-9 


49'8 


37-2 


40-4 


44-5 


1796 


417 


37-6 


36-7 


45-8 


47-9 


54-3 


56-2 


59-1 


54-6 


44-9 


38-5 


30-5 


45-6 


1797 


38-7 


40-9 


36-0 


4L-2 


49-6 


52-3 


58-8 


56-8 


55-5 


44-0 


38-4 


39-2 


46-0 


1798 


37-6 


373 


38-9 


48-2 


52-4 


57-5 


58-5 


57-6 


53-2 


47-6 


38-6 


359 


46-9 


1799 


366 


34-8 


35-8 


397 


46-8 


54-3 


56-6 


553 


55-6 


44-5 


39-9 


34-8 


44-6 


1800 


345 


35-4 


37-4 


45-0 


49-8 


53-3 


593 


57-6 


53'8 


47-0 


405 


36-2 


45-8 


1801 


38-5 


390 


41-8 


46-1 


48-5 


55-2 


56-8 


59-4 


55-8 


49-6 


39-8 


33-5 


47-0 


1802 


35-6 


36-5 


40-3 


44-9 


47-0 


53-8 


54-3 


58-6 


54-0 


48-8 


41-1 


37-8 


46T 


1803 


34-6 


36-2 


40-0 


45-3 


47-3 


52-5 


60-3 


57-2 


50-8 


46-2 


39-0 


38-0 


45 6 


1804 


40-1 


35-1 


37-2 


40-8 


50-8 


57-0 


57-1 


56-5 


55'6 


48-5 


41-3 


35-8 


46-3 


1805 


367 


36-3 


40-8 


44-5 


45-5 


50-8 


57-2 


58-1 


55-1 


46-1 


42-6 


37-8 


46-0 


1806 


35-9 


37-0 


37-3 


41*8 


45-7 


521 


51-8 


55-2 


50-8 


46-8 


42-0 


39 '0 


44-6 


1807 


352 


33-5 


330 


40-3 


46-0 


50-6 


56-6 


56-0 


54-2 


46-5 


31-9 


34-6 


43-2 


1808 


34-6 


33-5 


34-7 


38-5 


52-1 


52-7 


58-4 


57-5 


51-5 


40-9 


38-5 


35-2 


44-0 


1809 


29-5 


36-2 


39-4 


37-6 


48-6 


53-6 


551 


54-8 


50-3 


49-0 


39-3 


36-1 


44-1 


1810 


35-4 


340 


33 5 


40-8 


41-8 


51-5 


52-9 


52-7 


49 4 


43-8 


37-5 


34-6 


42-3 


1811 


34-2 


35-8 


37-5 


41-0 


49-2 


52-8 


56-0 


535 


51-3 


50-2 


42-6 


35 5 


45-0 


1812 


34-8 


385 


34-5 


38-3 


46-8 


53-3 


55-3 


55-6 


52-8 


46-8 


38-7 


34-4 


44-2 


1813 


34-8 


38-1 


41-2 


42-5 


48-2 


54-0 


58-2 


55-8 


53-1 


431 


35-6 


35-6 


45-0 


1814 


24-4 


33-1 


35-3 


46-2 


45-0 


50-3 


57-1 


54-5 


53-8 


43-4 


37-8 


361 


43-1 


1815 


32-0 


39-2 


39-0 


42-8 


46'3 


52-2 


52-3 


53-8 


50-3 


45-6 


35 


32-4 


43-4 


1816 


32-9 


323 


336 


36-2 


44-5 


49-6 


52-0 


51-1 


47-8 


43-0 


36-3 


33-0 


41-0 


1817 


36-3 


37-2 


35-8 


42T 


41-8 


49-8 


52-4 


51-1 


50-8 


39-2 


43-8 


33-1 


42-8 


1818 


34-6 


32-9 


34-3 


38-2 


48-3 


57-0 


58-3 


55-0 


51-8 


51-2 


46-1 


39-0 


45-6 


1819 


374 


36-4 


40-0 


42-9 


47-6 


52-5 


564 


600 


52-5 


45-8 


37-0 


325 


45-1 


1820 


31-3 


37-8 


37-7 


44'5 


48-8 


53-0 


55-5 


55-6 


50-8 


43-2 


41-6 


38-2 


44-8 


1821 


36-7 


37-0 


38-8 


42 -8 


45-0 


50-0 


55-6 


56-0 


542 


47-9 


41-8 


39-5 


45-4 


1822 


37-2 


38-8 


39-6 


42-8 


48-8 


55-7 


55-5 


54-2 


49-8 


45-9 


42-6 


35-6 


45-5 


1823 


32-0 


32-7 


37-2 


40-0 


47-5 


48-5 


51-2 


51-8 


49-0 


44-8 


43-8 


36-9 


43-0 


1824* 


40-5 


42-0 


40-6 


47-6 


52-4 


58-4 


61-2 


58-3 


560 


48-2 


42-8 


40-8 


49-1 


1825 


41-7 


42-0 


43-8 


48-7 


53-2 


59-8 


64-7 


62-0 


59-1 


51-6 


41-2 


41-7 


50-8 


1826 


38-2 


44-7 


44-4 


48-6 


55-0 


64-4 


65-4 


62-8 


56-5 


51-0 


41-8 


43-2 


51-3 


1827 


37-6 


360 


39-9 


46-8 


52-6 


57-2 


60-0 


57'2 


55-8 


51-2 


43-8 


43-8 


48-5 


1828 


41-2 


40-6 


43-4 


46T 


52-2 


58-8 


61-0 


59-0 


56-4 


48-8 


46-2 


45-4 


49-9 


1829 


35-2 


39-4 


40-8 


42-7 


52-6 


57-4 


58-6 


55'6 


51-8 


47-8 


41-6 


37-8 


46-8 


1830 


363 


36-5 


45-0 


47-0 


51-4 


53-2 


58-8 


54-3 


52-7 


49-3 


43-9 


37-0 


47T 


1831 


37-3 


39-9 


42-6 


47-1 


51-6 


60-8 


61-2 


61-0 


55-6 


53-8 


41-4 


43-6 


49-7 






* 1 


i. change 


was mad 


i in the j 


osition o 


: the the 


-mometei 


s during 


this yeai 








vol. : 


KXXIX 


(PARI 


I. NO. 


6). 
















U 





120 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table IX. 

Reduction of the "Edinburgh Magazine" and " Scots Magazine " Registers. 
Hour of OJ>servation. — "Before Sunrise." 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1 78.3 


370 


301 


30-5 


1 


|' 


J 


? 


1 


? 


1 


40-7 


33-7 


? 


1786 


336 


334 


30-1 


1 


1 


? 


1 


1 


1 


39-9 


36-4 


33-7 


? 


1787 


36-6 


405 


394 


1 


1 


i 


? 


1. 


'l 


437 


35-1 


33-5 


? 


1788 


364 


32-4 


32-0 


42-6 


45-9 


49-9 


53 


51-6 


48-4 


44-8 


39-5 


30-3 


42-2 


1789 


322 


371 


29-0 


37-4 


46 1 


50-5 


54-9 


55-6 I 


50-3 


44-5 


39 -S 


43-6 


434 


1790 


37-5 


421 


379 


366 


46-5 


52-6 


515 


511 


47-2 


44-2 


37-8 


372 


435 


1791 


373 


37-4 


395 


42-1 


45-7 


50-2 


52-4 


53-2 


49-5 


42-5 


400 


31-6 


43 4 


1792 


33-3 


38-0 


37-2 


42-4 


42-8 


47-6 


52 6 


55-8 


45-7 


42-0 


42-1 


361 


43-0 


1793 


(35-6) 


36-0 


33-8 


36-2 


44-2 


49-2 


554 


54-1 


49 3 


49-7 


39-4 


390 


435 


1794 


366 


40-4 


39-4 


41-7 


477 


53-8 


56-3 


50-9 


47-9 


44-9 


39-0 


38-8 


44-8 


1795 


26-0 


28-5 


323 


41-1 


45-4 


481 


51-7 


53-4 


52-8 


48-3 


36'2 


42 


42-2 


1796 


41-9 


38-2 


35-2 


45-2 


46-1 


508 


52-2 


52-7 


50 


41-7 


38-5 


310 


436 


1797 


399 


42 5 


36-8 


415 


48-8 


507 


57-4 


54-5 


48-5 


42-6 


36-3 


38-2 


44-8 


1798 


370 


36-1 


367 


45 - 7 


49-2 


54-6 


53-8 


52-5 


50-4 


447 


36-5 


33 4 


44-2 


1799 


360 


34-4 


35 


36-2 


42-0 


48-7 


50-7 


47-8 


47-9 


41-4 


38-1 


340 


410 


1800 


340 


34-5 


35 


42 8 


45-8 


49-7 


55-2 


530 


502 


45-0 


38-4 


35-0 


432 


1801 


382 


38 1 


39-4 


40-9 


48-2 


51-6 


53-3 


52-2 


493 


45-3 


38-4 


33-8 


44-1 


1802 


35 3 


36-0 


38-6 


411 


43-1 


48-9 


49 


52-7 


48-7 


461 


396 


364 


43 


1803 


343 


35-6 


38-5 


40-2 


446 


50 


55-9 


52-6 


48'0 


43-8 


36 9 


373 


43-1 


1801 


38-9 


346 


35-4 


38'5 


49-0 


53-7 


51-7 


52-2 


510 


45-7 


391 


347 


43-7 


1805 


34-9 


36-0 


37-9 


40-4 


41-6 


471 


53-0 


52-1 


49-6 


41-6 


39 6 


36-6 


42-5 


1806 


350 


35-0 


365 


38-9 


45-0 


51'1 


534 


52-8 


48-7 


45-4 


41-9 


407 


437 


1807 


35-7 


34-8 


32-6 


35-9 


44-0 


48-4 


52-8 


530 


414 


46-7 


32-7 


35-5 


411 


1808 


351 


344 


351 


36-7 


48-7 


53-3 


57-2 


| 551 


466 


38-5 


36-5 


347 


427 


1809 


28-8 


36-8 


37-3 


355 


45-0 


50-4 


533 


1 52-6 


47-3 


47-2 


37 9 


35-7 


423 


1810 


353 


33 3 


32-8 


390 


40-0 


50-6 


51-6 


517 


46-9 


42-7 


37 6 


33-7 


41-3 


1811 


329 


361 


36-8 


40-7 


47-4 


(51-9) 


54-7 


i 51-6 


47-4 


47-3 


40 3 


35 4 


435 


1812 


34-7 


375 


346 


37-2 


44-8 


53-0 


51-0 


'■ 48-7 


47-8 


44-8 


37 8 


345 


42*2 


1813 


346 


393 


404 


410 


463 


55 1 


56-3 


50'8 


48-3 


41 5 


37-0 


37-5 


440 


1814 


269 


348 


35-5 


445 


45-4 


47-7 


56-7 


53-0 


48-9 


410 


379 


357 


42-3 


1815 


34-4 


40-8 


39 4 


42-0 


491 


51-6 


553 


! 55-0 


48-5 


45-6 


35-8 


342 


443 


1816 


345 


344 


35-5 


37-9 


444 


49-3 


49-9 


\ 49-8 


45-4 


439 


37-8 


33-2 


41-3 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



121 



Table X. 

.Reduction of the " Edinburgh Magazine " and " Scots Magazine " Registers. 

Hour of Observation — " Noon." 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1785 


? 


1 


<l 


57-1 


60-0 


71-8 


69-5 


62-2 


61-3 


512 


? 


1, 


1 


1786 


? 


? 


1 


52-0 


55-9 


635 


653 


62-2 


55-6 


1 


1 


1 


1. 


1787 


? 


1 


? 


47-9 


55'8 


58-2 


62'0 


661 


60-6 


55-7 


42 


1 


37 


3 


? 


1788 


403 


38-4 


41-0 


52-3 


601 


60-8 


635 


661 


59-1 


51-3 


45 


6 


33 


6 


510 


1789 


35-5 


41-4 


39-2 


49-4 


57'0 


60-4 


65-5 


68-7 


603 


516 


43 


9 


45 


2 


51-5 


1790 


41-4 


476 


49-0 


46-1 


536 


59-5 


61-1 


60-9 


554 


531 


43 


1 


38 


9 


50-8 


1791 


40-1 


41-9 


47-9 


48-1 


56-3 


61-0 


641 


63-4 


610 


52-5 


44 


5 


36 


3 


51-4 


1792 


37-2 


45-2 


45-5 


52-2 


54-0 


58-8 


614 


64-8 


55 4 


49-2 


47 


9 


39 


7 


50-9 


1793 


(39-5) 


42-3 


41-1 


46-2 


55-5 


58-2 


64-6 


63-1 


58-0 


534 


44 


1 


41 


8 


50-6 


1794 


40-7 


45-4 


49-4 


53-6 


54-1 


63-7 


65-0 


60-5 


55-7 


51-6 


45 


2 


42 


4 


523 


1795 


32-0 


34-4 


41-6 


48-2 


53-6 


56-6 


60-8 


62-9 


63-3 


55-9 


43 


2 


45 


6 


49-8 


179G 


46-4 


43'0 


43'6 


56-8 


537 


60-2 


60-0 


66-8 


60-1 


51-7 


43 


3 


36 


3 


51-8 


1797 


42'9 


50-4 


47'5 


50-8 


57-6 


58-1 


63-7 


62-6 


59-0 


51-6 


44 


5 


42 


3 


52-6 


1798 


42-0 


44-0 


47"5 


58-1 


62-3 


661 


673 


64-2 


613 


523 


42 


3 


37 


4 


53-7 


1799 


403 


39-2 


41-6 


441 


50-2 


62-5 


61-5 


58-9 


57-4 


50-6 


43 


6 


35 


9 


48'8 


1800 


35-9 


392 


43-1 


54-0 


54-9 


616 


69'5 


67-0 


60-1 


52-6 


43 


6 


38 


8 


51-7 


1801 


411 


43-5 


46-9 


55-5 


58-6 


65-9 


63-0 


692 


62-8 


55-1 


44 


2 


36 


9 


53-6 


1802 


38-4 


41-8 


47-4 


53'2 


59-7 


62-1 


60-7 


65-2 


61-8 


53-2 


44 





40 





52-3 


1803 


373 


413 


46-7 


55-8 


58-5 


62-6 


71-6 


65-0 


62-2 


52-8 


42 


1 


39 


8 


53-0 


1 1804 


41-9 


41-3 


42-5 


473 


58-4 


65-3 


68-9 


64-5 


63-5 


54-0 


43 


7 


38 


1 


52-4 


1805 


38-8 


416 


49-9 


53'8 


53-4 


630 


67-9 


67-6 


649 


54-2 


49 


1 


41 


4 


53-8 


1806 


39-3 


42-6 


46-2 


52-2 


58-9 


65-8 


64-0 


64-7 


617 


54-5 


47 


6 


44 





53-5 


1807 


40-6 


42-4 


44-9 


47-0 


54-5 


62-3 


67-4 


65-0 


55-6 


54-3 


41 


6 


38 


7 


51-2 


1808 


38-7 


40-9 


430 


47-1 


62-5 


64-8 


70-9 


67-5 


60-9 


49-6 


42 


7 


37 


7 


52-2 


1809 


34-7 


42-8 


47 5 


48-5 


62-8 


64-2 


66 5 


64-7 


60-0 


55-7 


44 


1 


39 





52-5 


1810 


40-3 


41-4 


42-9 


51-1 


55-5 


67-5 


65-8 


64-6 


64-2 


55-0 


43 


5 


38 


5 


52-5 


1811 


37-6 


41-8 


50-4 


514 


59-9 


(68-8) 


70-3 


65-8 


64-8 


57-0 


50 





39 


5 


54-8 


1812 


39-8 


44-4 


43'2 


48-1 


56-5 


67-7 


66-7 


661 


62-8 


54-1 


44 


2 


38 


2 


52-6 


1813 


40-8 


45-5 


50-7 


52-9 


57-8 


71-2 


716 


699 


637 


51-8 


44 


7 


41 


7 


55-2 


1814 


349 


42-1 


44-6 


56-3 


58-4 


65-9 


72-3 


67-1 


673 


53-8 


44 


6 


41 





54-0 


1815 


39-5 


47-0 


49-5 


56-3 


59-9 


66-0 


696 


68-7 


64-8 


55-3 


45 


1 


41 


4 


55-3 


1816 


40-7 


41-4 


43-8 


48-3 


57-5 


65-6 


65-1 


64-1 


58-0 


53-7 


44-7 


39-3 


51-8 



1 22 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table XL 



Reduction of Waterstori s Register 1800-1850. 



Vear. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


1 

\ July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1800, 


33-0 


34 3 


37-3 


47*2 


50-5 


55-0 


61-3 


60'6 


54-0 


47-5 


40-3 


367 


1801, 








39-1 


39*7 


42-5 


47-2 


51-0 


57-2 


57-0 


61-5 


55-4 


49-6 


39-0 


34-0 


1802, 








38-6 


38-0 


42-0 


46-6 


48-6 


56-3 


55-8 


60'9 


53-8 


50'0 


40-5 


38-6 


1S03, 








36-6 


37-8 


417 


47-0 


50-0 


55'6 


62-8 


59-6 


52'0 


47-6 


38-3 


38-4 


1804, 








39-3 


36-2 


38-0 


42-3 


54-1 


59-5 


59-5 


58*3 


57-8 


50-2 


41-0 


35-5 


1805, 








36-8 


37-3 


43-2 


46-4 


48-5 


54-8 


60-8 


607 


57-6 


47'3 


43-3 


387 


1806, 








36-3 


37-5 


39-8 


42-1 


51-0 


57-8 


58-8 


60-1 


56-7 


50-5 


44-1 


41 -3 


1807, 








37-5 


36-5 


39-8 


45 3 


48-8 


56 3 


625 


61 '1 


49-4 


51-6 


35-2 


36-5 


180S, 








36-4 


36-3 


37-8 


42-1 


55-3 


57 '5 


64-0 


61-7 


55-3 


44-6 


41-3 


36-8 


1809, 








31-5 


39-5 


43-0 


41-0 


53-0 


56-3 


58-8 


58-7 


54 


52-0 


41 


38-0 


1810, 








38'0 


37-0 


37-1 


45-1 


46-1 


57-0 


587 


59-3 


57-0 


49-4 


40-3 


377 


1811, 








34-8 


38-5 


44-0 


44-3 


53-2 


57-0 


61-8 


59-0 


57-0 


53-5 


46-0 


38-3 


1812, 








38-5 


41-2 


38-3 


42-3 


51-0 


57-5 


59-5 


58-5 


55-5 


49-3 


42-0 


37*3 


1813, 








38-2 


42-5 


45-2 


46-3 


51-0 


57-8 


61-2 


59-5 


54-5 


46-5 


40-5 


40-0 


1814, 








31*5 


38-2 


39 8 


47-0 


49-0 


55-8 


62-8 


58-5 


56-5 


48-5 


41-5 


39-0 


1815, 








36-0 


42-8 


43-8 


46-5 


53-0 


58-0 


60-0 


60-0 


57-0 


497 


40'5 


36-5 


1816, 








37-2 


37-2 


39-0 


42-0 


50-0 


55-0 


57'5 


58-0 


53 9 


50-0 


40-8 


36-8 


1817, 








41-0 


42-0 


41-0 


46-3 


48-0 


57-0 


59-0 


57-5 


55-5 


44-0 


46-0 


37-0 


1818, 








39-0 


38-3 


40-0 


43-0 


52-7 


61-0 


617 


59-2 


54-6 


54-0 


48-8 


400 


1819, 








39-0 


37-0 


42-0 


46-4 


52-8 


577 


61-5 


55-0 


55-2 


48-5 


39-5 


34-0 


1820, 








32-5 


40-5 


43-2 


48-0 


53*2 


57 '5 


61-0 


59*0 


53 5 


467 


44-3 


41-2 


1821, 








40-5 


40-7 


42-8 


48-8 


49-5 


55-6 


60-8 


59-5 


55-0 


51-2 


44-8 


42-5 


1822, 








417 


40-8 


453 


48-0 


54-3 


61-0 


60-0 


59-5 


53-0 


49-5 


46-3 


38 7 


1823, 








35 6 


36-6 


42-5 


45-3 


53-0 


55-3 


58-5 


58-0 


54*5 


47-3 


47'2 


40-2 


1824, 








42-2 


41-2 


41-0 


48-0 


51-3 


56-7 


61-5 


58'3 


56 -2 


47-9 


42-9 


40-2 


1825, 








41-0 


40-8 


41-8 


48-2 


50-7 


58-3 


617 


61-2 


58-2 


50-8 


403 


40-0 


1826, 








36-0 


42*3 


40-2 


47-5 


53-0 


63-5 


64-9 


63-7 


56-2 


611 


41-5 


43-3 


1827, 








38-3 


36-5 


41-5 


47-0 


53-2 


59-0 


62-2 


60-0 


57-0 


52-8 


44-6 


447 


1828, 








41-5 


41-5 


44-0 


46-5 


526 


59-5 


60'0 


59-0 


56'9 


53-3 


46-3 


457 


1 S29, 








35-6 


40-6 


41-2 


44-5 


54-3 


59-2 


60 '0 


57-5 


52-6 


48-5 


42-2 


37 


1830, 








37-0 


38-5 


45-8 


48-6 


52-6 


55-3 


61-2 


56-4 


54-0 


50-8 


44'4 


37 3 


1831, 








37'3 


40-5 


44-0 


467 


51-5 


60-8 


62-4 


61-2 


56'0 


547 


42-0 


43'6 


1832, 








40-2 


41-8 


43-5 


47*6 


51-6 


58-7 


59-2 


59-2 


56-3 


512 


42-8 


41-8 i 


1833, 








36-5 


41-0 


41-2 


47-5 


57-8 


58-5 


58-0 


56-5 


55-3 


50-4 


431 


41-0 


1834, 








42-5 


41-0 


45-0 


46-0 


55-0 


58-5 


60-0 


60-0 


54 


50-2 


44-5 


43-0 


1835, 








38 '0 


41-5 


41-5 


47'0 


52-0 


57-3 


6T0 


61-0 


53-0 


47-0 


44-5 


40-5 


1836, 








40-0 


37-6 


41-0 


46 


53-3 


59-0 


59-5 


58-0 


527 


47-5 


412 


407 


1837, 








37-5 


40-0 


36-3 


42-5 


515 


59-5 


62-5 


58*6 


55-3 


52-0 


427 


437 


1838, 








34-0 


32-0 


40-7 


446 


50-3 


56-5 


615 


60-0 


55 


49-0 


41-0 


42-0 


1839, 








37-0 


38-8 


39-5 


45-8 


51-0 


57-5 


61-5 


57-0 


55-5 


49-8 


45-0 


39 5 i 


1840, 








40-0 


39-0 


41-6 


50-0 


50-5 


58-5 


60'0 


61-0 


53-8 


48-0 


43-8 


39-5 


1^41, 








35 5 


39-3 


46-8 


46-5 


54-5 


56-8 


59-0 


59-0 


56-8 


47-0 


41-3 


40 8 


1842, 








37-0 


41 -0 


44-0 


47-0 


54-8 


60-0 


60-5 


63-0 


57-0 


47 


42-3 


47-3 


1843, 








40-5 


36 


42-0 


48-0 


49-0 


55-0 


62-0 


61-5 


59-2 


46-3 


42-0 


48'0 


1844, 








39-8 


35-3 


40-8 


50-8 


51-0 


58-8 


60-3 


58-5 


55-8 


49-3 


44-8 


35-3 


1845, 








37-5 


35*5 


38-0 


47-2 


52-0 


60-0 


59-0 


59-0 


55-0 


49-8 


44-0 


38'8 


1846, 








433 


43-5 


42-8 


46-3 


54'0 


65-8 


633 


63-0 


60-3 


50-5 


45-2 


35-8 


1847, 








37-5 


36-0 


43-5 


46-0 


53-8 


60-0 


64 


60-0 


52-0 


50-3 


46 5 


40-0 


1848, 








34-5 


40-0 


42'0 


45-5 


56-7 


56-0 


61-0 


58-0 


56-0 


48-5 


41'0 


40-8 


1849, 








38 "6 


12*0 


i:!-:; 


44-5 


53-0 


58-0 


61-5 


60-0 


55-5 


47-0 


43-8 


38-5 


1 850, 








8 1 


43:0 


42 '5 


48-8 


51 


59 -0 


60-5 












1800-09, 








36-6 


37-3 


40-5 


44-7 


511 


56 6 


60'1 


60-2 


54 6 


49'1 


40'6 


37*4 


1810-19, 








36 "5 


38-8 


41-0 


45-3 


50-7 


57 4 


60-4 


59-5 


557 


49-3 


42-6 


37'6 


1820-29, 








38-2 


40U 


42*0 


47-2 


52-3 


58-6 


61 1 


59-6 


55-3 


49-9 


447 


41'2 


1830-39, 








37-3 


38-4 


41-4 


46-2 


527 


57 8 


60-8 


58-7 


547 


50-2 


43-0 


41-3 


1840-49, 








38-4 


37 9 


42-5 


47-2 


52-9 


58-9 


61-1 


60-3 


56-1 


48-4 


43-5 


405 


Means, 








37-4 


38 5 


41 '5 


46-1 


51-8 


57-9 


607 


597 


55-3 


49-4 


42-8 


39 6 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



123 



Table XII. 



Mean Temperature at Glendoich. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


1783 . 


1 


1 


J 


1 


51-5 


53-5 


63-0 


59-6 


53-6 


48-3 


42-8 


37-5 


1784 . 


32-0 


35-1 


35-6 


41-9 


1 


1 


1 


57-6 


55-6 


47-2 


40-5 


336 


1785 . 


38-5 


33-0 


35-5 


49-6 


52-6 


61-3 


62-5 


58-9 


53-3 


47-3 


43-5 


36-5 


1786 . 


360 


375 


363 


46-5 


50-0 


60-0 


60-6 


59-6 


53-0 


45-6 


40-3 


38-2 


1787 . 


40-9 


42-5 


44-5 


46-2 


52-5 


55-5 


59-5 


60-0 


54-6 


48-3 


42-2 


320 


1788 . 


39-3 


37-0 


37-3 


49-0 


55-2 


55-2 


60-2 


60-7 


55-6 


46-6 


44-0 


33-2 


1789 . 


31-7 


41-0 


36-0 


44-9 


52-5 


573 


60-2 


61-7 


59-7 


48-8 


415 


43-9 


1790 . 


39-5 


45-3 


43-6 


436 


53 


532 


58-9 


58-5 


53-6 


51-0 


38-3 


356 


1791 . 


402 


40-9 


45-0 


46-3 


52-5 


573 


62-5 


59-0 


56-0 


49-0 


40-6 


33-3 


1792 . 


39-0 


41-3 


42-2 


490 


51-3 


57-6 


60-5 


60-3 


52-7 


47-5 


40-5 


39-7 


1793 . 


38-2 


39-2 


39-0 


43-9 


49-5 


59-6 


64-5 


58-8 


55-8 


525 


48-5 


41-9 


1794 . 


38-5 


42-6 


44-3 


44-5 


55-2 


60-2 


65-6 


590 


57-6 


53-7 


42-3 


39-7 



1*24 



Mil ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table XIII. 

Showing the Extremes in the Mean and Absolute Daily Temperatures in Edinburgh 
from 1822 to 1896, by means of the Self- Registering Maximum and Minimum 
Thermometers in Shade 4 feet above Grass and 250 feet above Mean Sea-Level. 
For Description of Position of Thermometers from 1770 to 1821 see Page 67. 



Year. 


Highest 
Mean Daily 
1 Temperature. 


J): 


te. 


Lowest 

Mean Daily 

Temperature. 


Date. 


O 

o . 

a to 

<u — 

S 


Absolute 
Maximum 
Temperature, j 


Date. 


Absolute 

Minimum 

Temperature. 


Date. 


Difference or 1 
Range. 


1770 
1771 














81 
71 


Aug. 5 
July 24 


22 


April 15 


49 


1772 
















75 


June 11 


12 


Feb. 6 


63 


1773 










. 






77 


Aug. 5 


23 


Feb. 12 


44 


1774 










. 






72 


July 23 


18 


Jan. 12, Dec. 10 


54 


1775 










. 






76 


June 16 


22-5 


Jan. 26 


53-5 


1776 
1777 










I 






76 


Aug. 3 


11 


Jan. 31 


65 


1778 










■ 








... 








1779 


























1780 


























1781 


























1782 


























1783 


























1784 










• 






... 










1785 
















89 


June 27 


18 


Mar. 1 


71 ' 


1786 
















81 


June 5 


11 


Jan. 2 


70 


1787 
















77 


July 4 


17 


Dec. 27 


60 


1788 
















78 


June 17 


14 


Dec. 15 


64 


1789 
















81 


Aug. 19 


17 


Jan. 11 


64 


1790 
















73 


June 22 


22 


Dec. 1 


51 


1791 
















77 


July 15 


18 


Dec. 11 


59 


1792 
















77 


Aug. 12 


22 


Jan. 12 


55 


1793 
















82 


July 14 


23 


Jan. 16 


59 


1794 
















76 


July 6 


13 


Jan. 27 


63 


1795 


69 5 


Aug.' 


12 


17-3 


Jan. 


29 


52-2 


72 


July 6 


9 


Jan. 29, 31 


63 


1796 


687 


June 


20 


18-9 


Dee. 


24 


49-8 


79 


Aug. 18 


16 


Dee. 24 


63 


1797 


68-3 


July 


14 


24-4 


Nov. 


29 


43-9 


74 


May 25, June 14 


20 


Nov. 24 


54 


1798 


697 


Jane 


28 


21-9 


Dee. 


28 


47-8 


73 


July 4 


14 


Dec. 28 


59 


1708 


677 


June 


21, 22 


20-4 


Dee. 


31 


473 






19 


Dec. 31 




1800 


70-8 


July 


24 


23-4 


Dec. 


30 


47-4 






15 


Jan. 1 




1801 


70-0 


Aug. 


19 


25-4 


Dee. 


19 


44-6 






21 


Jan. 25 




1802 


68-0 


Aug. 


17 


25-3 


Jan. 


1, 6, 7 


42-7 






21 


Jan. 15 




1803 


77*8 


July 


18 


20 3 


Jan. 


13 


57-5 






19 


Jan. 13 




1804 


67-0 


Sept. 


14 


21-4 


Dec. 


31 


45-6 






17 


Jan. 7 




1805 




















26 


Dec. 10, 12 




1806 




















20 


Feb. 1 




1807 




















14 


Dec. 7 




1808 




















18 


Nov. 27 




1809 




















9 


Jan. 22 




1810 


... 


















16 


Feb. 14, 16 




1811 




















16 


Jan. 29 




1812 




















16 


Dec. 12 




1813 




















19 


Nov. 26 




1814 




















10 


Jan. 16 




1815 
















... 




17 


Jan. 24, Dec 16 




1816 


... 


















18 


Feb. 7 




1817 




















21 


Dec. 22 




1818 












. 








22 


Feb. 2 




1819 












. 








16 


Dec. 10 




1820 












. 








10 


Jan. 17 




1821 




















18 


Jan. 2 




1822 


65 '5 


June 


5 


25-0 


Dec'. 


28, 29 


40-5 


80 " 


Juue 13 


18 


Dec. 28 


62* 


1823 


66-0 


Aug. 


11 


19-0 


Feb. 


5 


47-0 


75 


Aug. 11 


11 


Feb. 5 


64 


1^24 


72-0 


Sept. 
July 


2 


22-5 


Dec. 


5 


49-5 


85 


Sept. 2 


16 


Dec. 5 


69 


1825 


70-5 


14 


27 


Jan. 5 Feb. 4 


43-5 


83 


July 30, 31 


19 


Nov. 10 


64 


1826 


74-0 


June 


28 


18-0 


Jan. 


16 


56'0 


87 


June 24, 26 


10 


Jan. 16 


77 


1827 


63-5 


July in, Sept 16 


19-0 


Jan. 


3 


44-5 


77 


July 16 


14 


Jan. 3 


63 


1828 


66-0 


June 


27 


23-0 


Jan. 


11 


43-0 


76 


Aug. 27 


15 


Jan. 11 


61 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



125 



Table XIII. — continued. 

















■o 


<u C 3 




0) 

5 a s 






o 


Year. 




Date. 


£ ^ OJ 


Date. 


q so 

3} c 


Son 
i — ■ S t- 


Date. 


3 "8 
1-- » 


Date. 


n CD 




t0 a a. 






^ s s 






Q 






H 









1S29 


65-0 


Aug. 


8 


22-5 


Jan. 


22 


° 
42-5 


75 


July 13 


15 


Jan. 


22, 25 


60 


1830 


68-0 


July 


26 


22-0 


Dec. 


24 


46-0 


81 


July 28 


15 


Dec. 


25, 26 


66 


1831 


67-0 


July! 


29,31 


26-0 


Feb. 


4 


41'0 


76 


July 31 


19 


Feb. 


4 


57 


1832 


65-0 


Aug. 


10 


29-5 


Jan. 


3, 27 


35-5 


75 


Aug. 10 


24 


Jan. 


27 


51 


i 1833 


67-5 


July 


28 


27-0 


Jan. 


15 


40-5 


75 


July, 17, 29 


23 


Jan. 


16 


52 


1 1834 


68-5 


Aug. 


12 


31-0 


Feb. 21 


Nov. 24 


37-5 


77 


Aug. 12 


20 


Mar. 


24 


57 


1835 


66-5 


Aug. 


11 


28-0 


Jan. 


20 


38-5 


77 


Aug. 4, 10 


22 


Jan. 


21 


55 


1836 


65-0 


June 


15 


28-0 


Dec. 


26 


37-0 


76 


June 15 


24 


Jan. 


19 


52 


'■ 1837 


64-0 


July 


6 


23-0 


Jan. 


11 


41-0 


73 


July 10 


16 


Jan. 


12 


57 


( 1838 


68-5 


July 


12 


18-0 


Jan. 


21 


50-5 


84 


Sept. 9 


13 


Feb. 


13 


71 


1839 


66-5 


June 


17 


24-0 


Feb. 


21 


42-5 


87 


June 1 7 


13 


Jan. 


30 


74 


1840 


67-5 


Aug. 


21 


27-5 


Dec. 


24 


40-0 


78 


Aug. 9 


21 


Jan. 30,Feb.27 


57 


1841 


67-0 


Aug. 


20 


21-5 


Jan. 


9 


45-5 


79 


June 10 


8 


Jan. 


9 


71 


1842 


68"0 


Aug. 


13 


26-5 


Jan. 


16 


41-5 


79 


July 23 


18 


Jan. 


16, 17 


61 


1843 


67-0 


July 


14 


24-0 


Feb. 


15 


43-0 


77 


July 14 


16 


Feb. 


15, 17 


61 


1844 


66-0 


July ' 


22, 25 


24-5 


Feb. 


21 


41-5 


77 


Sept. 1 


13 


Feb. 


27 


64 


1845 


69-0 


June 


12 


18-0 


Jan. 


31 


51 '0 


79 


June 12, 13 


5 


Jan. 


31 


74 


1846 


;i'5 


June 


5 


25-5 


Dec. 


25 


46-0 


84 


June 5 


16 


Dec. 


18 


68 


1847 


75-5 


July 


12 


25 -5 


Feb. 8, 8 


, Dec. 31 


50-0 


83 


July 14 


17 


Feb. 


8, 9 


66 


1848 


68-5 


July 


13 


17-5 


Jan. 


29 


51-0 


82 


July 13 


5 


Jan. 


29 


77 


1849 


65-5 


July 


10 


20-0 


Jan. 


2 


45-5 


78 


June 5 


19 


Jan, 


4, 6 


59 


1850 


68'5 


June 


24 


19-5 


Jan. 


17 


49-0 


78 


July 23 


12 


Jan. 


18 


66 


1851 


64-5 


June 


29 


29-5 


Dec. 


3 


35-0 


75 


June 29 


23 


Dec. 


3 


52 


1852 


74-5 


July 


5, 6 


30-5 


Feb. 


20 


44-5 


85 


July 6 


24 


Nov. 


30 


60 


1853 


63-5 


June 


23 


24-0 


Feb. 


13 


39-5 


75-5 


June 23 


19-0 


Feb. 


11 


56-5 


1 1854 


62-5 


July 


12, 31 


21-5 


Jan. 


2 


41-0 


75-0 


July 12 


18-5 


Jan. 


2 


56-5 


1 1855 


66-5 


July 


22 


20-5 


Feb. 


16 


46-0 


79-5 


June '12, Sept. 9 


14*5 


Feb. 


16 


65-0 


i 1856 


67-5 


Aug. 


2 


23-5 


Dec. 


3 


44-0 


81-9 


Aug. 2 


18-6 


Dec. 


3 


63-3 


, 1857 


70'6 


June 


27 


27 '2 


Jan. 


29 


43-4 


81-6 


June 28 


20-0 


Jan. 


29 


61 6 


! 1858 


68-4 


June 


16 


26-0 


Feb. 


2 


42-4 


78-2 


June 16 


20-5 


Mar. 


8 


577 


' 1859 


69-1 


Aug. 


18 


23-5 


Dec. 


19 


45-6 


78-7 


July 12 


18-7 


Dec. 


19 


60-n 


1860 


65-0 


July 


15 


12-4 


Dec. 


24 


53-6 


71-7 


July 16 


8'8* 


Dec. 


24 


62-9 


1861 


65-5 


Aug. 


•28 


25-2 


Jan. 


8 


40-3 


71 '1 


June 14 


16-3 


Jan. 


8 


54-8 


1862 


61-0 


July 


16, 31 


25-5 


Mar. 


3 


36-5 


70-0 


April 30 


22-0 


Mar. 


3 


48-0 


1863 


66 5 


July 


10 


29-8 


Dec. 


28 


367 


752 


July 11, 12 


24-5 


Dec. 


28 


50-7 


1864 


68-0 


July 


18 


22-0 


Feb. 


24 


46-0 


79-0 


May 18, July 18 


18-0 


Mar. 


10 


61.0 


1865 


65-5 


June 


8 


25-5 


Feb. 


15, 17 


40-0 


78-0 


June 22 


18-0 


Feb. 


15, 17 


60-0 


i 1866 


70-0 


June 


7 


26-0 


Jan. 


11 


44-0 


827 


July 12 


20-0 


Mar. 


5 


627 


1867 


66-5 


July 


10 


22-0 


Jan. 


1 


44*5 


76-7 


Julyl 0,Aug. 14 


16-0 


Jan. 


1 


60-7 


1868 


75-5 


Aug. 


5 


28-5 


Jan. 


10 


47*0 


87*7 


Aug. 5 


23-0 


Nov. 


7 


64-7 


1869 


67-5 


July 


11 


26-5 


Dec. 


27 


41-0 


807 


Aug. 28 


200 


Dec. 


2 


607 


1870 


72-5 


July 


24 


21-5 


Dec. 


23 


51-0 


84-7 


July 23 


16-0 


Dec. 


23 


58-7 


, 1871 


70-0 


Aug. 


11 


28-0 


Jan. 


28 


42-0 


79-7 


Aug. 11 


23-0 


Nov. 


13 


567 


i 1872 


68 6 


July 


5 


30'5 


Mar. 


26 


38-1 


797 


July 5 


23-0 


Mar. 


26 


567 


1873 


71-8 


July 


21 


28-9 


Jan. 


29 


42-9 


82-9 


July 21 


22-2 


Feb. 


24 


607 


1874 


69-2 


Aug. 


18 


23-6 


Dec. 


29 


45-6 


81-3 


July 18 


13-6 


Dee. 


29 


677 


1875 


67-3 


Aug. 


17 


23-2 


Jan. 


1 


44-1 


76-8 


July 7 


14-0 


Jan. 


1 


62-8 


1876 


70-0 


July 


16 


26-4 


Jan. 


9 


43-4 


86-7 


July 16 


21-3 


Feb. 


14 


65-4 


1877 


63-8 


July 


30 


26-8 


Dec. 


25 


37-0 


72-0 


June 1 4 


22 - 4 


Feb. 


28 


49 6 


1878 


71-8 


June 


28 


19-2 


Dec. 


14 


52-6 


837 


July 20 


9-0 


Dec. 


14 


747 


1879 


67-5 


Aug. 


12 


18-4 


Dec. 


3 


49*1 


78-0 


Aug. 12 


7-5 


Dec. 


4 


70-5 


1880 


69-8 


Aug. 


11 


26-8 


Nov. 


22 


43-1 


77-6 


Aug. 11 


20-6 


Nov. 


21 


57-0 


1881 


68-4 


July 


14 


17-1 


Jan. 


17 


51-3 


79-2 


May 30, 31 


9-4 


Jan. 


17 


69-8 


1882 


67 8 


Aug. 


12 


13-2 


Dec. 


15 


54-6 


81-0 


Aug. 12 


6-4 


Dec. 


15 


74-6 


1883 


65-1 


July 


3 


30-6 


Mar. 


23 


34-5 


75-0 


July 3 


24-5 


Mar. 


15 


50*5 


1884 


70-3 


Aug. 


24 


29-0 


Nov. 


30 


41-3 


79-9 


June 27 


23-0 


Nov. 


30 


56 9 


1885 


71-0 


July 


26 


26-0 


Nov. 18 Dec. 7 


35-0 


82-2 


July 24 


19-8 


Nov. 


18 


62-4 


1886 


68-0 


July 


2 


21-4 


Jan. 


19 


46-6 


80-7 


July 2 


12-2 


Jan. 


19 


68-5 


J 887 


69-9 


July 


8 


28-6 


Mar. 


13 


41-3 


83 2 


June 18 


21-0 


Feb. 


9 


72-2 


1888 


64-5 


May 


19 


28 5 


Jan. 


19 


36-0 


76-8 


May 19 


18-3 


Feb. 


16 


58-5 


1889 


67-0 


Aug. 


1 


25-8 


Feb. 


10 


41-2 


78-4 


June 26 


20-8 


Mar. 


4 


57*6 


1890 


67-6 


Aug. 


5 


27-9 


Dec. 


19 


39-7 


76-0 


Sept. 8 


23-2 


Dec. 


14 


52-8 


1891 


64'6 


July 


17 


28 


Jan. 


18 


36-6 


79-8 


Sept. 12 


20-3 


Mar. 


9 


59-5 


1892 


67-4 


June 


9 


226 


Dec. 


25 


44-8 


80-1 


June 9 


14-0 


Feb. 


19 


66-1 


1893 


72-0 


Aug. 


15 


23-0 


Jan. 


6 


49-0 


85-9 


June 18 


15-0 


Jan. 


6 


70-9 


1894 


67-2 


July 


6 


21-5 


Jan. 


6 


457 


77-5 


July 6 


13*9 


Jan. 


6 


63-6 


1895 


68 6 


Aug. 


17 


20-3 


Feb. 


7 


48-3 


78-3 


June 26, Sept. 25 


11-9 


Feb. 


8 


66-4 


1896 


68-2 


July 


20 


30-8 


Dec. 


1 


37-4 


78-1 


May 11 


23-8 


Dec. 


1 


54-3 



At Marchliall, Newington, the temperature fell to 5°'0. 



1 26 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XIV. 



Showing the Highest Mean Daily Temperature in Edinburgh from 1857 to 1896. 

Height above Sea 250 feet. 

Note. — The Mean Temperature was assumed to be the mean of the daily maximum and minimum values. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1857, . 


49-4 


49-4 


479 


55 


• 
60-7 


706 


67-6 


656 


65-0 


57-9 


52-2 


O 

52-7 


1858, 




48-3 


47-2 


52-2 


55-6 


61-5 


68-4 


63d 


627 


62-9 


54-1 


48-7 


47-7 


1859, 




458 


48-9 


52-6 


57-9 


59-8 


653 


68-5 


69-1 


59-4 


60-3 


45-5 


45-4 


1860, 




45 6 


42-2 


47-0 


500 


58-0 


605 


65-0 


61-5 


64-4 


53-4 


44-6 


44-8 


1861, 




50-8 


510 


48-9 


50-2 


590 


65 


60-7 


65-5 


60-0 


59-0 


49-0 


50-2 


1862, 




455 


50-4 


47-5 


57-5 


56-5 


58-0 


61-0 


60-5 


59-0 


59-0 


48-5 


48-5 


1863, 




46-8 


47-5 


534 


50-6 


575 


61-5 


66-5 


63-0 


56-3 


52-5 


51-8 


48-2 


1864, 




' 46-4 


45-0 


44-0 


58-3 


65-7 


615 


68-0 


64-0 


57-5 


51-0 


48-5 


52-0 


1865, . 




45-0 


45-5 


48-5 


54-0 


600 


65-5 


64-5 


63-0 


65-0 


56-0 


48-5 


51-0 


1866, . 




49-5 


45-5 


50-0 


51-0 


59-0 


700 


70-0 


65-0 


60-0 


57-0 


52-0 


53-0 


1867, 




48-0 


490 


46-5 


52-0 


57-0 


63 


66-5 


66-5 


61-5 


57-0 


50-0 


51-0 


1868, 




490 


51-5 


50-5 


55 


60-5 


65-0 


69-0 


75-5 


70-0 


53-0 


52-0 


50-0 


1869, 




48 V 


51-5 


44-0 


57-5 


51-0 


62-5 


67-5 


660 


600 


59-5 


54-0 


46-0 


1870, 




42-0 


43-0 


48-0 


57-0 


59-0 


65-0 


72-5 


6C-0 


60-0 


56-5 


50-0 


47-0 


1871, 




42-5 


51-2 


52-8 


47-5 


60-5 


58-0 


64-0 


700 


630 


58-5 


45-5 


46-0 


1872, 




48-0 


47-5 


51-5 


54-5 


57-6 


67-4 


68-6 


64-2 


62-0 


55-8 


52-0 


51-4 


1873, 




50-6 


45-6 


48-7 


52 '4 


55-0 


64-5 


71-8 


630 


64-0 


53-6 


49-5 


49-5 


1874, 




45-5 


45-5 


52-9 


60-8 


60-4 


62-8 


692 


65-6 


60-0 


56-8 


56-5 


43-2 


1875, 




491 


46-8 


50-1 


56-0 


61-0 


62-8 


65-4 


67-3 


64-4 


57-0 


52-8 


49-2 


1876, 




490 


46-7 


48-4 


57-5 


59-0 


66-2 


70-0 


64-6 


58-0 


61-4 


52-2 


49-0 


1877, 




455 


46-8 


46-3 


50-9 


54-2 


61-8 


63-8 


625 


59-0 


58-2 


51-2 


48-0 


1878, 




46-7 


50-9 


49-6 


55-6 


58-2 


71-8 


68-8 


65-4 


63-6 


59-8 


43-6 


45-4 


1ST 9, 




41-8 


49-8 


46-3 


47-8 


532 


58-9 


64-4 


67-5 


61-0 


532 


49-2 


46-4 


1880, 




51-2 


48-4 


480 


53-4 


611 


64-6 


62-5 


69-8 


63-8 


55-9 


50-6 


51-2 


1881, 




45-2 


44-3 


514 


53-6 


65-4 


64-6 


68-4 


643 


58-6 


57-2 


55-4 


50-0 


1882, 




491 


51-8 


509 


52-9 


56-8 


59-2 


64-8 


67-8 


59-5 


54-4 


47-9 


48-2 


1883, 




46-4 


47-6 


47-9 


53-6 


56-6 


60-4 


65-1 


64-4 


58-0 


56-3 


53-2 


49-8 


1884, 




50-7 


49-2 


55-3 


51-7 


58-9 


67-9 


66-0 


703 


62-4 


53-8 


55-6 


47-6 


1885, 




48-0 


49-4 


474 


56-2 


55-2 


61-8 


71-0 


62-0 


600 


49-9 


54-1 


51-0 


1886, 




49-0 


45-0 


53-8 


53-7 


57-8 


61-6 


68-0 


65-4 


63-4 


61-2 


54-6 


44-7 


1887, 




508 


49-0 


48-5 


506 


59-2 


66-7 


69-9 


64-2 


59-6 


53-9 


45-9 


491 


1888, 




51-6 


48-0 


50-2 


503 


64-5 


58-7 


62-6 


61-4 


58-2 


60-3 


50-8 


513 


1889, 




47-8 


499 


52-3 


525 


61-5 


64-2 


65-8 


67-0 


62-6 


51-3 


53-2 


50-1 


1890, 




493 


47-5 


51-8 


516 


600 


60-9 


62-0 


67-6 


63-0 


59-7 


50-2 


51-9 


1891, 




462 


50-8 


51-6 


50-9 


56-9 


644 


64-6 


62-8 


671 


58-0 


47-8 


47-7 


, 1892, 




50 4 


47-2 


55-3 


53-8 


60-6 


67-4 


64-0 


65-5 


57-6 


53-8 


51-0 


48-6 


189-"», 




47-8 


49-2 


53 4 


58-4 


60-6 


71-6 


63-0 


72-0 


63-2 


60-4 


52-6 


51-6 


1 1894, 




48-4 


49-3 


529 


55-0 


54-6 


63-8 


67-2 


61-6 


57-8 


56-6 


56-7 


53-8 


1895. 




37-0 


41-4 


50-0 


55-4 


62-8 


65-2 


63-6 


68-6 


6G-7 


57-2 


49-2 


45-4 


* ) 

1896, 




48-2 


51-0 


50-0 


55-8 


61-5 


67-1 


68-2 


64-1 


60-8 


58-3 


51-0 


50'6 


Highest, 
Lowest, 


51-6 


51-8 


55'3 


60-8 


657 


71-8 


72-5 


75-5 


70-0 


61-4 


56-7 


53-8 


37-0 


41-4 


44-0 


17 r, 


51-0 


580 


60-7 


60-5 


56-3 


49-9 


43-6 


43-2 


Range, 


146 


10-4 


11-3 


13-3 


147 


13-8 


Ll-8 


15-0 


13-7 


11-5 


131 


10-6 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



127 



Table XV. 



Showing the Lowest Mean Daily Temperature in Edinburgh from 1857 to 1896. 

Height above Sea 250 feet. 

Note. — The mean Temperature was assumed to be the mean of the daily maximum and minimum values. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1857, . 


27-2 


32-7 


34-7 


37-5 


43 2 


470 


54-5 


54-4 


50-6 


44-0 


34-2 


374 


1858, 






322 


26-0 


27-8 


35-6 


42-4 


51-8 


50-4 


51-3 


50-2 


39-3 


32-1 


35-9 


1859, 






31-7 


335 


36-2 


34-9 


40-5 


47-2 


470 


53-1 


49-0 


314 


33-2 


23-5 


1860, 






276 


25-1 


33-5 


36-2 


395 


45-0 


52-5 


53-1 


48-0 


38-0 


31-8 


12-4 


1861, 






25-2 


333 


37 8 


39-6 


370 


50-1 


51-6 


53-5 


47-4 


41-0 


30-8 


270 


• 1862, 






30-4 


29-5 


25-5 


32-5 


42-7 


490 


48-1 


52-5 


45-6 


38-0 


28-8 


36-0 


i 1863, 






31-8 


33-8 


315 


38-5 


42*2 


47-4 


50-2 


470 


45-0 


38-8 


32-8 


29-8 


! 1864, 






24-0 


22-0 


28-4 


38-0 


410 


47-2 


51-0 


48-5 


49-0 


36-5 


35-5 


30-5 


1865, 






27-0 


25-5 


32-0 


39-0 


41-0 


47-0 


50 5 


50-5 


510 


370 


34-5 


37-0 


1866, 






2G-0 


28-5 


27-5 


36-0 


38-0 


46-5 


50-0 


510 


48-0 


41-5 


32-0 


32-5 


1867, 






22-0 


23-5 


305 


40-5 


38-5 


48-5 


48-5 


53-0 


49-0 


36-5 


35-0 


30-5 


1868, 






28-5 


34-5 


345 


38-0 


40-0 


52-0 


55-0 


53-0 


465 


37-0 


30-0 


30-0 


1869, 






28-0 


305 


32-5 


35-0 


41-0 


44-0 


53-5 


47-5 


49-0 


33-5 


30-0 


22-5 


1870, 






28-5 


25o 


30-0 


43-1 


42-5 


51-0 


54-0 


50-5 


46-5 


42-0 


34-0 


21-5 


1871, 






28-0 


31-4 


32-J 


36-5 


38-5 


47-5 


52-5 


52-0 


415 


385 


31-5 


29-5 


1872, 






31-0 


35-0 


30-5 


36-5 


41-5 


50-2 


54-0 


52-9 


434 


39-0 


35-6 


31-5 


1873, 






28-9 


29-2 


31-6 


39-4 


38-2 


48-8 


54-3 


51-0 


46-2 


39-5 


34-5 


30-5 


1874, 






315 


28-0 


31-2 


39-1 


■41 -8 


51-2 


55-0 


51-0 


47-6 


38-5 


32-4 


236 


1875, 






23-2 


29-6 


34-2 


41-0 


46-6 


46-2 


52-0 


54-4 


49-1 


40-2 


33-2 


31-4 


1876, 






26-4 


29-0 


313 


33-8 


41-6 


48-2 


53-4 


52-1 


44-8 


420 


31-3 


309 


1 1877, 






28-8 


26-9 


29-5 


34-8 


39-2 


52-0 


523 


50-2 


46-2 


32 5 


344 


26-8 


1 1878, 






27-9 


34-6 


31-8 


36-7 


42-9 


450 


54-6 


51-8 


48-0 


36-2 


31-8 


192 


1879, 






24-6 


27-6 


26-6 


340 


38-6 


45-8 


48-1 


51-5 


46-4 


37-8 


29-6 


18-4 


1880, 






28-7 


394 


37-1 


40-8 


43-7 


48-8 


54-2 


55-2 


48-7 


31-6 


26-8 


27-0 


1881, 






171 


30-0 


27-6 


34-5 


41-2 


45-4 


53-4 


47-6 


50-1 


34-8 


35-3 


29-8 : 


1882, 






35-0 


344 


36-2 


36 


42-2 


45-0 


54-3 


51-2 


46-5 


39-7 


34-9 


13-2 


1883, 






32-8 


32-8 


30-6 


40-2 


38-1 


48-8 


511 


53-4 


45-0 


40-6 


36-3 


33-8 


1884, 






31-1 


310 


34-6 


39-1 


42-0 


46-0 


51-0 


49-6 


50-4 


37-6 


29-0 


30-0 


1885, 






28-4 


31-6 


33-8 


38-9 


38-9 


48-6 


53-6 


45-0 


418 


37-0 


260 


26-0 


1886, 






21-4 


30-0 


27-6 


36-8 


37-3 


44-9 


50-2 


51-4 


45-6 


44-5 


38-2 


27-4 


1887, 






29-4 


28-8 


28-6 


37-6 


41-7 


46-3 


52-3 


50-2 


44-2 


35-8 


324 


30-5 


1888, 






28-5 


28-7 


29-5 


36-5 


42-0 


41-2 


49-5 


51-6 


43-2 


40-1 


34-9 


28-6 


1889, 






323 


25-8 


29-2 


36-9 


46-0 


52-0 


49-5 


52-1 


440 


400 


32-0 


31-4 


1890, 






30-5 


32-5 


331 


38-2 


45-0 


493 


51-2 


50-7 


50-1 


36-4 


29-2 


27-9 


1891, 






28-0 


37-2 


29-0 


35-9 


41-5 


45-6 


52-8 


51-2 


47-2 


37-4 


329 


33-4 


1892, 






28-7 


23-1 


29-1 


34-7 


42-2 


44-8 


49-6 


48-0 


46-0 


343 


35-0 


22-6 


1893, 






23 


29-7 


337 


38-5 


44-7 


48-4 


52-8 


55-0 


41-4 


36-4 


32-8 


29-2 


1894, 






21-5 


33 2 


390 


41-6 


41-8 


45-1 


54-8 


49-0 


46-1 


35 6 


364 


30-8 


1895, 






24-6 


203 


322 


38-8 


43-0 


48-8 


51-2 


52-4 


51-0 


34-2 


38-6 


28-9 


1896, . 




324 


310 


35-8 


41-3 


44-9 


48-6 


53-5 


51-8 


45-6 


34-4 


30-4 


30-8 


Highest, 




35-0 


39 4 


390 


43-1 


46-6 


52-0 


550 


55-2 


51-0 


44-5 


38-6 


370 


Lowest, 




17-1 


20-3 


25-5 


32-5 


37-0 


412 


47-0 


45-0 


415 


31-4 


260 


12-4 


Range, 


17-9 


19-1 


13-5 


106 


9-6 


10-8 


8-0 


10-2 


9-5 


131 


12-6 


24-6 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



X 



UN 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XVI. 



Showing the Extreme Range in the Mean Daily Temperatures in Edinburgh 

from 1857 to 1896. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1857, . 


22"2 


16-7 


13-2 


175 


17-5 


23-6 


131 


11-2 


14-4 


13-9 


18-0 


15-3 


185S, . 


16-1 


2T2 


24-4 


20-0 


19-1 


16-6 


11-7 


11-4 


12-8 


14-8 


16-2 


11-8 


1859, . 


14-1 


15-4 


16-4 


23-0 


19-3 


18-1 


21-5 


16-0 


10-4 


28-9 


12-3 


21-9 


1860, . 


18-0 


17-1 


135 


13-8 


18-5 


15-5 


12-5 


8-4 


16-4 


15-4 


12-8 


32-4 


1861, . 


25-6 


17-7 


111 


10-6 


22-0 


14-9 


9-1 


12-0 


12-6 


18-0 


18-2 


23-2 


1862, . 


15-1 


20-9 


22-0 


25-0 


13-8 


9-0 


12-9 


8-0 


13-4 


21-0 


19-7 


12-5 


1863, . 


15-0 


13-7 


21-9 


12-1 


15 3 


14-1 


16-3 


16-0 


11-8 


13-7 


19-0 


18-4 


1864, . 


22-4 


23-0 


15-6 


20-8 


24-7 


14.3 


170 


15-5 


8-5 


14-5 


13-0 


21-5 


1865, . 


18-0 


20-0 


16-5 


15-0 


19-0 


18-5 


14-0 


12-5 


14-0 


19-0 


14-0 


14-0 


1866, . 


23-5 


17-0 


22-5 


15-0 


21-0 


235 


20-0 


14-0 


12-0 


15-5 


20-0 


20-5 


1867, . 


26-0 


15-5 


16-0 


11-5 


18-5 


14-5 


18-0 


13-5 


12-5 


20-5 


15-0 


20-5 


1868, . 


20-5 


17-0 


16-0 


17-0 


20-5 


13-0 


14-0 


22-5 


23-5 


16-0 


22-0 


20-0 


1869, . 


20-0 


21-0 


11-5 


22-5 


10-0 


18-5 


14-0 


18-5 


11-5 


26-0 


24-0 


19-5 


1870, . 


135 


175 


18-0 


14-0 


16-5 


14-0 


18-5 


15-5 


13-5 


14-5 


16-0 


25-5 


1871, . 


14-5 


19-8 


20-7 


110 


22-0 


10-5 


11-5 


18-0 


21-5 


20-0 


14-0 


16-5 


1872, . 


17-0 


12-5 


21-0 


18-0 


16-1 


17-2 


14-6 


11-3 


18-6 


16-8 


16-4 


19-9 


1873, . 


21-7 


16-4 


17-1 


13-0 


16-8 


15-7 


17-5 


12-0 


17-8 


14-1 


15-0 


19-0 


1874, . 


14-0 


17-5 


21-7 


21-7 


18-6 


11-6 


142 


14-6 


12-4 


18-3 


24-1 


19-6 


1875, . 


25-9 


172 


15-9 


15-0 


144 


16-6 


13-4 


12-9 


153 


16-8 


19-6 


17-8 


1876, . 


22-6 


177 


17-1 


23-7 


17-4 


18-0 


16-6 


125 


13-2 


19-4 


20-9 


18-1 


1877, . 


167 


199 


16-8 


16-1 


15-0 


9-8 


11-5 


12-3 


12-8 


25-7 


16-8 


21*2 


1878, . 


18-8 


16-3 


17-8 


18-9 


153 


26-8 


142 


13-6 


15-6 


23-6 


11-8 


26-2 


1879, . 


17 2 


22 - 2 


19-7 


13-8 


14-6 


13-1 


16-3 


16-0 


14-6 


15-4 


19-6 


28-0 


1880, . 


22-5 


9-0 


10-9 


12-6 


17-4 


15-8 


83 


14-6 


151 


24-3 


23-8 


24-2 


1881, . 


28-1 


14-3 


23-8 


19-1 


24-2 


19-2 


15-0 


16-7 


8-5 


22-4 


20-1 


20-2 


1882, . 


14-1 


17-4 


147 


16-9 


14-6 


14-2 


10-8 


166 


13-0 


14-7 


130 


350 


1883, . 


13 6 


14-8 


17-3 


13 4 


18-5 


11-6 


14-0 


110 


130 


157 


16-9 


160 


1884, . 


19-6 


18-2 


20-7 


12-6 


16-8 


21-9 


15-0 


12-7 


12-0 


16-2 


26-6 


17-6 


1885, . 


19-6 


17-8 


136 


17 3 


163 


132 


17-4 


17-0 


18-2 


12-9 


28-1 


25-0 


1886, . 


27-6 


15-0 


26-2 


16-9 


20-5 


16-7 


17-8 


14-0 


17-8 


16-7 


16-4 


17-3 


1887, . 


21-4 


20-2 


199 


13-0 


17-5 


20-5 


17-6 


14-0 


15-4 


18-1 


13-5 


18-6 


1888, . 


23-1 


19 3 


20-7 


13 8 


22-5 


17-5 


131 


9-8 


15-0 


20-2 


10-7 


22-5 


1889, . 


15-5 


24-1 


231 


15-6 


15-5 


12-2 


16-3 


14-9 


18-6 


11-3 


21-2 


18-7 


1890, . 


18-8 


150 


18-7 


134 


15-0 


11-6 


10-8 


16-9 


12-9 


23-3 


21-0 


24-0 


1891, . 


18-2 


13-6 


22-6 


15-0 


15-4 


18-8 


11-8 


11-6 


19-9 


20-6 


14-9 


14-3 


1892, . 


21-7 


24-1 


26-2 


19-1 


18-4 


22-6 


14-4 


17-5 


11-6 


19-0 


160 


16-0 


1893, . 


24-8 


19-5 


197 


19-9 


15-9 


23-2 


10-2 


170 


21-8 


24-0 


19-8 


22-4 


1894, . 


26-9 


16-1 


13-9 


13-4 


12-8 


18-7 


12-4 


12-6 


11-7 


21-0 


20-3 


230 


1895, . 


124 


211 


17-8 


16-6 


19-8 


16-4 


12-4 


16-2 


15-7 


23-0 


10-6 


16-5 


1896, . 


15-8 


20-0 


142 


14-5 


166 


18-5 


14-7 


12-3 


15-2 


24-9 


20-0 


19-8 


Highest, 


26-9 


24-1 


26-2 


23-7 


24-7 


26-8 


21-5 


225 


23-5 


28-9 


28-1 


350 


Lowest, 


124 


9 


10-9 


10-6 


10-0 


9-0 


8-3 


8-0 


8-5 


11-3 


10-6 


11-8 


Etange, . 


14-5 


15- 1 


15-3 


131 


14-7 


17-8 


13-2 


14-5 


15 


17-6 


17-5 


23-2 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



129 



Table XVII. 



Showing the Greatest Daily Range of Temperature in each Month from 1857 to 1896. 



1 

Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 1857, . 


15-6 


1G-8 


16-9 


37-1 


24-7 


26-6 


25-6 


21-8 


28-3 


18-7 


16-3 


163 


1858, . 


17-9 


17-0 


183 


217 


217 


28-1 


19-6 


19-8 


22-7 


21-0 


150 


17-1 


1859, . 


18-3 


20-6 


21*2 


23-8 


25-2 


26-0 


23-3 


25-2 


21-2 


18-6 


16-2 


13-9 


1860, . 


18-1 


15-9 


18-0 


29-0 


28-2 


22-0 


22-7 


26-5 


233 


15-8 


19-5 


14-8 


1861, . 


21-6 


17-8 


20-7 


21-6 


27-0 


21-0 


17-6 


15-2 


18-0 


170 


18-0 


17-5 


1862, . 


15-0 


12-0 


18-0 


25-0 


22-6 


22-4 


22*4 


20-2 


20-0 


21-0 


16-0 


165 


1863, . 


20-4 


23-0 


19-8 


21-0 


23-0 


19-0 


30-3 


21-0 


14-7 


16-0 


18-2 


20-5 


1864, . 


17-0 


15-5 


21-0 


22-5 


31-0 


20-0 


24-0 


22-0 


18-0 


200 


18-0 


130 


1865, . 


16-9 


15-0 


190 


39 


19-0 


30-0 


24-0 


20-0 


22-0 


190 


18-0 


17-0 


1866, . 


23-0 


160 


22-0 


23-0 


36-0 


28-0 


30-0 


22-0 


23-0 


17-0 


17-0 


220 


1867, . 


16-0 


15-0 


18-0 


22-0 


26-0 


26-0 


26-4 


21-0 


20-0 


17-0 


17-0 


18-0 


1868, . 


157 


17-7 


20-7 


21-7 


26-0 


32-0 


32-7 


26-7 


24-7 


16-7 


16-0 


18-7 


, 1869, . 


15-7 


16-7 


20-7 


32-3 


34-7 


28-3 


31-0 


28-7 


22-7 


25-0 


20-7 


18-7 


1870, . 


20-0 


15-7 


24-7 


333 


22-7 


21-7 


27-7 


31-0 


26-7 


22-0 


18-0 


16-0 


1871, . 


130 


14-6 


24-0 


21 


30-0 


25-3 


23-0 


26-0 


24-0 


23-0 


21-0 


23-0 


1872, . 


23-0 


19-0 


'26-0 


20-7 


20-9 


26-8 


25-7 


18-5 


16-0 


23-7 


26-3 


177 


1873, . 


15-4 


16-3 


18-9 


24-4 


21-4 


24-5 


22-9 


20-3 


24-3 


25-6 


25-0 


27-0 


! 1874, . 


18-0 


20-0 


25-9 


25-2 


23-9 


22-5 


24-3 


27-2 


20-6 


17-1 


17-2 


19-9 


1875, . 


18-5 


14-0 


17-1 


31-7 


22-4 


19-9 


27-9 


18-8 


24-5 


16-9 


18-2 


14-9 


| 1876, . 


18-5 


12-9 


16-8 


18-3 


28-9 


31-6 


33-3 


27-2 


18-4 


16-9 


12-4 


15-7 


1877, . 


17-5 


16-5 


23-6 


27-8 


24-5 


25-2 


22-9 


25-3 


22-1 


21-7 


23-0 


17-0 


1878, . 


19-8 


153 


18-6 


24-8 


26-5 


26-6 


29-7 


25-4 


19-2 


235 


16-5 


20-5 


1 1879, . 


16-3 


159 


20-8 


20-3 


24-7 


19-0 


20-9 


21-0 


20-3 


22-7 


19-6 


198 


1880, . 


15-6 


16-3 


25-7 


27-4 


23-7 


27-4 


24-6 


23-6 


22-6 


18-8 


22-4 


16-9 


1881, . 


19-8 


17-6 


27-6 


23-8 


30-2 


29-4 


21-7 


27-4 


22-2 


205 


21-1 


211 


1882, . 


19-4 


18-6 


20-5 


20-4 


22-2 


24-0 


19-1 


20-4 


26-0 


23-0 


16-8 


29-0 


1883, . 


16-5 


17-6 


18-9 


20-4 


23-2 


22-8 


22-4 


23-4 


30-0 


21-0 


16-9 


18-6 


1884, . 


16-3 


16-8 


243 


24-2 


30-3 


27-7 


21-9 


24-3 


20-8 


16-4 


18-3 


135 


1885, . 


14-1 


17*2 


21-7 


22-7 


23-3 


24-6 


26-9 


24-2 


23-0 


20-6 


22-5 


21-0 


1886, . 


18-3 


18-0 


17-4 


33-8 


29-5 


28-5 


25-3 


230 


230 


19-0 


19-3 


17-0 


1887, . 


17-9 


23-0 


21-2 


23-1 


25-4 


32-6 


30-1 


24-2 


20-4 


212 


16-4 


15-6 


1888, . 


13-7 


20-8 


234 


24-6 


27-6 


28-8 


23-8 


22-9 


26-0 


193 


133 


18-6 


1889, . 


16-4 


19-4 


19-4 


195 


27-0 


28-1 


26-2 


29-0 


22-0 


205 


18-8 


16-2 


1890, . 


15-6 


17-8 


20-2 


26-6 


26-2 


27-4 


22-3 


21-9 


28-2 


219 


19-8 


16-0 


1891, . 


200 


23-0 


21-0 


22-8 


32-4 


31-6 


22-1 


21-4 


25-4 


17-1 


19-7 


16-8 


1892, . 


13-4 


18-2 


26-0 


33-1 


26-0 


25-3 


25-5 


24-7 


20-0 


18-6 


19-1 


18-8 


1893, . 


16-1 


17-5 


28-0 


24-6 


23-4 


28-5 


253 


25-6 


235 


18-9 


19-8 


16-0 


1894, . 


18-5 


17-7 


31-4 


234 


26-2 


22-9 


21-4 


19-8 


210 


21-2 


13-8 


19-2 


1895, . 


14-0 


20-5 


18-2 


225 


26-0 


29-3 


22-2 


20-3 


260 


21-8 


18-1 


17-5 


1896, . 


16-1 


18-9 


18-8 


27-6 


332 


26-0 


23-7 


22-9 


17-9 


17-6 


14-9 


15-3 


Greatest, 


23-0 


23-0 


31-4 


39-0 


36-0 


32-6 


333 


31-0 


30-0 


256 


26-3 


29-0 



1:50 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table XVIII. 
Synopsis of Thermometric Observations made in Shade 4 feet above Grass from 
1840 to 189G. The Observations are from Registering Thermometers at a 
Height of 250 feet above Mean Sea- Level. 





JANUARY. 


FEBRUARY. 


MARCH. 






a 


a 








>, 




S 




■ — ! -M 


r3 w 


^a 


S 


S 




*3 m 


^ -M 

* S 


>i 


Year. 


3 
S 


3 
| 


a; 


o so 


° o 


q| 


s 


s 

a 


60 


O be 


° O 


Q so 


| 

1 

a 


a 


60 


.5° 


°l 


,5 o 

Q 60 






"3 


p 

« 




Ph4 
$ © 

S5 


P c3 


3 


1 


P 

W 




P J 


_ p 

P c3 


'8 

a 


P 
S 

n 


.2 <o 

S -p 


S5 


.-, p 
P cS 

s 




• 


o 


o 


o « 




° 





o 


„ 




° 


° 





1840, . 


52-0 


21-0 


31 


45-1 , 33-4 


11-7 


50-0 


21-0 


29-0 


43-3 


317 


11*6 


60-0 


23-0 


37-0 


497 


32-5 


16-6 


1841, . 


51-0 


8-0 


43 


39-1 |277 


11-4 


53-0 


26-0 


27-0 


427 


33-1 


9-6 


66-0 


28-0 


38-0 


547 


38-9 


15-2 


1842, . 


47-0 


18'0 


29-0 


401 29-8 


10-3 


51-0 


22-0 


29-0 


46-0 


34-0 


12-0 


60-0 


29-0 


31-0 


49-5 


35-2 


14-3 


1843, . 


55 '0 


20 


35'0 


45-7 


33-1 


12-6 


56-0 


16-0 


40-0 


38-8 


29-8 


9-0 


61-0 


21-0 


40-0 


50-1 


34-5 


15'6 


1844, . 


57-0 


23-0 34-0 


50-4 


31-9 


18-5 


55-0 


13 


42-0 


45-1 


277 


18-0 


68-0 


23-0 


45-0 


51-9 


30-9 


21-0 


1845, . 


53-0 


5-0 48'0 


42-8 


30-4 


12-4 


49-0 


18-0 


31-0 


41-9 


29-0 


12-9 


57-0 


16-0 


41-0 


44-6 


28-6 


16-0 


1846, . 


59-0 


25-0 34-0 


47-6 


36-5 '■. 11 1 


64-0 2S-0 


360 


52-9 


36-9 


16'0 


63-0 


17-0 


46-0 


51-9 


34-1 


17-8 


1847, . 


53-0 


21-0 


32-0 


42-4 


30-0 ! 12-4 


51'0 ! 17-0 


34-0 


43-1 


28-3 


14-8 


66 -0 


21-0 


45-0 


497 


35-0 


147 


1848, . 


54-0 


5-0 


49-0 


40-4 


26-9 i 13-5 


57*0 


15-0 


42 


47-4 


33-4 


14-0 


61-0 


26-0 


35-0 


49-5 


33-6 


15-9 


1849, . 


55-0 


190 


36-0 


42-5 


31-2 11-3 


54-0 


24-0 


30-0 


47-8 


36-3 


11-5 


58-0 


24-0 


34-0 


48-7 


367 


12-3 


1850, . 


45-0 


12-0 


33-0 


359 


27-2 


8-7 


55-0 


25-0 


30'0 


46-0 


37-5 


8-5 


56-0 


22-0 


34-0 


48-8 


35-9 


12-9 


1851, . 


55-0 


26-0 


29-0 


44-7 


365 


8-2 


54-0 


27-0 


27-0 


45-8 


357 


10-1 


52-0 


25-0 


27-0 


46-8 


35-2 


11-6 


1852, . 


51'0 


25-0 


26-0 


42-4 


35'5 


6-9 


53-0 


26 


27-0 


46-1 


34-4 


117 


62-0 


27-0 


35-0 


467 


361 


10-6 


1853, . 


54-0 


25-0 


29-0 


43-5 34-2 


9-3 


45*0 


19-0 


26-0 


37-8 


29-9 


7-9 


52 


25-5 


26'5 


42-6 


32-9 


97 


1854, . 


53-0 


18-5 


34-5 


41-2 32-6 ! 8-6 


53-0 


27-0 


26-0 


45-6 


34-3 


11-3 


59-0 


32-5 


26-5 


517 


39-4 


117 


1855, . 


52-0 


22-5 


29-5 


417 133-4 I 8-3 


41-0 


14-5 


26-5 


35-1 


26-0 


9-1 


47-5 


29-0 


18-5 


42-8 


32-3 


10-5 


1856, . 


49-8 


24-7 25-1 


401 34-3 


5-8 


56-4 


28-1 


28-3 


45-8 


37-8 


7-9 


51 "1 


29-4 


21-7 


46-0 


377 


8-9 


1857, . 


53-0 


20-0 


33-0 


42-9 


33-6 


9-3 


53-8 


28-8 


25-0 


46-3 


367 


9-2 


54-4 


27-8 


26-6 


46-0 


36-6 


9-4 


1858, . 


53-3 


28-2 


25-1 


46-0 


36-0 


lO'O 


51-3 


22-5 


28-8 


41-6 


31-6 


10-0 


61-3 


20-5 


40-8 


46-8 


35-6 


11-2 


1859, . 


50-9 


27*5 


23-4 


45-2 


34-6 


10 6 


52-8 


26 6 


26-2 


45-3 


34-3 


11*0 


56 1 


28-8 


27-3 


49-0 


37-4 


11-6 


1860, . 


50 -6 


22-8 


27-8 


38-5 


30-5 


8-0 


467 


17-8 


28-9 


38-3 


28*9 


9-4 


51-0 


267 


24-3 


44-1 


32-8 


11-3 


1861. . 


51-8 


16-3 


85-5 


40-2 


32-4 


7-8 


52-3 


26-0 


26 3 


43-4 


347 


8 7 


54-4 


297 


25-3 


48-3 


34-9 


13-4 


1862, . 


52-2 


28-6 


23-6 


43-6 


36-0 


7-6 


57-0 


26-2 


30-8 


467 


37-9 


8-2 


54-6 


22-0 


32-6 


44-5 


357 


9*4 


1863, . 


53 


25-5 


27-5 


43-5 


33'9 


9'6 


59-0 


26-5 


32-5 


47-0 


35-3 


117 


58-5 


25-0 


33-5 


48-5 


37-4 


117 


1864, . 


50-0 


19-5 


30-5 


41-1 


30-9 


10-2 


49-0 


20-0 


29-0 


37-6 


29-0 


8-6 


51-0 


18-0 


33-0 


42-5 


31-9 


10-6 


1865, . 


51-0 


20-0 


31-0 


39-6 


80-4 


9-2 


49-0 


18-0 


31-0 


38-0 


287 


9-3 


54-0 


27-0 


27-0 


41-9 


31-2 


10-7 


1866, . 


56-0 


21-0 


35-0 


45-2 


34-9 


10-3 


51-7 


25-0 


267 


41-9 


33-2 


87 


58-7 


20-0 


387 


43-0 


31-5 


11-5 


1867, . 


527 


160 


367 


37-0 


28-6 


8*4 


53-7 


29-0 


247 


47-2 


38-4 


8-8 


547 


24-0 


307 


41-4 


32 5 


8*9 


1868, . 


53-7 


25-0 


28-7 


42-2 


33-9 


8-3 


54-7 


31-0 


237 


47-2 


38-8 


8-4 


56-7 


28-0 


28-7 


497 


38-4 


11-3 


1869, . 


51-7 


25-0 


267 


45-0 


35-5 


9-5 


56-7 


28-0 


287 


47*5 


37*2 


10-3 


50-0 


26-0 


24-0 


44'0 


31-9 


12-1 


1870, . 


46-7 


25 


21-7 


40-6 


32*4 


8-2 


47 7 


19-0 


287 


39-6 


307 


9-5 


537 


22-0 


317 


467 


32-3 


13'8 


1871, . 


49-0 24-0 


25-0 


38-4 


32-3 


6-1 


54-5 


27-8 


267 


467 


387 


7-4 


617 


25-2 


36-5 


50-0 


37-8 


12-2 


1872, . 


52-7 24 


28-7 


44-0 


33-0 


11-0 


53 7 


28-0 


257 


467 


35-2 


10-9 


617 


23-0 


387 


47-5 


35-4 


127 


1873, . 


54-8 


24-0 


30-8 


44-0 


36 '1 


7'9 


49-2 22-2 


27-0 


40-4 


31-6 


8-8 


54-9 


26*0 


28-9 


43-2 


347 


8-5 


1874, . 


53-0 


28-6 


24-4 


45-4 


36-0 


9-4 


58-0 19-6 


38-4 


455 


32-6 


12-9 


61-0 


27-4 


33-6 


507 


38-5 


12-2 


1875, . 


53 9 


14-0 


39-9 


45-8 


36'0 


9-8 


51-0 


24-5 


26-5 


40-9 


33-8 


77 


56-0 


28-0 


28-0 


45-5 


35 7 


9'8 


1876, . 


53-0 


22 3 


30-7 


44-7 


35-0 


9-7 


53-9 


213 


32'6 


42-5 


32-5 


10-0 


54-0 


24-0 


30-0 


447 


33-0 


117 


1877, . 


52-0 


25-0 


27-0 


43-7 


34-8 


8-9 


54-5 


22-4 


32-1 


47-2 


35-2 


12-0 


537 


23-0 


307 


44-5 


32-4 


12-1 


1878, . 


52 4 


17-5 


34 


43-2 


33-8 


9-4 


55-8 


29-5 


26-3 


477 


37-8 


93 


57-8 


24-5 


33 3 


47-3 


347 


12-6 


1879, . 


46-2 


16-5 


297 


35-8 


267 


91 


49-4 


21-4 


28 


38-9 


307 


8-2 


54-2 


17-0 


37-2 


43-0 


31-9 


117 


1880, . 


54-7 


23-0 


31*7 


406 


33-5 


7-1 


551 


32-0 


237 


48 2 


38-2 


10-0 


57-0 


28-2 


28-8 


48-3 


34-8 


13-5 


1881, . 


47-0 


9-4 


37-6 


34-1 


24-1 


100 


48'8 


217 


27-1 


39-9 


31'6 


8-3 


57'8 


15-0 


42-8 


44-6 


32-4 


12-2 


1882, . 


53-0 


29-1 


23-9 


46-2 


377 


8-5 


57-1 


31-2 


25-9 


487 


38 


10-7 


59-1 


30-2 


28-9 


50-2 


38-5 


117 


1883, . 


52-7 


25-9 


26-8 


43-9 


34-3 


9-6 


54-1 


28-0 


26 1 


467 


36-4 


9-7 


53-0 


24-5 


28-5 


42-6 


30-9 


117 


1884, . 


53-0 


26-0 


27-0 


45-8 


36-8 


9-0 


51-6 


24-8 


26'8 


457 


35 6 


10-1 


66-6 


28-4 


38'2 


48-5 


36 1 


12-4 


1885, . 


51-7 22-0 


29-7 


40-6 


33-3 


73 


54-1 


24-4 


297 


45-9 


35-4 


10-5 


53-3 


27-0 


26-3 


46-7 


34-0 


127 


1886, . 


51-4 12-2 


39-2 


39-2 


30-4 


8-8 


49-0 


21-0 


28-0 


39-5 


31-0 


8-5 


56-5 


18-9 


376 


42-7 


33-3 


9-4 


1887, . 


53-8 


21-8 


32-0 


44-0 


34-3 


9-7 


57-5 


20-0 


37-5 


45-6 


33-8 


11-8 


57*0 


20-5 


36-5 


44-8 


33-5 


11-3 


1888, . 


55-1 


24-3 


30-8 


43-2 


35-4 


7-8 


50-5 


18-3 


32-2 


39-9 


31-9 


8'0 


55'2 


23-8 


31-4 


41-4 


31-6 


9-8 


1889, . 


54 9 


26-0 


28-9 


44-0 


35-5 


8-5 


54-2 21-6 


32-6 


42-3 


32-4 


9-9 


56-0 


20-8 


35-2 


46-0 


347 


11-3 


1890, . 


53 8 


25-0 


28-8 


46-7 


36-8 


9-9 


52-9 25-9 


27-0 


42-9 


327 


10-2 


59 5 


25-4 


347 


48-6 


37-0 


11-6 


1891, . 


51-0 


24-0 


27-0 


40-8 


327 


8-1 


61-1 


27-5 


33-6 


50-3 


36-4 


13-9 55-2 


20-3 


34-9 


44-4 


32-0 


12-4 


1892, . 


52-6 


24-8 


27-8 


40-8 


32'4 


8*4 


52-3 


14-0 


38-3 


42-3 


32-6 


9-7 63-2 


216 


41'6 


437 


30-9 


12-8 


1893, . 


52-4 


15-0 


37-4 


41-5 


33-6 


7-9 


54 9 


25-1 


29-8 


44-8 


34-9 


9-9 67-0 


24-9 


42-1 


51-3 


36-5 


14-8 


1894, . 


517 


13-9 


37-8 


42-8 


33-3 


9-5 


54-5 


26-1 


28-4 


457 


35-1 


10-6 64-3 


30-1 


34-2 


51-3 


36 9 


14-4 


1895, . 


41-0 


19-0 


22-0 


36-2 


27-5 


8-7 


46-3 


11-9 


34-4 


37-1 


25-4 


117 J 55-3 


27-0 


28-3 


45-9 


36-2 


97 


1S96. . 


52-9 


23-0 


29 


46 '5 


36 9 


8-6 


52-9 


277 


25-2 


47-0 


87*6 


9-4 56-1 


29-4 


267 


48-8 


36-0 


12-8 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



131 



Table XVIII. — continued. 





APRIL. 


MAY. 


JUNE. 


a 


s 




■-H CO 

CS o> 


eg co 


_>> 


B 


g 




cS a> 




>, 


g" 


a 




^ a> dl 


>> 


Year. 


I 


3 

a 




O M 


°1 


ft g> 


s 
| 


s 
g 


a5 

2° 


°.SP 


og 





3 

g 


J 


CD 

6D 

P3 


O 60 


o| 


b 




c8 


is 


cS 

Pi 


cS^ 
CD <D 


a> cd 


£ e3 


C3 


'3 


5 


flffi 
cs H " 1 

CD X 


3^ 


a ce 




'S 


cS 


CO " 
CD aj 




c« PS 




s 


§ 




&■$ 


t=i j3 


M 


s 


§ 




S~ 


S5 


§ 


S 


§ 




hJ 


S£ 


£ 




o 





o 


o 


e 




















O 





° 


° 


o 


o 


o 


1840, . 


76-0 


31-0 


45-0 


57-6 


39-2 


18-4 


74-0 


29-0 


45-0 


55-5 


40-9 


14-6 


72-0 


37-0 


35-0 


64-2 


46-2 


18-0 


1841, . 


64-0 


28-0 


36-0 


53-1 


37-0 


16-1 


76-0 


28-0 


48-0 


61-4 


427 


187 


79-0 


35-0 


44-0 


61-8 


45-2 


16-6 


1842, . 


72-0 


29-0 


43-0 


55-8 


361 


19-7 


67-0 


36-0 


31-0 


60-0 


43-3 


167 


77-0 


39-0 


38-0 


66-5 


477 


18-8 


1843, . 


65-0 


26-0 


39-0 


53-6 


37-6 


16-0 


69-0 


35-0 


34-0 


537 


40-5 


13-2 


71-0 


39-0 


32-0 


597 


447 


15-0 


1844, . 


71-0 


31-0 j 40'0 


58-2 


40-8 


17'4 


68-0 


30-0 


38-0 


58-4 


39-2 


19-2 


74-0 


40-0 


34-0 


647 


46-0 


18-1 


1845, . 


64-0 


28-0 ! 36-0 


54-3 


36-1 


18-2 69-0 


33-0 


36-0 


55-8 


40-5 


15-3 


79-0 


38-0 


41-0 


657 


48-0 


177 


1846, . 


64-0 


25-0 ; 39-0 


52-9 


36-6 


16 3 


70-0 


31-0 


39 


65-3 


41-1 


24-2 


84-0 


43-0 


41-0 


73-2 


50-6 


22-6 


1847, . 


61 


29-0 


32-0 


527 


337 


19-0 


77-0 


32-0 


45-0 


59-0 


42-2 


16-8 


76-0 


38-0 


38-0 


66-3 


45-8 


20-5 


1848, . 


65-0 


26-0 


39-0 


53-1 


34-5 


18-6 


78-0 


35'0 


43-0 


67-6 


43-3 


24-3 


75-0 


37-0 


38-0 


63-5 


46-4 


17-1 


1849, . 


67-0 


23-0 


44-0 


49-8 


36-1 


137 


70-0 


37-0 


33.0 


59-0 


43-1 


15-8 


78-0 


34'0 


44-0 


62-0 


43-6 


18-4 


1850, . 


61-0 


31-0 


30'0 


54-0 


39-1 


14-9 


66'0 


26-0 


40-0 


56-6 


39-9 


167 


76-0 


38-0 


38-0 


67-2 


497 


17-5 


1851, . 


59-0 


30-0 


29-0 


51-3 


36-2 


15'1 


72-0 


32-0 


40-0 


59-2 


41-6 


17-6 


75-0 


32-0 


43-0 


64-4 


46-3 


18-1 


1852, . 


71-0 


33-0 


38-0 


56-9 


40-3 


16-6 


68-0 


37-0 


? 


? 


? 


? 


72-0 


43-0 


? 


? 


? 


1 


1853, . 


60-5 


32'0 


28-5 


51-1 


40"2 


10'9 


69-5 


31-5 


38-0 


56-3 


42-3 


14-0 


75-5 


44'5 


31-0 


65-2 


51-2 


14-0 1 


1854, . 


58-0 


30-0 


28-0 


52-5 


40-3 


12-2 


64-0 


39-0 


25-0 


57-8 


44-0 


13-8 


74-0 


41-0 


33-0 


63-4 


497 


137 


1855, . 


64-0 


30-5 


33-5 


53-0 


37-5 


15-5 


70-0 


30-0 


40-0 


52-5 


39-9 


12-6 


79-5 


41-5 


38-0 


65-2 


49-4 


15-8 


1856, . 


61 '1 


35-7 


25-4 


51-5 


40-8 


10-7 


64-6 


36-4 


28-2 


54-0 


43-0 


11-0 


73-6 


43-5 


30-1 


62-6 


49-8 


12-8 


1857, . 


63-6 


26-5 


37*1 


49-4 


37-5 


11-9 


70-9 


38-8 


32-1 


58 7 


44-5 


14-2 


81-6 


43-0 


38-6 


67-8 


50-5 


17-3 


1858, . 


65-6 


26-7 


38-9 


52-6 


38-1 


14-5 


66-4 


35-1 


31-3 


587 


43-5 


15-2 


78-2 


43-8 


34-4 


65-5 


51-5 


14-0 


1859, . 


68-9 


25-5 


43-4 


48-8 


34-4 


14-4 


68-2 


33-6 


34-6 


59-2 


43-2 


16-0 


69-8 


41-2 


28'6 


62-4 


47-9 


14-5 


1860, . 


577 


29-5 


28-2 


46-8 


34-9 


11-9 


697 


36 


337 


57-5 


437 


13-8 


65-8 


40-8 


25-0 


567 


46-3 


10-4 


1861, . 


63-1 


31-5 


31'6 


50-0 


37-6 


12-4 


67-1 


29-5 


37-6 


57-5 


42-4 


15-1 


71-1 


40-5 


30-6 


60-5 


49-3 


11-2 


1 1862, . 


70-0 


26-0 


44-0 


51-6 


38 '4 


13-2 


64-0 


31-4 


32-6 


58-0 


43 2 


14-8 


65-2 


42-0 


23-2 


59-4 


47-3 


121 


1863, . 


57-0 


30-0 


27-0 51-4 


37-8 


13-6 


64'5 


36-5 


28-0 


56-0 


42-9 


131 


68-0 


42-0 


26-0 


63-8 


47-5 


16-3 


1864, . 


69-0 


30-0 


39'0 53-1 


39-5 


13-6 


79-0 


32-0 


47-0 


60-0 


42-0 


18-0 


68-0 


47-5 


30-5 


61-2 


47-0 


14-2 


1865, . 


70-0 


29-0 


41-0 i 53-4 


38-0 


15-4 


69-0 


36-0 


33-0 


56-9 


44-2 


127 


78-0 


40-0 


38'0 


661 


48-0 


18-1 


1866, . 


59-7 


27-0 


32-7 48'9 


36-5 


12-4 


767 


30-0 


467 


56-6 


39-4 


17-2 797 


37-0 


427 


65-0 


48-9 


16-1 


1867, . 


587 


36-0 


22-7 . 52-0 


40-9 


11-1 


677 


32-0 


357 


53-4 


42-3 


11-1 757 


43-0 


327 


63-9 


49-2 


147 


1868, . 


627 


32-0 


30-7 52-8 


40-5 


12-3 


727 


32-0 


407 


60-4 


45-9 


14-5 1 7S7 


42-0 


367 


651 


49-6 


15-5 


1869, . 


70-7 


26-0 


44-7 56-2 


39-4 


16-8 


68 7 


30-0 


387 


53-4 


37'6 


15-8 


717 


37-0 


347 


62-6 


46-2 


16-4 


1870, . 


72-7 


33-0 


397 ' 55-8 


41-8 


14-0 


697 


36-0 


337 


59-9 


45-5 


14*4 


747 


45-0 


297 


64-5 


50-8 


137 


1871, . 


58-7 


30-0 


28-7 48-3 


37-4 


10-9 


727 


27-0 


457 


59-3 


41-4 


17-9 


707 


39-0 


317 


61-1 


44-3 


16-8 


1872, . 


62-7 


30-0 


327 | 51*1 


38-0 


13-1 


64-0 


30-0 


34-0 


53-5 


39-4 


14-1 


757 


387 


37-0 


63-8 


51-0 


12-8 


1873, . 


57-3 


32-9 


24-4 j 503 


39 1 


11-2 


62-4 


30-8 


31-6 


55-1 


41-6 


13-5 


71-4 


37-5 


33-9 


62-5 


47-3 


15-2 


1874, . 


69-0 


34-2 


34-8 


53-6 


40-8 


12-8 


66-3 


35'0 


31-3 


51-5 


41-8 


97 


717 


40-9 


30-8 


63-4 


47-6 


15-8 


1875, . 


70-3 


33-8 


36-5 


53-2 


40-1 


13-1 


70-2 


39-8 


30-4 


59-2 


45-6 


13-6 


73-4 


40-3 


33-1 


62-5 


48-2 


14-3 


1876, . 


65-2 


26'9 


38-3 


50-3 


38-5 


11-8 


66'5 


32'4 


34-1 


55-8 


419 


13-9 


75-8 


42-4 


33-4 


64-1 


46-8 


17-3 


1877, . 


59-2 


29-0 


30-2 


47 '5 


35-7 


11-8 


64-0 


31-5 


32-5 


53-3 


39-6 


137 


72-0 


42-8 


29-2 


64-6 


487 


15-9 


1878, . 


62-5 


28-8 


33-7 


52-7 


39-2 


13-5 


71-5 


33-5 


38-0 


59-0 


437 


15-3 


81-3 


36-4 


44-9 


65-2 


48-3 


16-9 


1879, . 


54'2 


287 


25-5 


46-5 


347 


11 "8 


62-3 


29-2 


33-1 


54-2 


38-3 


15-9 


66-0 


37*0 


29-0 


58-4 


46-5 


11-9 


1880, . 


60-1 


31-2 


28-9 


52-6 


39-1 


13-5 


71-6 


32-9 


387 


57-1 


42-2 


14-9 


72-6 


38-2 


34-4 


63-2 


47-8 


15'4 


1881, . 


58-5 


25-2 


33-3 


50-2 


35-5 


14-7 


79-2 


34-0 


45-2 


59-3 


43'3 


16-0 


78-4 


37-5 


40-9 


62-5 


47-1 


15-4 


1882, . 


60-4 


28-5 


31-9 


50-3 


37-9 


12-4 


66-8 


35-4 


31-4 


57-9 


427 


15-8 


67-6 


38-6 


29 


61-1 


47-5 


13-6 


1883, . 


60-0 


33-1 


26-9 


52-8 


38-9 


13'9 


66-8 


29-2 


37-6 


56-1 


41-5 


14-6 


66-6 


38-5 


28-1 


60-3 


47-3 


13-0 


1884, . 


63-8 


28-8 


35-0 


52-1 


36'9 


15-2 


72-9 


34-0 


38-9 


57-8 


41-5 


16-3 


79-9 


41-1 


38-8 


62-2 


477 


14-5 


1885, . 


65-7 


32-0 


337 


52-6 


38'5 


14-1 


62-0 


30-1 


31-9 


53-3 


39-9 


13-4 


70-6 


39-0 


31-6 


61-0 


48-4 


12-6 


1886, . 


70-6 


31-5 


39-1 


50-3 


37-1 


13-2 


72-6 


317 


40-9 


55-2 


41-0 


14-2 


75-6 


37-1 


38-5 


62 7 


45-9 


168 


1887, . 


59-0 


29-0 


30-0 


49-8 


35-4 


14-4 


68-0 


29-1 


38-9 


57-1 


41-1 


16-0 


83-2 


40-9 


42-3 


67-1 


49-8 


17-3 


1888, . 


59'6 


28-3 


31-3 


49 6 


36-1 


13-5 


76-8 


33-0 


43-8 


58'6 


41-9 


167 


69-3 


36'9 


32-4 


59-6 


43-9 


157 


1889, . 


61-0 


31-5 


29-5 


48-1 


37'9 


10-2 


74-0 


39-8 


34-2 


59-6 


44-5 


15-1 


78-4 


39-4 


39-0 


66-6 


49-0 


17-6 


1890, . 


64-0 


28-4 


35-6 


52-6 


36-5 


16-1 


71-0 


36-3 


347 


57-9 


44-0 


13-9 


71-4 


38-1 


33-3 


62-5 


477 


14-8 


1891, . 


60'8 


26-6 


34-2 


50-2 


35-5 


147 


73-1 


31-0 


42-1 


56-1 


40-0 


161 


72-9 


40-6 


32-3 


61-6 


48-3 


13-3 


1892, . 


68-0 


26-0 


42-0 


52-0 


357 


16-3 


69-9 


36-0 


33-9 


58-6 


43-1 


15-5 


80-1 


37-8 


42-3 


62-0 


46-8 


15-2 


1893, . 


.69-5 


34-0 


35-5 


56-1 


39-8 


16-3 


70-5 


36-9 


33'6 


61-5 


46-5 


15-0 


85-9 


43-6 


42-3 


66-8 


50-5 


16-3 


1894, . 


63-8 


34-3 


29-5 


54-6 


40-7 


13-9 


64-1 


32-0 


32-1 


54*2 


40-0 


14-2 


74-1 


387 


35-4 


62-0 


47-4 


14-6 


1895, . 


61-9 


29-4 


32-5 


52-6 


39-4 


13-2 


74-8 


38-5 


36-3 


62-0 


44-1 


17-9 


78-3 


37-6 


407 


65-3 


48-0 


17-3 


1896, . 


65-9 


34*5 


31-4 


55-7 


41-9 


13-8 


78-1 


37-4 


407 


64'0 


457 


18-3 


75-5 


44-4 


311 

1 


62-8 


50-6 


12-2 



132 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XVIII. — continued. 



Year. 


JULY. AUGUST. 


SEPTEMBER. 


E 

3 

a 

d 

s 


S 

3 
| 

'3 
% 


o 
60 

a 


o "Sc 
S 5 




>> 

ft tD 

a J 


a 

3 

a 

(8 


a 

3 
| 

[a 


gS 

1 


3£ 


^ 1 

■si 

S CD 


ft so 
3 cfl 


§ 
"3 

et) 

2 


i 

3 

i 


6fl 

P 

PS 


"3 +° 

C$ CO 

Cm P 

o.SP 

CD CD 

S3 


^ 8 
§5 


ft 50 
3 a 







o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 





o 


o 


° 


° 


° 


= 


° 


° 





1340, . 


71-0 


40'0 


31-0 


64-1 


47-8 


14-3 


78-0 


40-0 


38-0 


677 


50-6 


16-1 


68-0 


39'0 


29-0 


59-2 


43-6 


15-6 


1841, . 


73-0 


4V0 


32-0 


64-2 


48-3 


15-7 


75-0 


40-0 


35-0 


65-5 


49-2 


16-3 


77-0 


37-0 


40-0 


61-8 


47-3 


14-5 


1842, . 


79-0 


40-0 


39-0 


65-4 


47-5 


17-9 


78-0 


40-0 


38-0 


69-1 52-3 


16-8 


72-0 


39-0 


33-0 


62-3 


47-9 


14-4 


1843, . 


77-0 


43-0 


34-0 


67-5 


50-3 


17-2 


76-0 


43-0 


33 '0 


66-2 


49-6 


16'6 


75-0 


32-0 


43-0 


66-2 


48-0 


18-2 


1844, . 


74-0 


39-0 


35-0 


65-4 


48-4 


17-0 


76-0 


37-0 


39-0 


64-5 


46-9 


17-6 


77-0 


31-0 


46-0 


60-9 


45-3 


15-6 


1845, . 


70-0 


380 


32-0 


63 '0 


46-6 


16-4 


77-0 


40-0 


37-0 


64-6 


467 


17-9 


72-0 


31-0 


41-0 


64-8 


43 '4 


21-4 


1846, . 


79-0 


46-0 


33-0 


67-3 


51-3 


16-0 


75-0 


42-0 


33-0 


68-3 


51-5 


16-8 


78-0 


39-0 


39 


68-9 


50-0 


18-9 


1847, . 


83-0 


42-0 


41'0 


71-0 


52-2 


18-8 


77-0 


37*0 


40-0 


677 


47-6 


207 


66-0 


31-0 


35-0 


61-1 


41-9 


19-2 


1848, . 


82-0 


38-0 


44-0 


69 1 


49-4 


197 


70-0 


36-0 


34-0 


63-4 


44-8 


18-6 


76-0 


350 


41-0 


60-5 


47-0 


13-5 


1849, . 


73-0 


44 


29-0 


64-6 


49-1 


15-5 


70-0 


40-0 


30-0 


64-2 


50-1 


147 


66*0 


37-0 


29-0 


58-0 


47-2 


10-8 


1850, . 


78'0 


40-0 


38-0 


67-8 


50-1 


177 


74-0 


36-0 


38-0 


65-9 


477 


18*2 


71-0 


36-0 


35-0 


60-4 


44-3 


16-1 


1851, . 


72-0 


38-0 


34-0 


637 


48-5 


15-2 


70-0 


43-0 


27-0 


637 


49-5 


14-1 


66-0 


34-0 


32-0 


60-2 


44-8 


15-4 


1852, . 


85-0 


50 


•t 


? 


? 


? 


75-0 


49-0 


? 


? 


? 


? 


74 '0 


35 


39-0 


61-8 


463 


15-5 


1853, . 


71-5 


49-5 


22-0 


65-3 


53-1 


12-2 


70-0 


45-0 


25-0 


63-8 


51-8 


12-0 


66-0 


41-0 


25-0 


59-4 


48-0 


11-4 


1854, . 


75-0 


48-5 


26-5 


65 9 


53-4 


12-5 


71-5 


48-0 


23-5 


67-9 


53-2 


147 


71'5 


43-0 


28-5 


63-0 


51-0 


12-0 


1855, . 


79-5 


50-5 


29-0 


68-3 


54-9 


13-4 


73-0 


48'0 


25-0 66-6 


52-8 


13-S 


60-5 


38-6 


30-9 


60-5 


47-8 


127 


1856, . 


767 


43-7 


33-0 


67-1 


52-6 


14-5 


81-9 


44-9 


37'0 65-2 


52-8 


12-4 


67-0 


40 9 


26-1 


587 


48-1 


10-0 


1857, . 


75'6 


45-7 


29-9 


69-8 


52-9 


16-9 


76-0 


49-0 


27-0 j 677 


54-5 


13-2 


77-9 


416 


36-3 


63 9 


507 


13-2 


1858, . 


69-4 


427 


267 


61-5 


49-5 


12-0 


08-5 


43-6 


24-9 1 62-7 


517 


11-6 


68-6 


38-8 


29-8 


61-4 


48-2 


13-2 


1859, . 


787 


41-5 


37-2 


65-9 


513 


14-6 


77-3 


45-8 


31-5 67*1 


50-9 


162 


66-3 


41-3 


25-0 


597 


45-8 


13-9 


1860, . 


717 


447 


27-0 


65-1 


49-9 


15-2 


69-2 


41-7 


27-5 


619 48-0 


13-9 


67-6 


357 


31-9 


59-0 


43-4 


15-6 


1861, . 


69-9 


42-0 


27-9 


63-8 


49-5 


14-3 


70-2 


46-9 23-3 


647 


52-0 


127 


64-0 


38-0 


26-0 


587 


48-3 


10-4 


1862, . . 


68 


42-8 


25-2 


607 


48-3 


12-4 


68-0 


44-0 ! 24-0 


61-8 


51-1 


107 


65-0 


37-3 


277 


58-8 


46-5 


12-3 


1863, . 


75 2 


39-5 


357 


66'6 


49-3 


17-3 


69-0 


39-0 ' 30-0 


62-5 


49-5 


130 


60-0 


41*0 


19-0 


547 


45-2 


9-5 


1864, . 


79'0 


44-0 


35-0 


64-0 


50-0 


14'0 


74-0 


40-0 


34-0 


62-6 


47-1 


15-5 


65-0 


40-0 


25-0 


59 '6 


46-4 


13-2 


1865, . 


76-0 


43'0 


33-0 


66-4 


51-3 


15-1 


68-0 


43'0 


25-0 


62-8 


50-2 


12-6 


74-0 


43-0 


31-0 


65-1 


517 


14-0 


1866, . 


827 


44-0 


38-7 


65-5 


50-5 


15-0 


717 


41-0 


30-7 


62-2 


50-1 


12-1 


677 


38-0 


297 


59-9 


46-6 


13 3 


1867, . 


76-7 


45-0 


31-7 


62-3 


50-0 


12-3 


76-7 


48-0 


287 


65-0 


53-0 


12-0 


667 


41-0 


257 


597 


49-2 


10-5 


1868, . 


85-8 


47'0 


387 


70-6 


537 


16-9 


877 


48-0 397 


66-8 


52-9 


13-9 


817 


42-0 


397 


60-5 


48-9 


11-6 


1869, . 


79-7 


42-0 


377 


68-9 


51'0 


17-9 


80-7 


35-0 ! 457 


65-6 


48-6 


17-0 


687 


40-0 


287 


607 


48-4 


12-3 


1870, . 


84-7 


45-0 


397 68-0 

I 


53-5 


14'5 


79-0 


42-0 37-0 


67-1 


50-5 


16-6 


69-7 


36-0 


337 


63-1 


47-4 


157 


1871, . 


72-7 


45-0 


27-7 i 65-9 


50-2 


157 


79-7 


41-0 


38-7 


68-6 


51-0 


17'6 


717 


37*0 


347 


59-5 


457 


13-8 


1872, . 


797 


43-7 


36-0 65-6 


52 6 


13-0 


73-5 


457 


277 


627 


517 


11-6 


66-2 


347 


31-5 


57-6 


46-6 


11-0 


1873, . 


82-9 


45-3 


37'6 66-9 


53-1 


13-8 


71-4 


43-8 


27-6 


63-8 


52-0 


11-8 


76-2 


38-8 


37-4 


58-8 


46-0 


12-8 


1874, . 


SI 3 


47"2 


34-1 665 


537 


12-8 


76-0 


40-8 | 35-2 


63-0 


50-5 


12-5 


67-8 


40-4 


27-4 


60-2 


47-6 


12-6 


1875, . 


76 "8 


43-6 


33 2 


64-3 


497 


14-6 


73-0 


46-3 \ 267 


64-5 


527 


11-8 


72-5 


42-6 


29-9 


60-4 


48-5 


11-9 


1876, . 


86-7 


447 


42-0 


6G-5 


519 


14-6 


74-8 


42-2 


32-6 


63-8 


51-2 


12-6 


627 


40-8 


21-9 


577 


47-5 


10'2 


1877, . 


69 5 


45-0 


24-5 


64-5 


51'2 


13-3 


71-0 


40-5 


30-5 


61-6 


49-1 


12-5 


67-5 


38-0 


29-5 


603 


41-9 


18-4 


1878, . 


837 


44-3 


39-4 


69-3 


52-6 


167 


74-2 


43-5 


307 


66-4 


512 


15-2 


69-6 


43-0 


26-6 


61-3 


49-6 


117 


1879, . 


71-0 


40'3 


30-7 


597 


49-0 


10-7 


78-0 


44-0 


34-0 


63-4 


49-5 


13-9 


68-2 


37-0 


31-2 


59-1 


44-8 


14-3 


1880, . 


72-5 


44-7 


27-8 


64-4 


50-9 


13-5 


77-6 


48-4 


29-2 


68-2 


53-3 


14-9 


72-5 


41-8 


307 


62-4 


497 


127 


1881, . 


75-8 


42 5 


33'3 


65-3 


51-5 


13-8 


76-0 


38-7 


37-3 


62-1 


48-4 


137 


64-8 


39-0 


25-8 


59-4 


48-2 


11-2 


1882, . 


74-4 


47-9 


26-5 


63-9 


517 


12-2 


8ro 


43-2 


37-8 


63 4 


50-8 


12-6 


68-5 


34-6 


33-9 


597 


437 


16-0 


1883, . 


75 


42'4 


32-6 


82-9 


49-4 


13-5 


72-8 


45-0 


27-8 


64-2 


50-8 


13'4 


69-1 


36'0 


33-1 


607 


48-4 


12-3 


1884, . 


75-6 


42-8 


32 8 


62-9 


51 -2 


11-7 


78-5 


42-8 


357 


65-3 


51-6 


137 


66-8 


40-4 


26-4 


60-5 


49-0 


11-5 


1885, . 


82-2 


44-9 


37-3 


68-5 


51-6 


16-9 


71 '0 


40-5 


305 


617 


47-9 


13*8 


69-0 


31-6 


37-4 


59-8 


45-2 


14-6 


1886, . 


80-7 


42-6 


381 


66-1 


50-8 


15-3 


73 8 


41-5 


32-3 


65-5 


507 


14-8 


677 


36-1 


31'6 


59-6 


48-0 


11-6 


1887, . 


81 '4 


40-5 


40-9 


69-5 


53-2 


163 


76-1 


42-6 


33-5 


66-0 


507 


15-9 


67-2 


35-9 


31-3 


597 


467 


13-0 


1888, . 


73-0 


40 2 


32-8 


61-8 


48-6 


13-2 


70-9 


411 29-8 


62-9 


48-6 


14 3 


69-0 


38-3 


307 


597 


45-3 


14-4 


1889, . 


7'»-4 


432 


332 


64-5 


49-0 


15-5 i 74'1 


42'4 31-7 


63-2 


50-8 


12-4 


69-6 


34-6 


35-0 


59-6 


46-4 


13-2 


1890, . 


7<i-l 


43-5 


26-6 


64-3 


48-8 


15-5 , 71'8 


401 1 317 


63-5 


497 


13-8 


76-0 


42-3 


337 


66 2 


50-4 


15-8 


1891, . 


:■; :: 


45-4 


27'9 


657 


52-1 


13-6 69-5 


40-4 29-1 


63-1 


50-6 


12-5 


79-8 


42-4 


37-4 


62-2 


49'8 


124 


1892, . 


71-8 


43-4 


28-4 


62-4 


49'4 


130 | 71-3 


39-2 32-1 


63'8 


50-5 


13-3 


64-5 


38-2 


26-3 


58-2 


45-6 


12-6 


1893, . 


72-5 


44-2 


28-3 


64-4 


51-1 


13-3 | 84-0 


42-6 41-4 


69-6 


537 


15-9 


727 


34-9 


37-8 


60-6 


467 


13-9 


1894, . 


775 


46-5 


31 


65-7 


52-2 


137 68*1 


44-4 287 


637 


50-1 


13-6 


65'9 


37-2 


287 


58-3 


46-0 


12-3 


1895, . 


747 


45-5 


29-2 


64-0 


50-3 


13-7 i 77-0 


44-6 ! 32-4 


65-8 


53-1 


127 


78-3 


41-0 


37-3 


66-4 


50-8 


15-6 


1896, . 


-,:,:; 


43-3 


32 


65-1 


51-8 


13-8 73-1 


43-7 29-4 


63-8 


49-8 


14-0 


66-5 


39-9 


26-6 


58 8 


47-8 


11-0 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



133 



Table XVIII. — continued. 



Year. 


OCTOBER. 


NOVEMBER. 


DECEMBER. 


6* 
| 

a 


a 

a 
"8 
9 


Sao 

a 


^ CO 
Ci CD < 

s£ 

cd MH I 

■z. <x> i 




>> 

O bo 

9 « 


a 
a 

'S3 

a 


S 

3 

a 

3 


03 

to 
a 

cS 


, — i -m 

— in 

o tap 
Pffi 
a) <d 

as 


£3 -*-* 

« S 
"SI 

* — 

S5 


>> 

Q 60 

9 C3 


a 

3 

a 

'S 

3 


a* 

3 

3 
'3 

a 


SaO 

a 
« 


£2 CO 
03 CD 

O OX) 

gw 

CD CD 


"a 3 
og 

a£ 


9 « 

a 




D 





o 


o 


o 


o 





o 


a 


b 




o 











o 


o 


1840, . 


61-0 


30-0 j 31-0 


53-0 


39-5 


13-5 


55-0 


27-0 


28-0 


477 


35-6 


12-1 


54-0 


22-0 


32-0 


417 


31-5 


10-2 


1841, . 


60-0 


28-0 


32-0 


49-6 


39-0 


10-6 


55-0 


23-0 


32-0 


44'2 


33-8 


10-4 


51-0 


23-0 


28-0 


43-9 


34-0 


9-9 


1842, . 


65-0 


25-0 


40-0 


55-3 


37-9 


17-4 


54-0 


20-0 


34-0 


46-6 


35-2 


11-4 


60-0 


30-0 


30-0 


51-3 


39-9 


11 '4 


j 1843, . 


65-0 


25-0 


40 


51-5 


38-3 


13-2 


60-0 


26-0 


34'0 


53-2 


35*1 


18-1 


62-0 


32-0 


30-0 


56-5 


39 -0 


17-5 


1844, . 


62-0 


28-0 1 34-0 


53-8 


40-4 


13-4 


62-0 


28-0 


34-0 


48-1 


38-1 


io-o 


44-0 


20 


24-0 


37-1 


28-9 


8-2 


1845, . 


71-0 


30-0 1 41-0 


567 


42-0 


147 


61-0 


24'0 


37-0 


50-2 


36-9 


13-3 


55-0 


23-0 


32-0 


46-1 


31-2 


149 


1846, . 


640 


30-0 34-0 


54-8 


41-4 


13'4 


60'0 


22-0 


38-0 


50-5 


39-0 


11-5 


55'0 


16-0 


39-0 


41-2 


27-6 


13-6 


1847, . 


68-0 


34-0 34-0 


55-6 


42-5 


13-1 


60-0 


25-0 


35-0 


53-0 


38"2 


14-8 


57*0 


21-0 


36-0 


45-9 


33-3 


12-6 


1848, . 


64-0 


28-0 36-0 


52-2 


41-1 


11-1 


53-0 


30-0 


23-0 


45-8 


347 


11-1 


59-0 


■1 1-0 


38-0 


455 


35-5 


io-o 


1849, . 


66-0 


28-0 


38-0 


51-8 


38-2 


13-6 


58-0 


21-0 


37-0 


47-0 


36-3 107 


49-0 


21-0 


28-0 


40-5 


33-2 


7-3 


1850, . 


2 


? 


2 


■i 


t 


2 


2 


2 


2 


? 


2 | 2 


? 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1851, . 


63-0 


33-0 


30-0 


56-0 


44-4 


11-6 


51-0 


25-0 


26 


42-5 


32-1 


10-4 


57-0 


23-0 


34-0 


445 


36-9 


7-6 


' 1852, . 


62-0 


32 


30-0 


52-2 


40-5 


117 


59-0 


24-0 


35-0 


477 


37-8 


9-9 


56-0 


26-0 


30-0 


47"5 


36-9 


10-6 


' 1853, . 


58-0 


34-0 


24-0 


52-7 


44-2 


8-5 


56-0 


30-0 


26-0 


47*8 


387 


9-1 


53-0 


32-5 


20-5 


41-2 


32-8 


8-4 


1854, . 


62-5 


32-0 


30-5 


53-6 


42-3 


11-3 


58-5 


31-0 


27'5 


46-9 


37*2 


97 


54-5 


27-5 


270 


45-3 


34-6 


107 


1855, . 


62-5 


297 


32-8 


53-1 


417 


11-4 


55-2 


29-9 


25 3 


45-0 


37*6 


7-4 


49-4 


22-9 


26-6 


41-2 


33-4 


7-8 


1856, - 


67-9 


40-1 


27*8 


55-0 


48-6 


6-4 


56-2 


25-1 


31*1 


48-1 


38-4 


97 


56-3 


18-6 


377 


45-1 


36-6 


8-3 


1857, . 


63-4 


36-5 


26-9 


56-7 


46-8 


9-8 


58-9 


28-8 


30-1 


50-2 


41-9 


8-3 


567 


32-3 


24-4 


51-1 


42-8 


8-3 


1858, . 


61-2 


30-5 


30-7 


51-0 


38-4 


12-6 


51-1 


24-8 


26-3 


43-6 


35*4 


8-2 


51-1 


27 "5 


23-6 


44-2 


35-0 


9-2 


1859, . 


65-5 


24-4 


41-1 


50-8 


40-2 


10-6 


51-1 


26-9 


24-2 


43-9 


33-8 


101 


49-6 


187 


30*9 


36-5 


307 


6-4 


1860, . 


57-9 


27'2 


30-7 


51-6 


41-2 


10-4 


47-9 


26-1 


21-8 


42-3 


34 5 


7-8 


51-8 


8-8 


43-0 


36-9 


30-0 


6 '9 


1861, . 


62-0 


33-4 


28-6 


54-4 


44-5 


9-9 


54 '5 


22-4 


32-1 


43*4 


32-6 


10-8 


54-0 


22-5 


31-5 


407 


33 4 


73 


1862, . 


63-0 


32-0 


31-0 


53 7 


40-8 


12-9 


54'0 


24-5 


29 5 


41-5 


32-1 


9-4 


53-0 


321 


20*9 


47-3 


37-6 


9-8 


j 1863, . 


58-0 


315 


26-5 


51-8 


41-8 


10-0 


57-0 


26-5 


30-5 


49-1 


39-1 


io-o 


56-0 


24-5 


31-5 


46-8 


367 


107 


! 1864, . 


57 '0 


31-0 


26-0 


51-0 


397 


11-3 


56-0 


29-0 


27-0 


467 


35-9 


10-8 


58-0 


25-0 


33-0 


43-9 


34-8 


97 


1865, . 


63-0 


29-0 


34-0 


51-8 


40-1 


117 


54-0 


28-0 


26-0 


467 


357 


11-0 i 56-0 


32-0 


24-0 


48-1 


38-3 


9-8 


1866, . 


617 


33-0 


287 


54-3 


44-5 


9-8 


567 


29-0 


277 


46-5 


377 


8-8 


557 


28-0 


277 


46-4 


37-2 


9-2 


| 1867, . 


627 


32-0 


307 


52-3 


41-9 


10-4 


537 


31*0 


227 


45-8 


37-9 


7-9 


537 


27*0 


267 


44-3 


36-4 


7-9 


1868, . 


587 


30-0 


287 


50-9 


40-1 


10-8 


597 


23'0 


36 7 


43*4 


35-4 


8-0 


547 


26-0 


287 


45-4 


37-5 


7-9 


1869, . 


64-7 


31-0 


33-7 


52-9 


42-6 


10-3 


577 


25*0 


327 


47-1 


36-9 


10-2 


557 


20-0 


357 


41-8 


32-0 


9-8 


1870, . 


667 


33-0 


337 


52-8 


41-5 


11-3 


547 


29-0 


257 


44-9 


35 1 


9-8 


507 


16-0 


347 


387 


317 


7-0 


1871, . 


647 


28-0 


36-7 


53-5 


40-9 


12-6 


51-9 


23-0 


28-9 


437 


327 


11-0 


537 


25-0 


287 


43-8 


31*6 


12'2 


1872, . 


58-7 


28-7 


30-0 


497 


41-4 


8-3 


607 


307 


30-0 


45-9 


36-9 


9-0 


557 


247 


31-0 


43-8 


35-2 


8-6 


1873, . 


58-4 


28-3 


30-1 


52 2 


38-4 


13-8 


564 


26-3 


307 


48-2 


36-9 


11-3 


54-0 


27-6 


26-4 


46-8 


37-3 


9-5 


1874, . 


63-0 


32-8 


30-2 


53-6 


42-1 


11-5 


617 


27-8 


33-9 


45-9 


37-3 


8-6 


50'0 


13-6 


36-4 


36-4 


27-3 


97 


1875, . 


62-9 


31-8 


31-1 


52-1 


42-6 


9-5 


57-9 


257 


322 


44-4 


35-4 


9-0 


53-5 


27-9 


25 '6 


44-2 


35-9 


8'3 


1876, . 


66-1 


38-5 


27-6 


54-6 


46-3 


8 '3 


55-6 


26-6 


28-9 


44-8 


36-8 


8-0 


52-1 


28-4 


237 


437 


37-2 


6-5 


1877, . 


62-3 


29-4 


32-9 


53-9 


40'9 


13-0 


57-9 


28-0 


29-9 


48-3 


38-3 


io-o 


52-0 


23-8 


28-2 


44-6 


35'4 


9"2 


1878, . 


65-2 


30-0 


35-2 


549 


42-9 


12-0 


47-3 


26-5 


20-8 


429 


33-1 


9-8 


47-8 


9-0 


38-8 


357 


26-2 


9-5 


1879 . 


60-2 


29-0 


31-2 


52-8 


38-5 


14-3 


55-5 


24-6 


30-9 


447 


35-0 


97 


517 


7-5 


44-2 


40-6 


2S-9 


117 


1880, . 


61-8 


24-3 


37-5 


49-4 


38-5 


10-9 


55-8 


20-6 


35-2 


447 


34-1 


10-6 


55-5 


21-4 


34-1 


417 


33-8 


7-9 


1881, . 


65-0 


28-3 


367 


50-3 


38-5 


11-8 


61-4 


29-0 


32'4 


51-6 


41-0 


10-6 


52-6 


25-2 


27*4 


437 


337 


10-0 


1882, . 


65-3 


29-9 


35-4 


537 


43-2 


10-5 


54-4 


29-0 


25-4 


44-9 


35-0 


9-9 


52 


6-4 


45-6 


38'4 


28-8 


9 6 


1883, . 


61-0 


32-6 


28-4 


54-3 


41-0 


13-3 


57-0 


28-3 


287 


46-5 


367 


9-8 


52-9 


28-8 


247 


467 


36-1 


io-o 


1884, . 


597 


31"2 


28-5 


537 


43-6 


107 


57-8 


23-0 


34-8 


46'5 


37-0 


9-5 


53 3 


25-4 


27-9 


42 3 


33 6 


87 


1885, , 


55-3 


27-4 


27-9 


49-3 


38-4 


10-9 


60-8 


19'8 


41-0 


45-9 


36-0 


99 


55-0 


20-0 


35-0 


437 


34-3 


9-4 


1886, . 


68-7 


35-0 


33-7 


55-5 


45-5 


10-0 


57-1 


so-o 


27-1 


50-6 


39-0 


11-6 


52-1 


19-8 


32 '3 


40-0 


300 


97 


1887, . 


60-4 


28-5 


31-9 


51-1 


39-1 


12-0 


51-8 


28-8 


23-0 


43-6 


36-2 


7-4 


50-9 


239 


27-0 


407 


32-8 


7-9 


1888, . 


63-1 


32-2 


30-9 


53-9 


41-9 


12-0 


57'0 


30-9 


26-1 


47-0 


39-3 


77 


567 


227 


34-0 


45-6 


37-1 


8-5 


1889, . 


58-2 


36-1 


22-1 


51-4 


40-8 


10-6 


59-1 


29-3 


29-8 


49-2 


38-8 


10-4 


55-9 


26-4 


29-5 


44-6 


34-6 


100 


1890, . 


64-9 


29*3 


35-6 


55-1 


43-8 


11-3 


57*3 


25-1 


32-2 


47-1 


36-0 


11-1 


54-9 


23-2 


317 


387 


31-9 


6-8 


1891, . 


61-9 


32-1 


29-8 


53-8 


41-9 


11-9 


53-0 


277 


25-3 


45-8 


37-1 


87 


55-9 


28'8 


277 


44-0 


35-4 


8-6 


1892, . 


59-8 


25-9 


33 '9 


49-1 


38-6 


10-5 


55-8 


301 


257 


48-1 


38-1 


10-0 


537 


16-9 


367 


39-4 


30-2 


9-2 


1893, . 


65-2 


29-0 


36-2 


55-4 


42-5 


12-9 


55-1 


28-4 


267 


45-3 


36-0 


9-3 


53-9 


25-0 


28-9 


46-3 


37-8 


8-5 


1894, . 


64-4 


28-1 


36-3 


52-6 


407 


12-5 


60'3 


30-4 


29-9 


50-6 


41-3 


9-3 


56-2 


27-6 


28-6 


45-6 


36-2 


9-4 


1895, . 


62 8 


27-4 


35-4 


50-1 


38-4 


117 


55-5 


33-3 


22-2 


47-8 


39-0 


8-8 


51-9 


25-5 


26-4 


41-9 


33-5 


8-4 


1896, . 


63-5 


28-8 


34-7 


487 


37-8 


10-9 


537 


26-3 


277 


46-0 38-1 


79 


56-2 


23'8 


32-4 


427 


35-2 


7-5 









































134 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XIX. 



Abstract of Temperature Observations. 





Mean Temperature, 1764-1896. 


Extremes, 1840-96. 


Daily Mean Temp., 
1795-1804, 1821- 
1850, 1857-1896. 


k 


1 

00 

* | .3 


3 

CD 

>< 


a.* 

a 

8 


CD 

,£1 

60 
£ 


CO 


CO 
CU 

fj 
O 


o 
c8 

a 


CO 

M 

a 
a 


CO 

cy 
bD 

w 


-^3 

CO 

eg 
o 


«5 


January, 
February, 
March, . 

April, . 

May, . 
June, . 

July, . 

August, 

September, . 

October, 
November, . 
December, . 


° 

43-8 

47 2 
46-5 

49-8 

55-8 
61-4 

65-2 

637 

59-5 

52-7 
46-7 
47-8 


1796 

1779 
| 1779) 
/ 1845 / 
/1792\ 
\ 1798 J 
1833 
1826 

1779 

1779 

1846 

1831 
1818 
1843 


26-5 
29-8 
34-2 

38-9 

45-1 
51-5 

54-4 

52-6 

48-2 

42-0 
34-0 
31-0 


1814 
1838 
1785 

1837 

1810 
1860 

1879 

1830 

1807 

1817 
1807 

1878 


17-3 

17*4 
12-3 

10-9 

107 
9-9 

10'8 

11 '1 

11-3 

10-7 
12-7 
16-8 


59 '0 
64-0 
68-0 

76-0 

79'2 

85-9 

86-7 
877 
817 

71-0 

62-0 
62-0 


30, 31. 1846 
28. 1846 
81. 1844 

28. 1840 

30, 31. 1881 
18. 1893 

16. 1876 

5. 1868 

6. 1868 

14. 1845 

17. 1844 
11. 25. 1843 


5-0 
11-9 
15'0 

23-0 

26-0 
32-0 

38-0 

35-0 

31-0 

24 3 

19-8 
6-4 


/SI. 1845) 
\ 29. 1848 / 

8. 1895 

2. 1881 

17. 1849 

9. 1850 
4. 1851 

(16. 1845) 
1 2. 1848 J- 
[ 4. 1851 J 

30. 1869 
(22. 1844) 
4 23. 1845 V 
{27. 1847 J 

20. 1880 

18. 1885 
15. 1882 


54-0 
52-1 
53-0 

53-0 

53-2 
53-9 

48-7 

52-7 

507 

46-7 
42-2 
55-6 


51-6 
55-0 
62-0 

60-8 

67-0 
74-0 

77-8 

75-5 

72-0 

62-0 
567 
55'0 


16-5 
19-0 
25*0 

26-5 

35*0 
41-2 

47-0 

45'0 

35-5 

29-5 
24-0 
12-4 


35-1 
36 
37-0 

34-3 

32-0 
328 

30-8 

30-5 

36-5 

32-5 
32'7 
43-6 


Annual Mean | . n . a 
i T7 . 49 6 
and Extreme, 


I 1779) 
| 1846 \ 


43-8 


1879 


5'8 


877 


Aug. 5, 1868 


5-0 


f Jan. 31, i 
J 1845 
1 Jan. 29, ' 
I 1848 J 


82-7 J 


77-8 

July 18, 

1803 


12-4 

Dee. 24 

1860 


1-65 -4 



Table XX. 



Showing the Lotv Day Maxima (25° or below) and the High Night Minima 
(61°0 or above) recorded in Edinburgh from 1840-1896. 



Low Day Maxima. 


High Night Minima. 


1849 


December 28, 


o 

25-0 


1842 


August 13 


61*0 


1850 


January 17, 






25-0 


1850 


June 24, 










61-0 


1860 


December 24, 






19-8 


1857 


August 20, 










63-0 


1860 


December 25, 






190 


1857 


July 13, 










61-2 


I860 


December 26, 






23-0 


1868 


August 5, 










63-0 


1864 


February 24, 






24-0 


1870 


July 24, 










61'8 


1879 


December 3, 






25-0 


1872 


July 4, 










61-3 


1881 


January 16, 






25-0 


1872 


July 21, 










621 


1881 


January 17, 






24-8 


1875 


August 17, 










61-6 


1882 


December 13, 






24-5 


1878 


June 28, 










62-2 


1882 


December 15, 






20-0 


1881 


July 14, 










61-0 


1896 


February 7, 






24-5 


1881 


August 11, 










62-2 








1890 


August 5, 










63-3 








1893 


June 17, 










61-8 








1893 


August 16, 










61-4 








1896 


July 20, 










62-5 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



135 



Table XXI. 



Reduction of Adie's Observations from 1824-1831, showing the Mean Maximum, 
Minimum, and Average Temperature, and the Mean Daily Range of Temperature 
from 1824-1831. 













1824. 


1825. 




Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Daily 
Range. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Daily 
Range. 


January 


43-6 


36-1 


39'8 


7-5 


43-4 


347 


39-1 


8-7 


February, 










43-8 


34-3 


39-0 


10-5 


44-5 


33-4 


39-0 


11-1 


March, . 










45-9 


33-4 


39*6 


12-5 


48-4 


34-0 


41-2 


14-4 


April, . 










54-9 


35-5 


45-2 


19-4 


56-8 


36-4 


46-6 


20-4 


May, . 










60-9 


39-3 


50-1 


21-6 


60-4 


41-0 


50'7 


19-4 


June, . 










67-0 


46-3 


56-6 


20-7 


67-6 


45-8 


56 7 


21-8 


July, . 










69-8 


50-0 


59-9 


19-8 


71-7 


51-1 


61-4 


20-6 


| August, 










66-6 


47-8 


57-2 


18-8 


68.6 


51-5 


60-0 


17-1 


September, 










63-0 


46-2 


54-6 


16-8 


65-7 


48*1 


56-9 


17.6 


October, 










51*9 


39-6 


45-8 


12-3 


57-5 


42-8 


50 1 


147 


November, 










46-8 


34-7 


40-8 


13-1 


44-6 


32-5 


38-5 


121 


December, 










427 


34-1 


384 


8-6 


42-4 


35 6 


39-0 


6-8 






1826. 






1827. 




January 


35-3 


27-8 


31-6 


7-5 


39-8 


31-0 


35-4 


8-8 


February, 










47-5 


36-0 


41-8 


11-5 


38-5 


294 


34-0 


9-1 


March, . 










49-5 


34-2 


41-8 


15 3 


46-0 


34-2 


40-1 


11-8 


April, . 










55 5 


38-0 


46-8 


17-5 


52-6 


37-5 


45-0 


15-1 


May, . 










62-3 


41-3 


51-8 


21-0 


58-4 


43-2 


50-8 


15-2 


June, . 










72'2 


50-6 


61-4 


21-6 


65-4 


46-9 


56-1 


18-5 


July, . 










72'6 


51-4 


62 


21-2 


67*8 


49-1 


58-4 


18-7 


August, 










71-0 


51-6 


61-3 


19-4 


62-6 


47-9 


55-2 


147 


September, 










637 


45-6 


54-6 


18-1 


62-0 


48 


55-0 


14-0 


October, 










58-2 


417 


50-0 


16-5 


55-7 


44-6 


50-1 


11-1 


November, 










44-4 


33-1 


38-8 


11-3 


48-1 


37-5 


42-8 


10-6 


December, . 






44-8 


37-3 


41-0 


7-5 


47-0 


37-5 


42-2 


9-5 






1828. 






1829. 




January 


43-2 


35 7 


39-4 


7-5 


36 3 


27'9 


32-1 


8-4 


February, 










45-2 


35-0 


40-1 


10-2 


43*6 


34-0 


38-8 


9-6 


March, 










49-3 


36-4 


42-8 


12-9 


46 2 


33 1 


39-6 


13-1 


April, . 










52 6 


37-8 


45-2 


14-8 


48-9 


34-9 


419 


14 


May, . - 










59-3 


43-1 


51-2 


16'2 


61-1 


42-2 


51-6 


189 


June, . 










64-9 


48-9 


56-9 


16-0 


63 8 


48-8 


56-3 


15-0 


July, . 










64-9 


50.3 


57 6 


14-6 


63-3 


49-7 


56-5 


13-6 


August, 










65 3 


48-7 


57-0 


16-6 


610 


471 


54 


13-9 


September, 










61-9 


47-2 


54-6 


14-7 


57-9 


427 


50-3 


15-2 


October, 










55*7 


41-2 


48-4 


14-5 


52-8 


39*1 


46-0 


13-7 


November, 










49-3 


40-4 


44-8 


8-9 


44-4 


34-7 


39-6 


9-7 


December, . 




47'3 


39-4 


43-4 


7-9 


40-2 


31-8 


36-0 


8-4 






1830. 






1831. 




January, .... 


38-3 


303 34-3 


8-0 


38-3 


31-1 


34-7 


7-2 


February, 










41-6 


30 5 


36-0 


11-1 


43-7 


33-6 


38-6 


10-1 


March, . 










51-3 


37-2 


44-2 


14-1 


48-3 


36 6 


42-3 


11-7 


April, . 
May, . 










547 


38-6 


46-6 


16-1 


511 


38-9 


45-0 


11-2 










55-9 


43-6 


49-8 


12-3 


57-5 


40-1 


48-8 


17-4 


June, . 
July, . 










60-2 


43-8 


520 


16-4 


65-8 


50-3 


58-0 


15-5 










64-9 


50-5 


57-7 


14-4 


66-2 


52-6 


• 59-4 


13-6 


August, 










59-8 


45-5 


52-6 


14 3 


66-2 


54-0 


60-1 


12-2 


September, 










58-8 


45-5 


52-2 


133 


61-2 


49-4 


55*3 


11*8 


October, 










55-4 


41-6 


48-5 


13-8 


577 


47-7 


527 


10-0 


November, 










47-4 


37-7 


42-6 


9-7 


45-2 


35-5 


40 2 


9-7 


December, . 




39-6 


313 


35-4 


8-3 


46-0 


37-7 


41*8 


8-3 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



13G 



AIR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table XXII. 

Showing the Extreme Temperature from 1824 to 1831, with the Monthly 

Range of Temperature. 



Year. 



1824, 
1825, 
1826, 

1827, 

1828, 

1829, 

1830, 

1831, 



1824, 

1825, 

1826, 

1827, 
1828, 
1829, 
1830, 
1831, 



1824, 

1825, 

1826, 
1827, 

1828, 

1829, 

1830, 
1831 



1824, 
1825, 

1826, 

1827, 

1828, 

1829, 

1830, 

1831, 



January. 



Max. 


Date. 


Min. 


Date. 


54 


9 


° 
23 


16 


53 


27 


23 


5 


48 


21 


10 


16 


52 


6 


14 


3 


53 


21 


15 


11 


44 


1 


15 


(22 1 
I25f 


47 


4 


20 


19 


47 


3 


20 


m 



Range. 



April. 





70 


21 


24 


{.!} 




67 


7 


25 


19 




66 


21 


27 


30 




64 


29 


27 


25 




65 
56 
73 


29 

m 

30 


26 
27 
17 


7 
1 
2 




64 


15 


27 


4 



July. 





82 


14 


37 


31 




83 


{^?i 


41 


8 




80 




39 


24 




77 


16 


41 


12 




72 


{.SI 


42 


29 




75 


18 


42 


10 




81 


28 


40 


11 




76 


31 


44 


22 



62 


1 


. 70 


3 


70 


\ll\ 


. 67 


24 


66 


12 


61 


11 


61 


20 


. 67 


7 



October. 

20 
28 

29 

31 

29 

29 
30 
38 



15 
22 

11} 

29 

18 
15 
17 
28 



31 
30 
38 

38 

38 

29 

27 
27 



46 

42 

39 

37 
39 
29 
56 
37 



45 

42 

41 
36 

30 

33 

41 
32 



42 
42 

41 

36 

37 

32 

31 

29 



February. 



Max. 


Date. 


Min. 


Date. 


51 


7 


26 


15 


52 


12 


22 


5 


54 


6 


29 


18 


52 


26 


20 


{!!} 


57 


26 


22 


16 


52 


7 


23 


23 


57 


25 


17 


22 


55 


10 


19 


4 



Range. 



73 

72 

72 

69 
66 
70 
64 
70 



71 

76 

81 
73 

76 

71 

63 

74 



56 
62 

59 

56 

57 

55 

58 

58 



May. 



IS} 


29 


21 


18 


32 


28 


21 


28 


1 


21 


31 


IS} 


15 


36 


8 


fS} 


36 


2 


15 


33 


14 


31 


28 


8 



August. 



1 


37 


22 


20 


44 


12 


19 


44 


28 


23 


38 


6 


27 


38 


1!?} 


8 


36 


16 


3 


36 


27 


22 


48 


18 



November. 



2 


26 


6 


21 


19 


10 


1 


21 


27 


13 


23 


24 


21 


26 


11 


3 


23 


18 


lil 


28 


24 


1 


22 


20 



25 
30 
25 

32 

35 

29 

40 

36 



44 
40 

44 

38 
30 
34 
31 
42 



44 

32 

37 
35 

38 

35 

32 

26 



30 
33 

38 

33 

31 

32 

30 

36 



March. 



Max. 


Date. 


Min. 


Date. 







„ 




58 
60 
72 


19 

27 
10 


23 
25 
25 


4 

4 

17 


58 


31 


18 


5 


58 


17 


26 


6 


57 


19 


21 


15 


64 


28 


29 


5 


55 


27 


28 


24 



82 
81 

87 

74 
75 
72 
70 

72 



85 

72 

71 
73 

71 

65 

64 
71 



52 
53 

54 

54 

57 

54 

48 

54 



June. 



7 


37 


19 


{SI 

{li} 


37 
39 


6 
5 


12 


39 


7 


27 


42 


6 


20 


36 


6 


30 
2 


35 
45 


23 

!?} 



September. 



2 


28 


29 


Ul 


34 


23 


26 


35 


15 


16 


38 


20 


\£\ 


33 


14 


l 


35 


m 


27 


36 


30 


4 


42 


28 



December. 



18 


16 


5 


15 


23 


31 


7 


24 


6 


5 


24 


29 


12 


32 


\26\ 

>29 r 


6 


23 


27 


16 


15 


III 


11 


29 


28 



Range. 



35 
35 
47 

40 

32 

36 

35 

27 



45 

44 

48 

35 
33 
36 
35 
27 



57 

38 

36 
35 

38 

30 

28 
29 



36 
30 

30 

30 

25 

31 

33 

25 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



137 



Table XXIII. 

Highest Night Minimum and Lowest Day Maximum. 



January, 

February, 

March, 
April, . 
May, . 
June, . 

July, . 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 



January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 



January, 

February, 

March, 
April, . 

May, . 

June, . 
July, . 
August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 



1824. 



Highest 
Minimum. 



49 

44 

45 
49 
49 
53 
58 
54 
60 

52 
48 
49 



40 

45 

42 
47 
50 
66 
60 

61 
55 
52 

44 

47 



48 

49 

48 
50 

49 

57 
57 
54 

58 

54 
52 
47 



Date. 



10 



20 
20 
24 
28 
23 



17 

13 
19 



Lowest 
Maximum. 



36 

39 

34 
39 
51 
59 
57 
57 
43 

43 

37 
29 



1826. 



1828. 



Date. 



21 


26 


3 


42 


1 


42 


8 


42 


15 


51 


28 


61 


{ 5 \ 
129? 


55 


18 


64 


17 


54 


16 


47 


11 


34 


{III 


32 



21 


31 


U!\ 


32 


13 


37 


29 


42 


31 


50 


27 


53 


18 


58 


20 


58 


24 


55 


13 


43 


21 


38 


13 


41 



16 

15 

27 
3 
1 

20 

20 

30 

21 

29 
fl3\ 
129) 

30 



Of} 
111} 

26 
27 

3 

5 
21 

12 
18 
28 

27 

5 



14 

6 
27 

7 
21 
15 
14 
14 
13 
14 
29 
11 
2S 



1825. 



Highest 
Minimum. 



46 

44 

47 
50 
48 
58 
61 
60 
56 

50 
41 
43 



45 

37 

47 
48 
51 
55 
57 

54 
57 
52 

50 

51 



38 

45 

45 
42 

49 

57 
59 
59 

55 

48 
46 
50 



Date. 



30 

12 

10 
15 
9 
12 
14 
20 
25 



1 
18 



Lowest 
Maximum. 



31 

31 

41 
46 
47 
55 
57 
63 
57 

42 
35 
31 



1827. 



1829. 



29 


24 


{5} 


30 


{S 


33 


30 


36 


f 22 ) 
[29| 


46 


17 


56 


25 


62 


\£] 


50 


17 


51 


26 


46 


\} B A 


35 


\UJ 




26 


35 



10 


30 


15 


32 


20 


36 


15 


39 


29 


51 


3 


55 


14 


54 


8 


49 


1 


51 


19 


45 


12 


37 


6 


30 



Date. 



5 

4 

16 
12 
24 
19 
10 
29 
14 

20 



ill} 



31 



{III 



IS 
19 

4 
24 
10 

5 

1 

16 

20 
(28 
\ 29 
(221 
124/ 

29 



22 



13 
10 



28 

5 

13 

18 

31 
18 

27 



138 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXIII. — continued. 





1830. 


1831. 


Highest 
Minimum. 


Date. 


Lowest 
Maximum. 


Date. 


Highest 
Minimum. 


Date. 


Lowest 
Maximum. 


Date. 


January, .... 
February, .... 
March, ..... 

April, 

May, 

Juue, 

July, 

August, .... 
September, .... 
October, .... 
November, .... 
December, .... 


37 

48 
53 

48 

52 

51 

61 
54 
56 
49 
51 
43 


26 
25 
29 

28 

17 
29 

\il} 
CI 

2 
20 

1 
16 


32 
26 
39 

36 

43 
54 

54 
49 
52 
47 
42 
27 


19 

6 

16 

{il 

9 
15 

12 

28 
21 
26 
30 
24 


41 
48 
44 

46 

48 
55 

59 
58 
59 
57 
48 
43 


3 
10 

tf} 

27 

20 
13 

29 

lj} 

{i} 

i 

118) 
J25j 


32 
30 
40 

40 

43 
58 

59 
60 
57 
51 
33 
35 


12} 

IS} 

1 

6 

ii) 

28 

{?} 

29 

{%} 

28 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



139 



Table XXIV. 
Mean Daily Temperature. 

The mean temperature is the average of the Minimum and Maximum. 





1824. 


1825. 


Highest. 


Date. 


Lowest. 


Date. 


Range. 


Highest. 


Date. 


Lowest. 


Date. 


Range. 




o 




o 




o 


o 




o 




o 


January, 


49-0 


26 


30-5 


16 


18-5 


48-5 


30 


27-0 


5 


21*5 


February, 


47-0 


8 


32-5 


15 


14-5 


48-0 


12 


27-0 


4 


21-0 


March, . 


51-0 


18 


30-5 


4 


20'5 


50-0 


21 


33-5 


4 


16-5 


April, . 


58'0 


29 


3T5 


1 


26-5 


54-0 


38-0 


18 


16-0 


May, 


59-0 


30 


40-5 


20 


18-5 


58-5 


6 


43'0 


28 


155 


June, 


64-0 


7 


50-0 


19 


14'0 


69-5 


12 


49-0 


19 


20-5 


July, . 


67-0 


14 


50-0 


31 


17-0 


70-5 


In! 


54-0 


{»} 


16 5 


August, . 


61-0 


26 


50.0 


22 


11-0 


68-0 


20 


54-5 


12 


13-5 


September, 


72-0 


2 


35-5 


29 


36-5 


62-5 


18 


49 5 


28 


130 


October, 


56-0 


1 


33-5 


15 


22-5 


60 


3 


37 5 


25 


22-5 


November, 


51-5 


17 


32-0 


30 


19-5 


49-0 


21 


27-0 


10 


22-0 


December, 


50-5 


13 


22-5 

1826. 


5 


28-0 


46-5 


18 


27-0 
1827. 


31 


19-5 


January, 


44 


21 


18-0 


16 


26-0 


48-0 


29 


19-0 


3 


29-0 


February, 


47-5 


3 


35-5 


18 


12-0 


42-5 


26 


25-0 


18 


17-5 


March, . 


62-0 


10 


35-5 


17 


26-5 


51 


23 


275 


5 


23-5 


April, 


53-5 


8 


37'0 


27 


16-5 


55-5 


30 


33-0 


24 


22-5 


May, 


58-0 


15 


42-5 


10 


15-5 


59-0 


21 


40-5 


IB} 

3 


18-5 


June, 


74-0 


28 


50-0 


5 


24-0 


63-0 


10 


50-0 


13'0 


July, . . 


69-5 


5 


53 


20 


16-5 


63-5 


16 


53 


12 


10-5 


■ August, 


70-5 


J181 

17 


56 


12 


14-5 


61-0 


3 


49-0 


16 


12-0 


September, 


62-5 


48-0 


15 


14-5 


63-5 


16 


44-5 


20 


19-0 


October, . 


61-0 


23 


41-0 


28 


20-0 


57-5 


16 


38-5 


29 


19-0 


November, 


48-5 


1 


27-5 


27 


21-0 


53-0 


13 


29-0 


24 


24-0 


December, 


50'0 


11 


28-5 
1828. 


5 


21-5 


52-5 


26 


29-5 
1829. 


29 


23-0 


January, 


50-5 


21 


23-0 


11 


27-5 


40-5 


1 


22-5 


22 


18-0 


February, 


52-5 


27 


30-0 


14 


22-5 


47-5 


12 


28-0 


18 


19-5 


March, . 


53-0 


13 


31-5 


6 


21-5 


51-0 


20 


30-0 


15 


21-0 


April, . 


57-5 


29 


38-0 


8 


19-5 


47-0 


15 


33-5 


1 


13-5 


May, 


57-0 


IS! 


45-5 


20 


11 -5 


59-5 


29 


45-0 


2 


14'5 


June, 


66-0 


27 


48-0 


6 


18-0 


62-5 


3 


46-0 


6 


16-5 


July, 


64-0 


3 


50-5 


29 


13-5 


63-5 


14 


50-5 


5 


13-0 


August, . 


64-5 


27 


51-5 


16 


13-0 


65-0 


8 


48-5 


13 


18-5 


September, 


64-5 


25 


44-0 


14 


20-5 


60-0 


1 


45-0 


16 


150 


October, 


58-5 


12 


36-0 


29 


22-5 


54-0 


19 


38-0 


23 


16-0 


November, 


54-5 


21 


32-0 


11 


22-5 


48-5 


3 


30-0 


18 


18*5 


December, 


48-5 


30 


36-5 
1830. 


9 


12-0 


52-0 


6 


26-5 
1831. 


27 


25-5 


January, 


41-0 


4 


26-0 


19 


16-0 


44-0 


3 


26-5 


25 


17-5 


February, 


52-5 


25 


23-0 


6 


29-5 


51'5 


10 


26-0 


4 


25'5 


March, . 


54-0 


26 


34-5 


16 


19-5 


48-5 


20 


34-0 


24 


14-5 


April, . 


58-0 


28 


26-5 


2 


31-5 


52-0 


16 


39-5 


1 


12-5 


May, 


57-5 


17 


42 


9 


15-5 


58-5 


31 


36-0 


6 


22-5 


June, 


59-0 


28 


46-0 


19 


13-0 


62-5 


13 


55-0 


3 


7-5 


July, . 


68-0 


26 


50-0 


11 


18-0 


67 


31 


53-5 


22 


13.5 


August, . 


61-0 


3 


46-0 


28 


15-0 


64-0 


22 


55-0 


28 


90 


September, 


59-0 


2 


46 


21 


13-0 


65-0 


4 


50-5 


28 


14-5 


October, 


55-0 


20 


39-5 


30 


15-5 


60-0 


19 


45-0 


28 


15-0 


November, 


53-5 


1 


35-5 


24 


18-0 


53-0 


23 


27-5 


20 


25-5 


December, 


45-5 


16 


22-0 


24 


23-5 


46-5 


25 


32-0 


28 


14-5 

























140 



MR ROBERT COCK BURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXV. 

Showing the Mean Daily Variability of Temperature in Edinburgh from 1840-1896. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1840, . 


27 


2-6 


2-5 


2-8 


27 


3-5 


2-1 


3-4 


2-4 


2-5 


2-5 


37 


273 


1841, 




4-2 


2-1 


2-4 


2-4 


37 


2-5 


2-3 


27 


2-9 


3-4 


3-0 


3-5 


2-93 


1842, 




2'5 


27 


3-1 


2-3 


2-5 


2 9 


2-6 


3-6 


3-1 


3-8 


3-0 


3 5 


2-97 


1843, 




4-0 


3-0 


4-5 


3-0 


27 


2-3 


3-6 


3'0 


4-2 


3-3 


4'4 


2-5 


3-38 


1844, 




3-4 


3-1 


3-9 


3-0 


3 3 


27 


2-4 


2-6 


2-9 


3-8 


3-0 


2-1 


3-02 


1845, 




4-1 


4-3 


4-2 


3-1 


2 3 


2-4 


27 


2-5 


3-4 


3-1 


3-6 


3-2 


3-24 


1846, 




3-6 


2-9 


2-9 


3-9 


3-0 


37 


3 


2-3 


3-1 


3 


3 3 


37 


3-15 


1847, 




3-5 


3'4 


2-4 


2'8 


3-2 


2-8 


2-5 


3-6 


3-5 


3-5 


4-9 


3-3 


3 '28 


1848, 




4-4 


47 


2-9 


27 


3-2 


2-8 


3-0 


27 


3-5 


2-6 


3-4 


3-8 


3-26 


1849, 




3-6 


3-0 


3-8 


2-3 


2-8 


2-4 


2-3 


3-5 


2-9 


3-3 


3 6 


3-0 


3 02 


1850, 




4-4 


3-3 


3-0 


2-8 


3-1 


37 


27 


3-2 


27 


3"2 


3 5 


2'8 


3-20 


1851, 




4'4 


3-5 


2-3 


2-4 


2-6 


27 


2-2 


2-8 


2-3 


2-9 


2-6 


37 


2 87 


1852, 




35 


3 5 


27 


2-9 


2-5 


2'6 


2-8 


2-0 


2 3 


2-0 


2-9 


3-5 


277 


1853, 




2-6 


2-4 


2-0 


2-5 


3-1 


3-8 


1-6 


2-1 


2-4 


2 9 


3-9 


3-9 


277 


1854. 




3-1 


2-9 


27 


2-4 


2-1 


27 


1-6 


2-3 


2-9 


3-5 


3-9 


37 


2-82 


1855, 




3'3 


1-7 


17 


3-1 


3-2 


3-4 


2-9 


2-8 


37 


4-4 


2-5 


37 


3'03 


1856. 




2-5 


27 


2-3 


2-1 


2-1 


3-0 


2'8 


3-1 


2'5 


2-6 


4-0 


3 9 


2-80 


1857, 




3-2 


2-9 


2-1 


2-5 


2-9 


3-9 


2-5 


2-2 


2-8 


2 


2-4 


2-6 


2-67 


1858, 




3-8 


2-8 


3 3 


3-3 


2-9 


2-6 


2-1 


1-6 


27 


2-5 


2-1 


2-2 


2-66 


Wo 




2-2 


2-6 


3-0 


2-3 


2 5 


2-9 


3'4 


2-2 


2-0 


2-4 


2-5 


27 


2-56 


I860, 




2-9 


3-2 


2 


2-0 


37 


2 6 


2-6 


1-6 


1-8 


2-5 


2-2 


2-9 


2-50 


1861, 




27 


2-3 


2-3 


2-4 


2-9 


2-6 


1-8 


2-3 


1-6 


2 7 


3-9 


3-1 


2-55 


1862, 




2-0 


3-0 


2-2 


4-0 


2-4 


2-1 


3-0 


2-3 


2-5 


3-1 


31 


27 


270 


1863, 




2 8 


3-3 


3-4 


2-8 


2-8 


1-9 


27 


2-4 


2'2 


2-1 


3-2 


3-6 


277 


1864. 




2-4 


2-8 


2 2 


3-3 


2'9 


2-2 


2 3 


2 5 


1-9 


3-0 


2-3 


2-8 


2-55 


1865. 




2-0 


3-1 


17 


3-2 


3 3 


37 


2-4 


2-3 


2'6 


2-5 


3-0 


3-0 


272 


1866. 




3-9 


2-1 


3-2 


2 5 


3-0 


3-2 


2 6 


2-5 


2-6 


2-1 


3-2 


4 '3 


2 93 


1867. 




3-6 


2-7 


1-9 


2'4 


2-8 


2-4 


2-4 


2 5 


2-0 


3-2 


35 


3-8 


277 


1888, 




3-6 


3-3 


3-3 


2-6 


3-3 


2-5 


3-4 


2 8 


2-9 


2-8 


2-9 


3-6 


3-08 


1869, 




3-5 


3-2 


2-0 


3-6 


2'4 


2-9 


3-5 


3-1 


27 


3-4 


4-0 


3-9 


3-18 


1870, 




2-1 


27 


2-6 


3-2 


27 


3 1 


2-4 


2-2 


2-6 


25 


2-6 


3-5 


2-68 


1871, 




2-5 


2-8 


4-2 


3 1 


3-3 


3-6 


2-0 


3'0 


2-2 


37 


2'6 


2-1 


2-92 ; 


1872, 




3-4 


2-2 


3-0 


2-4 


2-8 


2-6 


2-6 


2-5 


2'2 


2-6 


27 


3-4 


270 


1873. 




3'3 


2-3 


27 


1-9 


2'5 


2-6 


2-8 


2 5 


3-5 


27 


2-9 


4-0 


2'81 


1874, 




3 5 


2-6 


2-6 


3 8 


2-3 


27 


27 


2-4 


3-3 


3 5 


3-9 


3-3 


3'05 


1875, 




4-3 


2-8 


2 4 


3-0 


2 5 


2-3 


2-4 


2-4 


2-4 


2-2 


27 


27 


2-68 


1876, 




4-0 


3-3 


31 


4-1 


2-5 


2-8 


27 


27 


2-4 


2-1 


3-2 


2-8 


2-98 


1877, 




3-0 


29 


2-4 


3-0 


2-2 


2 3 


2-4 


2-0 


27 


4-1 


2-9 


3-5 


278 


1878, 




3-2 


2-8 


2-6 


2-3 


2-6 


2-4 


1-9 


3-0 


2'5 


2-5 


2-5 


3-0 


2-61 


1879, 




3 2 


27 


3 4 


2-3 


3-4 


2'5 


2'2 


2-2 


2 3 


3-4 


3-3 


3-8 


2-90 


1880, 




2-9 


2-2 


2-5 


2-2 


2-5 


2-0 


2-9 


2-6 


2 6 


3 


4 '3 


27 


270 


1881, 




3 3 


2 7 


3-2 


2-3 


2-9 


2-5 


27 


2-2 


1-8 


2-3 


3-9 


3-6 


279 


1S82, 




2-9 


3-2 


36 


2-6 


2-1 


2-0 


1-8 


2-5 


2-2 


1-8 


2*2 


3-9 


2-57 


1883, 




3-1 


2*4 


27 


2-9 


2-5 


2 3 


2-2 


2-6 


2 2 


2-9 


2-3 


3 1 


2-60 


1884, 




3'2 


3 2 


3-2 


2-2 


31 


3-6 


2-3 


3-4 


2-5 


3 


2-9 


3-0 


2 97 


1885, 




2-8 


27 


3-5 


2-6 


2'0 


2*5 


3-1 


3-2 


27 


2-2 


3 4 


27 


2-87 


1886, 




3-4 


2'4 


2 2 


2-6 


3-8 


3-2 


2-6 


2-5 


31 


2*3 


37 


2-8 


2-88 


1887, 




2-7 


8-1 


27 


27 


3-4 


3-4 


31 


2-3 


2-3 


3 6 


2'6 


29 


2'90 


1888, 




3-2 


2-9 


2 6 


2-3 


3-9 


27 


2-8 


2-4 


2-3 


3-3 


2-9 


3'6 


2-91 


L889, 




3 6 


3-3 


37 


2-0 


3-4 


2-2 


2 3 


1-9 


2-2 


2-1 


3-6 


3 6 


2 83 


1890, 




3-3 


27 


3-8 


2-4 


3-3 


2-4 


j -9 


2-2 


27 


3-9 


2-9 


2-8 


2'86 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



141 



Table XXV. — continued. 



1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 

Max., 
Min., 
Range, 



1841-50, 
1851-60, 
1861-70, 
1871-80, 
1881-90, 

Means, 
1840-1896, 



Decennial Means. 





3 77 


3-25 




3-15 


2-82 




2-86 


2-85 




3 33 


2-66 




3-15 


2-86 




3 24 


2-91 



3-31 
2-41 

2-48 
2-89 
3-12 

2-84 



2-83 
2-55 
3-00 
2-81 
2-46 

271 



2-98 


2-76 


2-71 


2-76 


3-02 


2-47 


2-85 


2-66 


2-65 


2-66 


2-58 


2'46 


3-04 


2-68 


2-48 


2-83 


2-76 


2S2 



2-91 
2-27 
2-49 
2-53 
2-52 

2-54 



3-22 
2-54 
2S6 
2-61 
2-Jfi 

2-61 



3-30 
2-77 
274 
2-98 
2-74 

2-90 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


o 


, o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


° 


° 


° 


o 


» 


o 


31 


3-6 


3-0 


2-1 


2-7 


2-6 


2-4 


2-0 


2-5 


2'4 


2-3 


3-2 


2-8 


2-9 


3-7 


2-5 


2-7 


3-4 


2-7 


2-8 


2-4 


2-5 


3-7 


3-4 


2-9 


2-9 


2-4 


3-1 


2-3 


3-2 


2-2 


2-1 


3 1 


3-3 


3-4 


3-5 


4-4 


3 6 


2'4 


2-7 


2-4 


2'2 


2-1 


2-0 


1-9 


3-1 


3 3 


3-2 


2-0 


2-9 


2'6 


2-7 


2-7 


2-7 


2-1 


2-4 


2-4 


3-0 


2-7 


2-9 


4-0 


3-2 


3-0 


2-2 


2-8 


2-6 


2-3 


2-8 


27 


3-0 


3-1 


2 8 


4-4 


4-7 


4-5 


4-1 


3-9 


3.9 


3-6 


36 


4-2 


4-4 


4-9 


4 '3 


2-0 


1-7 


1-7 


1-9 


2-0 


1-9 


1-6 


1-6 


1-6 


1-8 


2-1 


2 1 


24 


3 


2-8 


2'2 


1-9 


2-0 


2-0 


2-0 


2-6 


2 6 


2-8 


2"2 



Year. 



2-76 
2-97 
2-87 
2-78 
2'59 
2-88 

3-38 
2'50 

0-88 



3-57 


3-14 


2-90 


3 28 


3-17 


3 43 


3-10 


3-13 


3-04 


3 20 


3-14 


3-22 



3-15 
275 
279 
2-81 
2-81 

2-85 











Table 


XXVI. 






















Variability of Temperature 


















Years 1840 


-96. 


g5 










No. of Changes of 
















c6 






10 


or more. 












tf 


QJ 


fe 




oJ 




















CO 


Cd 


w 




a 










-t^> 








• 




ft 






ft 










(D 




CO 






OS 


















SO 


CO 


o 


as 

a 


5 


03 

6 




o 








"3 
Eh 


o 
H 




o 




o 











o 












Jan., 


4-4 


/ 1848, '50 \ 
\1851, '94/ 


2-0 


J 1862, '65 \ 
\ 1895 J 


2-4 


14-0 


/26. 1841 \ 
\30. 1848 J 


12-0 


29. 


1848 


23 


8 


31 


Feb., . 


47 


1848 


17 


1855 


3-0 


14-0 


3. 1845 


12-5 


2. 


1843 


9 


7 


16 


Mar., . 


4-5 


1843 


17 


1855, '65 


2-8 


151 


17. 1892 


12-8 


1. 


1879 


11 


10 


21 


Apr., . 


4-1 


1876 


1-9 


1873 


2-2 


14-0 


26. 1845 


13-3 


29. 


1886 


11 


11 


22 


May, 


3-9 


1888 


2-0 


1885 


1-9 


13-0 


5. 1841 


151 


5. 


1860 


15 


5 


20 


June, 


3-9 


1857 


1-9 


1863 


2-0 


10-6 


26. 1894 


14-2 


14. 


1884 


2 


11 


13 


July, 


3-6 


1843 


1-6 


1853, '54 


2-0 


11-5 


21. 1843 


13-5 


27. 


1885 


8 


5 


13 


Aug., . 


3-6 


1842 


1-6 


1858, '60 


2-0 


12-5 


25. 1847 


15-5 


29. 


1869 


4 


5 


9 


Sept., . 


4-2 


1843 


1-6 


1861 


2*6 


13-5 


30. 1843 


11-2 


28. 


1873 


7 


2 


9 


Oct., . 


4 '4 


1855 


1-8 


1882 


2-6 


14-5 


18. 1849 


12-5 


28. 


1871 


9 


10 


19 


Nov., 


4'9 


1847 


2 1 


1858 


2-8 


13-0 


(21. 1866 1 

\15. 1871 J 

17. 1882 


131 


10. 


1874 


14 


17 


31 


Dec, . 


4-3 


1866 


2-1 


1871 


2-2 


14-2 


13-4 


24. 


1860 


16 


10 


26 




3-38 


1843 


2-50 


1860 


0-88 


15-1 


Mar. 17, 1892 


155 


Aug. 


19, 1869 


129 


101 


230 































142 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXVII. 



Mean Daily Variability of Temperature in Edinburgh from 1865-1869, from Daily 
Observations made at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. and Compared with Means Deduced 
from the Average of the Max. and Min. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




o 





o 





o 


o 





O 











o 





Mean 9 a.m., 


4-5 


4-3 


3-4 


3-4 


3-1 


37 


3 3 


3-3 


2'8 


4-4 


4-8 


4-8 


3-83 


„ 9 p.m., 


4-2 


4-0 


3-3 


3-4 


3-1 


3-6 


3-3 


2-6 


3-1 


3-9 


4-4 


4-5 


3-62 


,, 9 a.m. and 9 p.m., 


4-4 


4-2 


3-4 


3-4 


3-1 


3-6 


3-3 


3 


3 


4-1 


4-6 


4-6 


37 


Mean variability from Max. 

and Min. 
Difference, .... 


3-3 


2-9 


2-4 


2 9 


3-0 


2-9 


2-9 


2-6 


2-6 


2-8 


3-3 


37 


2-9 


-1-1 


-1-3 


-1-0 


-0-5 


-o-i 


-0-7 


-0-4 


-0-4 


-0-4 


-1-3 


-1-3 


-08 


-0-8 


Smoothed Difference, . 


-1-1 


-1-1 


-0-9 


-0-5 


-0-4 


-0-4 


-0-5 


-0-4 


-0-7 


-1-0 


-1-2 


-11 


-0-8 



Table XXVIII. 



Comparison of Mean Variability of Temperature at Uawkhill (Edinburgh) and 
Kirkcaldy for the Years 1776-1777. Hour of Observation, 8 a.m. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 








o 


O 


o 





o 





Hawkhill 


34 


34 


3 8 


3-4 


2-2 


3-4 


2-4 


2-4 


3-3 


2-8 


4-6 


3-7 


3-2 


Kirkcaldy 


3-5 


3-4 


3-8 


37 


2-4 


2-9 


2-4 


2-4 


2-5 


3-4 


4-7 


3-9 


3-2 


Difference 


+ 0-1 


o-o 


o-o 


+ 0'3 


+ 0-2 


-05 


o-o 


o-o 


-0-8 


+ 0-6 


+ 0-1 


+ 0-2 


o-o 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



143 



Table XXIX. 

Showing the Monthly and Annual Rainfall in Edinburgh for 120 Years 

and 6 Months. 



Year. 



1770 
1771 
1772 
1773 
1774 
1775 
1776 
1777 
1778 
1779 
1780 

1781 
1782 
1783 
1784 
1785 
1786 
1787 
1788 
1789 
1790 

1791 
1792 
1793 
1794 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 

1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 

1811 

1812 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
[818 
,819 
820 



Jan. 



ins. 
•73 
1-04 
2'68 
3 53 
2 78 
4-59 
3-26 



■72 

1-78 



1-50 
2-54 
•14 
1-03 
4-77 
1-96 

2 36 
1-40 
1-53 
1-40 
2-81 
3-28 
1-32 
1-80 
•89 
3-26 

1-75 
•71 
•80 

3-72 
•65 

2-66 
•69 
•72 

2-76 

1-47 

1-61 

1-47 

■83 

•86 

1-50 

2-04 

1-79 

2-49 

3-50 

•51 



Feb. 



ins. 
1-19 
1-17 
1-39 
1 15 
2-02 
3-01 
2-36 



2 72 



231 
119 
1-25 
2-20 
102 
1 75 

2-15 

1-67 

2-25 

2-19 

3 87 

1-40 

•67 

•55 

1-57 

•49 

1'44 
1-87 
1-56 

•57 
1-58 
1-18 

•51 
2-16 
3-16 
1-34 

3-30 
3-59 
2-26 

•63 
1-46 
1-01 
1-53 

•81 
1-79 
1-22 



Mar. 



ins. 

•84 

•54 

1-68 

1-23 

■86 

1-59 

1-46 



1 30 
•03 



•52 

■63 

2 12 

1 73 

124 

•85 

•69 
2-88 
3'14 
1-00 
1-37 

•43 
1'20 
1-52 

•47 
1-34 

•82 
•69 
•74 

2-58 
•67 
•48 

1-26 
•72 
■21 

316 

1-37 

3-10 

•25 

1-65 

2 22 
1-07 

•87 
1-76 

•84 
1-10 



April. 



ins. 
1-99 

•44 
1 30 
363 
1-74 

•58 
1-21 



3-38 
1-43 



•35 

■30 
1-36 
1-78 
1-02 
2-60 

2-97 
1-37 
113 
212 
3 01 
1-09 
1-47 
1-56 
2 15 
2 05 

•60 

•73 

1-16 

2-04 

•64 

•74 

2-06 

2-93 

2-01 

1-46 

1-72 
1-10 
2-03 
2-90 

•89 
1-27 

•19 

•60 
3-10 

•52 



May. 



ins. 
2-44 
1-38 
2 02 
1-83 
349 
1-42 
•63 



315 
2-09 



■94 
2-40 
473 

•86 
1-15 
2-42 

1-82 
3-21 
1-06 
1-88 
1-20 
1-43 
1-96 
1-62 
3-27 
2-50 

1-99 
■86 
1-13 
1-58 
1-01 
2-23 
1-71 
1-92 
2-14 
1-84 

3-35 
2-10 
3-21 
•49 
3-01 
2-18 
2-44 
1-80 
2-32 
4-20 



June. 



July. 



ins. 
2-68 

•48 
300 

■87 
3-87 
1-21 
237 



1-95 
2 17 



1-11 
•22 

322 
213 
1-14 
290 

2-53 
5-13 

1-48 
1-07 
3-92 
1-03 
2-18 
2-53 
•87 
•53 

•20 
2-21 
1-35 
1-32 
1-38 
•20 
•60 
2-61 
2-98 
1-92 

3-68 
2-24 
1-44 
1-41 
2-29 
1-91 
4-80 
2-00 
1-64 
3-40 



ins. 
1-74 
1-85 
3-69 
1-41 
1-51 
5-81 
3-08 



1-29 



272 
5-50 
5-00 
2-63 
2-69 
2-02 

1-38 
4-09 
1-14 
2-16 
2-42 
2-77 
5-19 
2-10 
2-60 
■40 

5-25 
4-19 
•86 
1-86 
1-48 
274 
1-29 
5-17 
2-39 
3-82 

2-77 
1-34 
2-58 
2-59 
2-18 
5 22 
3-85 
3-40 
1-48 
1-30 



Aug. 



ins. 
1 34 
3 23 
2-71 
1-28 
4-82 
2-36 
2-41 



•62 



2-00 
1-71 
1-82 
1-17 
1-53 
3-13 

3-40 
3-40 
2-50 
1-80 
3-62 
•45 
4-50 
2-99 
5-66 
1-26 



2-13 
2-00 
3-91 
2-83 
2-65 
259 
4-83 
5-56 
3-14 

2 12 
3-40 

•86 
2 23 
1-37 
2-26 
5-25 

•70 
1-93 
2-70 



Sept. 



ins. 
3-36 
1-74 
3-26 
3 68 
2-93 
3-82 
2 75 



4-65 



10-69 
1-24 
•60 
3-28 
2-04 
2-65 

1-28 

3-00 
•51 
3-14 
1-12 
2-21 
2-99 
2-28 
4-02 
2-53 

2-66 
2-37 
1-82 

•74 
2-66 

•98 
4-39 
2-46 
2-94 

•22 

1-70 

1-08 
123 
1-30 
1-90 
2-96 
•85 
1-80 
143 
1-21 



Oct. 



Nov. 



ins. 
1-20 
5 59 
3 51 
2 95 
130 
5 31 
1-73 



2-78 



2-82 
3-85 
2 '46 
•40 
3-46 
2-18 

3-96 

4-30 
1-52 
3-58 
4-87 
1-19 
3-24 
2-15 
1-99 
3-33 

1-59 
2-43 
1-00 
2-37 
1-33 
1-92 
3-68 
2-03 
1-19 
1-22 

3 43 

2-82 
2-94 
1-43 
2-84 
1-94 
1-55 
1-10 
3-75 
2-66 



ins. 
6-78 
3-76 
5-66 
3-37 
2-18 
3-62 
275 



1-29 



4-42 
2-30 
•83 
1-07 
5-21 
2-49 

3-49 

2-50 
2-14 
4-46 
4-58 
1-31 
1-20 
2-07 
1-79 
■98 

1-06 
2-09 
2-26 
1-92 

•38 
4-47 
2-21 

•72 
1-32 
4-50 

3-90 
3-97 
1-45 
3*70 
•56 
•95 
270 
2-60 
2-35 
1-44 



Dec. 



ins. 
3-59 

•97 
1-28 
3-91 
2-69 

•76 
2-08 



•67 



1-39 
4-05 
2-30 
3-92 
3-81 
1-06 
1-26 
1-41 
1-23 
2-91 

2-17 
1-02 
1-13 
1-96 
1-57 
1-71 
1-31 
2-80 
3-24 
2 82 



Year. 



ins. 

27-88 
2219 
32-18 
28-84 
30 19 
34 07 
26-09 



22-68 



1-27 


30-65 


1-53 


23-41 


8-42 


31-95 


1-15 


19-43 


3-93 


29-20 


2-57 


27-52 



•69 


32' 


■89 


27- 


•07 


20- 


•10 


22- 


•61 


21- 


•43 


25". 


•66 


29- 


•52 


21- 


•93 


27- 


•41 


22 •( 



27-42 
37-00 
20-70 
28-72 
36-60 
17-65 
27-18 
22-58 
26-51 
21-58 

20-41 
21-30 
15-81 
24-57 
16-18 
21-96 
22-30 
29-07 
29-90 
26 91 



2-64 
'•10 
)-15 
!-29 
1-83 
)-24 
)-48 
1-58 
'■06 
2-67 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



144 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXIX. — continued 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 

1 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


1821 


250 


•54 


2-46 


2-60 


T85 


•61 


1-51 


1-47 


1-58 


1-43 


4-22 


2-94 


2371 


1822 


1-23 


2-50 


3-57 


1-41 


T80 


1-36 


4-53 


2-36 


1-27 


2-39 


2-12 


1-60 


2674 


1823 


2-23 


385 


•66 


T68 


2-35 


TOO 


4-25 


3-87 


1-82 


3-10 


1-07 


4-38 


30-26 


1824 


•87 


1-70 


T34 


■57 


■63 


2-01 


1-58 


T50 


1-02 


473 


4-38 


3-88 


24-81 


1825 


131 


•69 


•43 


1-41 


3 25 


2-05 


•15 


1-89 


2-85 


2-19 


3-91 


T99 


22-12 


1826 


■55 


1-77 


133 


1-52 


1-25 


•30 


2-31 


1-83 


1-01 


1-38 


76 


1-26 


15-27 


1827 


3 33 


1-58 


4 84 


2-74 


1-28 


1 62 


2-27 


4-89 


1-15 


4-97 


1-02 


2-90 


32-59 


1828 


1-70 


•98 


1-18 


142 


1 85 


■81 


4-57 


3-43 


2-31 


•86 


3-94 


2-18 


25-23 


1829 


249 


1-61 


•32 


3-35 


•77 


2-03 


4-48 


6-80 


177 


2-53 


2-48 


1-33 


29-96 


1830 


■95 


1-21 


1-78 


2-28 


T96 


2-54 


6-57 


6-69 


3-63 


•16 


3-13 


2-35 


33-25 


1831 


•66 


3 88 


197 


1-54 


•69 


1-41 


2-44 


4-03 


1-55 


2-15 


2-95 


1-26 


24-53 


1832 


•61 


1-42 


T29 


1-21 


1-35 


2-89 


1-14 


3-64 


•92 


5-53 


•95 


2-28 


23-23 


1833 


■57 


2-53 


1-43 


1-34 


•79 


3-48 


1-53 


1-16 


2-37 


1-13 


71 


3-84 


20'88 


1834 


3 28 


•86 


1-65 


■44 


■51 


1-45 


3-20 


1-18 


4-50 


1-23 


1-22 


1-52 


2T04 


1835 


1-08 


2-48 


2-28 


•79 


2-04 


1-02 


T37 


1-99 


5-43 


2-09 


276 


1-89 


25-22 


1836 


4-06 


1-62 


3 79 


1-54 


•56 


2-50 


6-53 


2-45 


2-81 


1-66 


3-05 


2-46 


33-03 


1837 


1-23 


2-14 


1-28 


1-61 


1-53 


2 86 


4-54 


473 


173 


2-02 


2-03 


1-67 


26-77 


1838 


2-47 


121 


2-76 


1-78 


2-90 


5-16 


2-45 


2-97 


4-00 


1-55 


3-06 


73 


3T04 


1839 


1-7(3 


1-45 


1-47 


•33 


•47 


3 91 


351 


177 


3-09 


2-38 


T65 


1-66 


23-45 


1840 


372 


158 


•43 


•19 


3-97 


2 75 


3-46 


1-99 


2-39 


2-01 


2-33 


•68 


25-50 


1841 


123 


164 


■60 


1-14 


1-14 


1 56 


3-87 


3-64 


2-63 


4-53 


2-28 


1-96 


26-22 


1842 


101 


I'll 


3-44 


■15 


1-45 


•97 


1-53 


1-36 


1-45 


•98 


1-63 


179 


16-87 


1843 


1-69 


1-38 


•99 


1-87 


2 99 


2-26 


3-59 


1-40 


•89 


4-20 


2-20 


•34 


23-80 


1844 


] 23 


172 


2-42 


•40 


15 


271 


2-39 


2-11 


270 


■82 


3-92 


•37 


20-94 


1845 


1-77 


'61 


1-67 


•40 


2 24 


3-08 


172 


3-48 


177 


6-14 


170 


2-04 


26-62 


1846 


2 64 


1'60 


•97 


2-88 


T27 


3-59 


4-17 


5-01 


3-35 


3-60 


174 


72 


3T54 


1847 


•51 


•79 


13 


1-25 


4 77 


179 


1-37 


•91 


1-25 


3-48 


1-64 


4-88 


2277 


1848 


1-26 


5-21 


280 


1-06 


•60 


6-04 


1-36 


2-00 


1-45 


4-56 


2-42 


1-84 


30-60 


1849 


2-84 


•97 


1-05 


1-64 


T63 


2-45 


2-58 


2'31 


2-02 


174 


T50 


1-45 


22-21 


1850 


1-62 


2 84 


•14 


•88 


3-14 


1 18 


1-63 


2-20 


1-83 


1-16 


2-61 


1-21 


20-4-! 


1851 


2-89 


•59 


3-30 


2 06 


■53 


2-17 


3-00 


4-25 


1-40 


1-02 


•91 


•66 


22-78 


1852 


3-27 


2-01 


•63 


•43 


T92 


2-80 


1-90 


4-30 


2-20 


2-18 


3-42 


6-45 


3T51 


1853 


1-78 


1-58 


■42 


•57 


1'10 


6-90 


2-50 


3-32 


1-82 


3-26 


76 


1-62 


25*63 


1854 


3-0i 


•61 


101 


•34 


2-45 


3 15 


T85 


1-34 


•87 


1-44 


3-04 


177 


20-89 


1855 


•78 


1-24 


1-05 


■55 


T89 


2-48 


3-89 


2-84 


■44 


2-60 


1-43 


1-20 


20-34 


1856 


2-45 


2-27 


•24 


1-93 


3-12 


2-97 


2-00 


3-54 


5-15 


71 


1-42 


2-68 


28-48 


1 857 


1-53 


•45 


2-04 


T85 


1-69 


3-92 


1-34 


2-26 


4-65 


1-20 


2-35 


1-64 


24-92 


1858 


1 47 


1 02 


157 


•70 


T63 


2-69 


3-94 


2-20 


2-00 


4-07 


1-60 


1-46 


24-:3. r . 


1859 


■j-.;i 


Til 


2-96 


2-77 


•21 


2-06 


3-21 


77 


172 


3-44 


270 


2-35 


25-97 


1860 


3-97 


1-60 


1-74 


■56 


1-80 


3-58 


1-21 


2-45 


376 


2-85 


2-88 


7-65 


M-ir, 


1861 


■75 


1-47 


2 31 


1-46 


73 


2-70 


3-47 


3-65 


475 


2-31 


4-00 


1-02 


28-62 


1862 


3 83 


•90 


1-iil 


1-3-2 


371 


2-80 


270 


370 


2-10 


3-42 


2-00 


2-80 


33-92 


]m;:; 


3-44 


1 22 


■74 


2 03 


1-61 


3 50 


■65 


3-47 


2-65 


2-19 


1-91 


2-22 


25-63 


1864 


1-25 


214 


8 10 


1*16 


2-13 


1-20 


275 


•80 


3-40 


6-90 


179 


2-07 


28-09 


1865 


2 29 


T70 


•99 


■30 


3 65 


■41 


3-20 


3-41 


•55 


3-96 


T60 


1-59 


23-65 


1866 


2-49 


3 50 


1 85 


1-37 


1-50 


1-27 


3-34 


273 


2-95 


T23 


271 


2-29 


27-2:i 


1867 


5 62 


T68 


1-17 


2 71 


3 71 


2 80 


5-68 


2-64 


1-53 


1-50 


74 


1-26 


3T04 


If 68 


361 


2-08 


l 96 


3 28 


1-81 


•48 


•34 


4-30 


3-27 


2-13 


1-45 


3-87 


28-57 


1869 


J--1 


2-67 


•79 


101 


2 64 


174 


73 


76 


4-33 


T48 


1-42 


T82 


22-23 


1870 


1-68 


5-70 


111 


43 


131 


2-25 


T65 


1-29 


1-84 


176 


•69 


2-40 


22-11 


1871 


1 -25 


2-41 


107 


4-55 


■83 


1-90 


2-80 


2-56 


2-55 


2-45 


2-87 


1-63 


26-87 


1872 


368 


2 02 


3 30 


170 


3 46 


3 13 


3-58 


3-28 


5-80 


3-38 


3-60 


2-08 


38-96 


1878 


232 


1-88 


T60 


•21 


270 


1 21 


2-80 


4-53 


4-46 


3-07 


2-47 


1-44 


28-19 


1874 


174 


•70 


1 -73 ' 


•90 


1-50 


1-60 


3-84 


4-87 


175 


2-42 


371 


270 


25-76 


1-7.'. 


274 


1-17 


•90 


•67 


75 


2-00 


3-26 


1-13 


2-67 


2-34 


4-92 


1-80 


24-35 


L876 


80 


3 42 


3-08 


3-41 


1-01 


2-60 


T22 


3-40 


4-02 


2-32 


3-64 


673 


35-65 


1877 


5-17 


1 85 


167 


2 98 


2-21 


T89 


4-57 


8-33 


1-25 


2-50 


2-01 


T37 


35-80 


1878 


2-66 


•50 


•58 


] -48 


271 


2 41 


76 


4-02 


2-80 


179 


2-92 


2-22 


24-90 


1-7:' 


1-29 


1-78 


2-30 


2 22 


174 


5-16 


578 


2-44 


T65 


•92 


T85 


1-39 


28-52 


]-M, 


17 


T50 


T54 


3 17 


76 


T55 


3-40 


•40 


277 


3-20 


3-35 


275 


24-86 









THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 








145 










Table 


XXIX. 


— continued. 














Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


1881 


1-00 


2-80 


1-50 


107 


1-65 


175 


3-20 


5-65 


3-45 


1-95 


2-40 


1-80 


28-22 


1882 


1 20 


1-50 


2 28 


2-50 


265 


2-78 


3-73 


1-44 


1-77 


2-65 


2-83 


4-90 


30-23 


1883 


2-24 


102 


1 07 


1-42 


•72 


1-80 


4-25 


3-20 


2-25 


2-03 


1-33 


1-00 


22-33 


1884 


3-78 


1-07 


1-60 


•80 


2-70 


•57 


4-41 


2-30 


2-23 


1-10 


1-30 


2-80 


24-66 


1885 


1-13 


1-74 


1-48 


1-87 


2-13 


•40 


•88 


2-45 


2-40 


1-30 


1-40 


■40 


17-58 


1886 


3-00 


1-20 


1-70 


1-20 


4-11 


1-48 


2-87 


•74 


2-42 


3-58 


1-55 


2-20 


26-05 


1887 


•60 


■93 


1-50 


1-00 


1-70 


•29 


2-10 


1-69 


4-21 


1-33 


3-35 


1-10 


19-80 


1888 


1-62 


1-35 


3-17 


1-30 


■78 


253 


5-65 


1-80 


•51 


1-10 


4-20 


•85 


24-86 


1889 


•60 


•80 


•60 


2-50 


1-80 


1-25 


3-66 


5-05 


•80 


3-40 


•65 


1-20 


22-31 


1890 


3-20 


•90 


1-28 


•70 


1-56 


2-80 


2-27 


3-40 


2-17 


2-49 


4-56 


1-44 


26-77 


1891 


•49 


■13 


2-70 


•26 


1 -50 


•48 


2-67 


4-40 


4-01 


1-73 


137 


4-49 


2423 


1892 


•90 


1-83 


1-05 


•98 


2-69 


2-75 


100 


4-52 


1-01 


3-36 


1-34 


•98 


22-41 


1893 


•54 


2-31 


•31 


1-52 


1-31 


1-95 


2-50 


2-90 


136 


2-80 


1-33 


2-10 


20-93 


1894 


2-02 


6-38 


1-23 


1-55 


2-80 


2-65 


2-08 


3-50 


•30 


3-00 


1-10 


1-64 


28-25 


1895 


1-60 


•20 


2-72 


•97 


1-00 


2-67 


4-58 


4-37 


•82 


3-18 


2-48 


213 


26-72 


1896 


•60 


•81 


1-34 


•88 


•44 


3-24 


4-18 


1-76 


375 


3-50 


•50 


2 25 


23 35 


Max. 


5-62 


6-38 


4-84 


4-5& 


4-77 


6-90 


6-57 


8-33 


10-69 


6-90 


6-78 


8-42 


38-96 


Year. 


1867 


1894 


1827 


1871 


1847 


1853 


1830 


1877 


1785 


1864 


1770 


1787 


1872 


Min. 


•14 


•13 


•(3 


•15 


•15 


•20 


•15 


■40 


•22 


•16 


•38 


•34 


15-27 


Year. 


1787 


1891 


1781 


1842 


1844 


1801, 1806 


1825 


1880 


1810 


1830 


1805 


1843 


1826 














Decern 


lial Means. 












1770-76 


1 






1 




















1780 


}2-234 


1-636 


1-185 


1-549 


2-062 


1-939 


2-924 


2-152 


3335 


2-824 


3-266 


2-487 


27-593 


1785-90 


) 


























1791-00 


2-005 


1-681 


1-404 


1-892 


1-995 


2-127 


2-425 


2-958 


2-308 


3013 


2-452 


2-334 


26-594 


1801-10 


1-593 


1-537 


1-133 


1-437 


1-641 


1-477 


2-905 


3 052 


2-124 


1-876 


2-093 


1-973 


22-841 


1811-20 


1-660 


1-760 


1-423 


1-432 


2-510 


2-481 


2671 


2-282 


1-546 


2-446 


2-362 


2-431 


25-004 


1821-30 


1-716 


1-643 


1-791 


1-898 


1-699 


1-433 


3-222 


3 473 


1-901 


2-364 


2-703 


2-481 


26-324 


1831-40 


1-944 


1-917 


1-835 


1-077 


1-481 


2-743 


3017 


2-531 


2-879 


2-175 


2-070 


1-799 


25-468 


1841-50 


1-580 


1-787 


1-421 


1-167 


1-941 


2-563 


2-421 


2-442 


1-934 


3 121 


2-164 


1-660 


24-201 


1851-60 


2-345 


1-281 


1-496 


1-176 


1-634 


3-272 


2-484 


2-727 


2-341 


2-277 


2-051 


2-748 


25-832 


1861-70 


2-780 


2-306 


1-865 


1-507 


2-280 


1-915 


2-391 


2-675 


2-737 


2-688 


1-831 


2-134 


27-109 


1871-80 


2-197 


1-673 


1-777 


2-124 


1-787 


2-345 


3-151 


3-496 


2-972 


2-439 


3-074 


2-351 


29-386 


1881-90 


1-837 


1-331 


1-618 


1 -436 


1-980 


1-565 


3302 


2-772 


2-221 


2-093 


2-357 


1-769 


24-281 


1891-96 


1-025 


1-943 


1-558 


1-027 


1-623 


2-290 


2-835 


3 575 


1-875 


2-928 


1-353 


2-286 


24-313 


Means. 
Mean ^ 


1-950 


1-698 


1-530 


1-494 


1-901 


2-168 


2 815 


2-797 


2-396 


2-517 


2-378 


2-211 


25-855 


Daily L 


•063 


■061 


•049 


•050 


•061 


•072 


•091 


•090 


•080 


•081 


•079 


•071 


•071 


Fall. J 


















































• 







146 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXX. 



Absolute Droughts of more than 14 Days. 



Year. 



1772, 
1780, 
1786, 



1787, 

1795, 
1796, 
1797, 

1798, 
1799, 



1800, 
1801, 



1803, 
1804, 

1805, 
1806, 
1809, 

1810, 
1811, 
1813, 

1^14, 
1817, 
1824, 

1825, 



1826, 
1828, 



Commenced. 



June 20 
July 28 
April 14 

May 24 
October 13 
January 5 

July 1 

August 10 
February 14 

December 28 
June 6 

December 6 

M arch 1 3 
July 8 

April 17 

June 8 

March 7 
February 12 

May 21 

October 4 
March 2 

September 24 

November 18 
September 17 

January 17 
March 31 
January 2 

February 10 
March 13 

July 16 

June 12 
Julv 22 
February 28 



Terminated. 



July 

August 
April 



5 
20 
28 



June 25 
October 29 
January 28 

July 20 
August 25 
March 4 

January 12, 1799 
June 22 

January 1, 1800 

March 30 

August 1 

May 11 

June 25 
March 22 
February 29 

June 4 

October 20 
March 23 

October 9 
December 3 
October 3 

February 1 
April 20 
January 20 

February 25 
April 11 
July 31 

June 26 
August 9 
March 14 



Days. 



15 
24 
15 

33 

17 
24 

20 
16 
19 

16 
17 
27 

18 
25 
25 

18 
16 
18 

15 
17 
22 

16 
16 
17 

16 
21 
19 

16 
30 
16 

15 
19 
16 



Year. 



Commenced. 



1829, 



1830, 
1857, 



1858, 
1861, 



1864, 
1865, 

) 1 

1867, 

1869, 

1870, 
1871, 
1872, 

1873, 
1875, 
1876, 

1884, 

1837, 

1889, 

1894, 

1895, 



February 27 
May 15 
December 30 

September 26 
June 13 
February 6 

March 6 
April 8 

December 17 

July 5 

September 27 
February 9 

March 14 
June 22 
June 15 

October 29 
June 24 
August 16 

July 21 
March 1 7 
April 2 

February 7 
April 9 
August 11 

May 21 

December 21 
June 15 

June 15 
November 6 
March 15 

September 6 
February 7 



Terminated. 



March 17 
June 3 

January 13 

October 20 
June 28 
February 25 

March 23 
April 26 
January 2, 1362 

July 21 
October 16 
February 23 

March 28 
July 6 

July 2 

November 13 
July 22 
September 4 

August 4 
March 31 
April 21 

February 25 
April 26 
August 27 

June 4 

January 4 
July ' 2 

July 2 

November 21 
March 30 

September 20 
February 22 



Days. 



19 
20 
15 

26 
16 
20 

18 
19 
17 

17 
20 
15 

15 
15 

18 

16 
29 
20 

15 
15 
20 

19 
18 
17 

15 
15 

18 

18 
16 
16 

15 
16 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



147 



Table XXXI. 

Falls of 1 Inch or more of rain in 24 Hours. 
Years 1770-1776, 1780-June 1781, 1785-1817, 1824-1831, 1854-96. 



Year. 


Date. 


Amount. 


Year. 


Date. 


Amount. 


Year. 


Date. 


Amount. 


Year. 


Date. 


Amount. 








ins. 








ins. 








ins. 








ins. 


1770 


Nov. 


7 


2-30 


1797 


Oct. 


20 


1-30 


1813 


May 


16 


1-02 


1874 


June 


26 


1-54 


H 


,, 


9 


1-06 


,, 


Dec. 


18 


1-03 


1814 


April 


24 


1-30 


,, 


July 


24 


1-72 


»■ 


>i 


14 


1-20 


1798 


Jan. 


26 


1-03 


) i 


July 


29 


1-50 


j } 


Aug. 


14 


1-53 


1771 


Oct. 


7 


1-49 




June 


20 


1-40 




Nov. 


18 


1-10 


j j 


Nov. 


30 


1-32 


,, 


ii 


26 


1-13 


1799 


May 


10 


105 


1815 


May 


11 


1-12 


1875 


Nov. 


7 


1-28 


» 


Nov. 


17 


1-80 


it 


June 


4 


1-00 


1816 


July 


8 


1-30 


1876 


Aug. 


31 


1-52 


1772 


Jan. 


12 


1-07 


) 1 


Aug. 


17 


1-75 


1827 


April 


24 


1-30 


J) 


Dec. 


31 


1-34 


It 


May 


26 


1-00 


it 


Sept. 


13 


1-70 


1 J 


Aug. 


16 


1-26 


1877 


Jan. 


1 


1-00 


)} 


Nov. 


1 


1-80 


) ) 


i t 


17 


2-16 


i 1 


Oct. 


11 


1-66 


1 ) 


j> 


30 


1-05 


1774 


May 


24 


1-40 


1800 


May 


17 


1-15 


1828 


July 


12 


2-00 


ii 


April 


9 


1-29 


it 


Aug. 


17 


1-20 


1801 


May 


23 


1-01 


, 


Nov. 


30 


1-60 


it 


July 


17 


1-35 


" 


Dec. 


4 


1-01 


1802 


Feb. 


19 


1-07 


1829 


April 


10 


1-18 


ii 


Aug. 


18 


1-54 


1775 


July 


30 


1-13 


1803 


Aug. 


9 


1-15 


t) 


July 


5 


1-09 


a 




20 


1-88 


,, 


Sept. 


10 


1-01 


,, 


9 i 


28 


1-12 




Aug. 


3 


1-80 




it 


21 


1-94 


ii 


Oct. 


5 


2-50 


1804 


Oct. 


22 


1-62 


»i 


)» 


22 


1-29 


1878 


11 


28 


1-13 


1785 


July 


31 


1-07 


)J 


Nov. 


13 


1-00 






26 


1-00 


1879 


Mar. 


17 


1-28 


It 


Sept. 


6 


1-36 


1806 


May 


2 


1-15 




Oct. 


14 


1-05 


)> 


June 


21 


1-31 


ti 


» 


17 


3-70 


» 


Nov. 


9 


2-25 


1830 


July 


30 


l'SO 




July 


13 


2-95 


)) 


,, 


24 


3-80 


1807 


Sept. 


6 


3-51 


> 1 


Aug. 


15 


1-51 


1880 


April 


31 


1-56 


JJ 


Oct. 


13 


1-57 


1808 


A] nil 


5 


1-71 


}) 




27 


1-02 


j 


July 


7 


112 


tt 


Nov. 


5 


1-46 


f 

it 


May 


6 


1-05 




Sept. 


21 


1-27 


1881 


Jan. 


29 


1-24 


1787 


May 


12 


1-44 


> t 


June 


8 


1-00 


1831 


Aug. 


30 


1-07 


>) 


Feb. 


13 


1-44 


u 


July 


26 


1-58 


it 


July 


24 


1-55 


1854 


June 


18 


1-25 


i a 


Aug. 


23 


1-80 


>» 


Dec. 


9 


4-20 


» 




28 


1-55 


1856 


Sept. 


8 


1-06 


a 




25 


1-21 


)» 


J J 


19 


1-05 


t > 


Aug. 


4 


1-14 


1857 


June 


7 


1-25 


1882 


May 


7 


1-20 


1788 


Sept. 


21 


1-13 


,, 


)i 


5 


1-15 




Sept. 


13 


1-40 


1884 


Aug. 


13 


170 


1789 


Aug. 


29 


1-13 


») 


Oct. 


14 


1-50 


1858 


June 


17 


1*43 


a 


Sept. 


6 


1'46 


1790 


Nov. 


24 


1-35 


1809 


Jan. 


10 


1-59 




Aug. 


30 


1-43 


1889 


Aug. 


19 


1-41 


1791 


June 


17 


1-13 


.. 


Feb. 


3 


1-80 


1859 


Nov. 


5 


1-12 


1890 


ft 


12 


1-94 


J J 


Aug. 


16 


1-17 


» 


June 


1 


1-00 


1861 


Sept. 


23 


2-40 


>> 


Sept. 


30 


1-19 


rj 


Oct. 


22 


1-07 


> J 


July 


5 


l'lfi 


1864 


Oct. 


20 


2-43 


1891 


Mar. 


16 


1-55 


1792 


July 


13 


1-18 


») 


Aug. 


12 


1-14 


1864 


Oct. 


23 


1-50 




Sept. 


20 


1-94 


1794 


Sept. 


2 


1-00 




Sept. 


8 


1-20 


1865 


May 


30 


1-29 


1893 


June 


22 


1-00 


>i 


Oct. 


6 


1-15 






17 


1-40 




Oct. 


18 


1-35 


1894 


Feb. 


11 


1-03 


j j 


,, 


10 


1-07 


1810 


Jan. 


15 


1-25 : 


1866 


Sept. 


29 


1-40 


t i 


) J 


16 


1-47 


1795 


May 


14 


1-50 


i i 


Feb. 


14 


1-10 


1867 


July 


22 


1-30 


1895 


Aug. 
July 


2 

26 


1-24 
1-63 


)) 


y i 


15 


1-40 


a 


Mar. 


9 


1-01 


1869 


Sept. 


12 


1-70 


1896 


July 


8 


1"23 


It 


July 


23 


1-45 


a 




10 


1-10 


1871 


Aug. 


21 


T22 










>i 


Nov. 


17 


2-63 


it 


June 


19 


1-00 


1872 


May 


15 


1-01 




From Adie 




1797 


July 


30 


2-00 


it 


Aug. 


8 


1-10 




July 


27 


1-13 


1795 


Nov. 


18 


289 


j» 


Aug. 


18 


2-30 


M 


1 1 


15 


1-30 




Oct. 


22 


1-07 


1797 


July 


30 


2-63 




Oct. 


18 


1-66 


1812 


Mar. 


21 


1-21 


1873 


Oct. 


1 


1-15 


it 


Aug. 


18 


2-56 



































148 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXII. 

Showing the Number of Days the Wind Blew from the Eight Principal Directions 
in Edinburgh for each Month during 138 Years. 



JANUARY. 




















Calm 




- 
















Calm 


fear. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


8.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or j 
Var. | 


1732 




3 


3 


9 


5 


3 


8 






1828 






10 


5 




8 


8 






1733 






1 


1 


5 


20 


3 


i 




1829 


i 


"i 


10 


4 






4 


' 4 


"7 


1734 










6 


12 


12 


1 




1830 


3 


2 


4 


4 


i 


6 


6 


2 


3 


1735 


3 




2 


1 


1 


5 


17 


2 




1831 


1 


2 


5 


5 




3 


7 


6 


2 


1736 


2 


1 




5 


12 


6 


5 






1832 




1 


4 


3 


"i 


12 


6 




4 


1764 






9 








22 






1833 




1 


5 


2 


2 


3 


11 


2 


5 


1765 






15 








16 






1834 




1 


4 




3 


15 


6 


1 


1 


1766 






4 








27 






1835 


1 


1 


2 


i 




2 


23 


1 




1767 






11 








20 






1836 




1 


2 


1 




2 


22 


3 




1768 






15 








16 






1837 


"2 


6 


1 


3 


5 


3 


8 


3 




1769 


4.. 




9 








22 






1838 






9 


6 


5 


5 


4 


2 




1770 


3 








1 


15 


8 


4 




1839 


"2 


1 


1 




1 


4 


15 


6 


1 


1771 


4 




2 


"i 


1 


12 


6 


5 




1040 




2 


1 


2 


1 


9 


14 




2 


1772 


5 


2 


7 


2 




3 


9 


2 


1 


1841 


"2 


2 


2 


3 




2 


12 


4 


4 


1773 


5 




1 


2 


2 


10 


10 




1 


1842 




1 


1 


6 


2 


6 


10 


2 


3 


1774 


4 


"l 


4 


1 




5 


10 


3 


3 


1843 






1 


1 


1 


9 


14 


5 




1775 






5 


9 


3 


10 


4 






1844 






1 


1 




3 


22 


3 


i 


1776 


2 


2 


10 


4 


3 


4 


2 




4 


1845 




i 


1 


5 


3 


8 


10 


3 




1777 


1 


7 


5 




2 


1 


10 


"5 




1846 






6 


2 




7 


13 




3 


1778 


2 


3 


3 


i 


5 


5 


10 


1 


i 


1817 


"2 




3 


13 


"2 


5 


2 




4 


1779 




3 


3 




2 


7 


13 


2 


1 


1848 






2 


6 


4 


4 


12 


i 


2 


1780 


2 


6 


7 


3 






6 


1 


6 


1849 




3 


1 


2 


2 


5 


14 


1 


3 


1781 




2 


11 






4 


11 


2 


1 


1850 




1 


13 


2 


5 


6 


4 






1782 






5 








26 






1851 








5 


13 


8 


4 


i 




1783 






5 








26 






1852 


"2 








4 


6 


17 


2 




1784 


1 


"2 


3 


"2 




2 


14 


7 




1853 


3 


"i 


"3 


4 


3 


15 


1 


1 




1785 


6 


3 


5 


1 


2 


10 


3 


1 




1854 


1 


1 


3 


4 


7 


8 


5 


2 




1786 


4 


1 


8 






7 


8 


3 




1855 


4 


4 


5 






4 


6 


4 


"i 


1787 


2 


3 


2 


1 




9 


12 


2 




1856 


1 


2 


4 


"5 


4 


7 


3 


3 


2 


1788 


4 


2 


1 






3 


18 


3 




1857 


2 


5 


2 


1 


1 


7 


8 


3 


2 


1789 


4 


4 


10 


i 




5 


4 


3 




1858 


4 


2 


1 


1 


1 


8 


6 


5 


3 


1790 


1 




3 


2 




8 


13 


4 




1859 










2 


13 


15 


1 




1791 


1 


1 


3 




4 


13 


7 


2 




1860 


2 


3 


2 


1 


8 


5 


9 




"i 


1792 


5 


3 


10 






1 


8 


4 




1861 




1 


4 




3 


9 


12 


"i 


1 


1793 


5 


3 


2 






4 


13 


4 




1862 


i 




1 


2 


10 


5 


9 


1 


2 


1794 












5 


18 


8 




1863 




3 


1 




5 


12 


6 


4 




1795 


i'i 


10 








3 


5 


2 




1864 






1 


"2 


10 


15 


2 


1 




1796 






3 


"1 


i 


6 


20 






1865 


2 


2 


5 


2 


3 


6 


6 


5 




1797 






8 






2 


20 


1 




1866 


2 




2 


2 


2 


7 


13 


3 




1798 






1 






5 


22 


3 




1867 


4 


2 


8 


1 


3 


2 


8 


3 




1799 




i 


6 






5 


19 






1868 


6 


3 


4 


2 


5 


9 


2 






1800 


l 


1 


19 




i 


1 


8 






1869 


1 


1 


3 


3 


10 


5 


6 


"2 




1801 




1 


2 








27 


1 




1870 


4 


2 




4 




2 


8 


10 


"i 


1802 






9 








22 






1871 






3 


6 


3 


8 


10 


1 




1803 






17 








14 






1872 




"6 




4 


2 


14 


1 


4 




1804 






6 


"4 




"5 


12 




4 


1873 






2 


4 


2 


11 


12 






1805 




"i 


5 


7 


3 


6 


4 




5 


1874 


"i 




1 




2 


7 


19 




i 


1806 


i 


4 


2 






5 


13 


6 




1875 




2 


3 


2 


4 


6 


12 




2 


1807 






4 






■ ■ t 


23 


4 




1876 


"3 




3 


1 


3 


1 


14 


"4 


2 


1808 


2 


"i 






i 


10 


14 


2 


i 


1877 




4 


1 


4 


5 


9 


7 


1 




1809 




2 


22 








6 


1 




1878 




2 


1 




2 


2 


22 


2 




1810 




1 


9 






3 


17 


1 




1879 


i 


1 


1 


11 


4 


1 


10 


1 


i 


1811 






9 






11 


8 


3 




1880 






2 


1 


1 


6 


18 


3 




1812 


"2 




1 


"i 


"2 


10 


9 


6 




1881 




4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


10 


6 




1813 






2 


2 


3 


23 


1 






1882 




1 


2 




1 


7 


18 


2 




1814 


i 


8 




4 


2 


8 


2 


6 




1883 






1 


7 


3 


8 


11 


1 




1815 


1 


4 


"2 


4 




13 


5 


2 




1884 






2 


2 


1 


3 


22 


1 




1816 


2 


1 


3 


4 


a 


4 


11 


3 




1885 




3 


3 


5 


2 


5 


7 


3 


"3 


1817 






1 


1 


3 


7 


16 


3 




1886 


2 


5 


8 


2 




4 


11 


4 




1818 




i 




2 


3 


12 


13 






1887 




2 


1 




3 


10 


11 


1 


'3 


1819 


"i 


1 


"i 


2 


5 


11 


5 


"5 




1888 


i 




3 




2 


5 


12 


4 


4 


1820 




9 


1 






3 


12 


5 


"i 


1889 


1 




4 


i 


2 


1 


20 


1 


1 


1821 




1 


7 


i 




7 


13 


1 


1 


1890 






2 


1 


1 


8 


17 


1 


1 


1822 


"i 


1 




2 




4 


16 


6 


1 


1891 


3 




2 


2 


1 


4 


15 


2 


2 


1823 


1 


2 


11 


8 


"i 


2 


2 


1 


3 


1892 


1 




2 


2 


2 


3 


15 


4 


2 


1824 








1 


1 


8 


14 


5 


2 


1893 


2 


i 


6 


1 


1 


1 


14 


2 


3 


1825 


"2 


1 








9 


15 


2 


2 


1894 


2 


1 


3 


1 


3 


7 


11 


1 


2 


1826 






"5 


3 


i 


13 


2 


4 


3 


1895 


7 


3 


5 


3 


1 




8 


3 


1 


1827 


1 


2 


8 


1 




7 


8 


3 


1 


1896 


3 




2 






2 


20 


3 


1 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



149 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



FEBRUARY. 




















Calm 




















Calm 


Year. 


IS. 


NE. 


E. 


SE. 


s. 


sw. 


W. 


NW. 


or 


Year. 


N. 


NE. 


E. 


SE. 


S. 


SW. 


W. 


N\V. 


or 












3 








Var. 




















Var. 


1732 


1 


1 


1 


1 


10 


12 






1828 






2 


9 


2 


10 


4 




2 


1733 


1 


1 




3 


1 


17 


4 


i 




1829 




i 


5 


1 


1 


1 


11 


2 


6 


1734 










4 


12 


8 


4 




1830 


1 


2 




3 


2 


11 


4 


3 


2 


1735 


"i 


"i 






1 


13 


11 


1 




1831 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


9 


7 


5 




1736 


4 


4 


3 


6 


1 


1 


4 


6 




1832 








3 


2 


16 


3 


1 


4 


1764 






10 








19 






1833 




1 


6 


3 


2 


9 


5 


1 


1 


1765 






13 








15 






1834 






3 


1 


1 


6 


14 


1 


2 


1766 






5 








20 




3 


1835 






2 






3 


22 


1 




1767 






12 








16 






1836 


i 


6 


2 




1 


4 


10 


5 




1768 






15 








14 






1837 


2 


2 




i 


1 


8 


10 


4 




1769 






5 








23 






1838 


6 


1 


"7 


3 


2 




5 


3 


i 


1770 


"3 


... 








16 


6 


3 




1839 




2 






2 


"8 


13 


2 


1 


1771 


1 


3 


"7 


2 


4 


5 


5 


1 




1840 






4 


10 


1 


6 


5 


1 


2 


1772 


3 


4 


6 


1 


2 


2 


11 






1841 


2 


i 


7 


5 


1 


6 


2 


2 


2 


1773 


1 




3 


3 


8 


7 


6 






1842 








4 


1 


12 


8 


2 


1 


1774 


1 








4 


13 


8 


2 




1843 


i 


9 


i'6 






1 


3 


4 




1775 


1 




1 


2 


4 


13 


6 




1 


1844 


2 


5 


1 


"2 




4 


13 


2 




1776 




"2 


2 


2 


4 


15 


1 


i 


2 


1845 


1 


2 


4 


2 


i 


3 


9 


2 


4 


1777 


2 


3 


6 


1 


1 


3 


9 


3 




1846 


1 






1 


1 


8 


16 


1 




1778 


1 




2 


1 


1 


8 


13 


1 


i 


1847 


1 


3 


3 


1 




3 


9 


7 


i 


1779 










3 


10 


13 




2 


1848 




1 


2 


1 




9 


13 


3 




1780 


"7 




2 


2 




2 


9 


3 


4 


1849 






1 






4 


22 


1 




1781 






2 


1 


1 


3 


14 


5 


2 


1850 




i 


2 




2 


6 


14 


3 




1782 






18 








10 






1851 


2 


1 


1 




5 


12 


7 






1783 






12 








16 






1852 


4 


1 




i 


1 


1 


19 


•2 




1784 


4 


"5 


3 


5 


i 


2 


6 


3 




1853 


8 


3 


"7 


2 


1 


1 


4 


2 




1785 


7 


6 


6 


2 






5 


2 




1854 


2 






1 


1 


6 


11 


7 




1786 


2 


6 


4 


1 




1 


11 


3 




1855 


3 


3 


8 


3 




3 


2 


2 


4 


1787 






3 






9 


12 


4 




1856 


1 


2 


4 


2 


"4 


6 


1 


6 


3 


1788 




"i 


11 


"i 


2 


8 


3 






1857 




1 






3 


11 


11 


1 


1 


1789 


2 




3 




2 


6 


9 


6 




1858 


4 


4 


6 


2 


1 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1790 




i 








4 


20 


3 




1859 










6 


8 


11 


2 


1 


1791 


4 




"3 


1 




5 


11 


4 




1860 


2 


"2 






1 


4 


17 


3 




17»2 


2 


2 


8 


1 




6 


5 


5 




1861 


1 


4 


1 


i 


7 


9 


4 




i 


1793 


1 




3 






9 


13 


2 




1862 


1 


2 


6 


1 


7 


2 


7 


2 




1794 






8 


i 




8 


10 


1 




1863 


2 


1 




1 


6 


13 


4 


1 




1795 


'V 


i 


13 






2 


1 


4 




1864 




2 


7 


2 


2 


4 


5 


5 


"2 


1796 






8 


i 




3 


16 


1 




1865 


2 


1 


8 


6 




5 


6 






1797 












2 


26 






1866 


2 


3 


3 


2 




4 


9 


6 




1798 




i 


i 








26 






1867 


1 




3 




"i 


5 


14 


1 




1799 






14 






i 


13 






1868 










2 


20 


6 


1 




1800 






21 




i 




5 


i 




1869 


i 




i 


2 


4 


6 


12 


2 




1801 




i 


6 


1 






20 






1870 


2 


1 


4 


7 


1 


4 


3 


6 




1302 






3 








24 




i 


1871 


1 


1 


t 


3 




4 


10 


2 




1803 






2 








26 






1872 




1 


4 


6 


1 


13 


4 






1804 


"7 


2 


2 






5 


6 


4 


3 


1873 


2 


2 


4 


1 




1 


16 


2 




1805 


2 


3 




3 


i 


5 


11 


1 


2 


1874 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


8 


2 


i 


1806 








3 


2 


8 


12 


1 


2 


1875 


2 


2 


8 


1 


1 




8 


2 


4 


1807 


2 


"2 


"i 








22 


1 




1876 


5 


2 


6 


1 


1 


2 


8 


3 


1 


1808 


4 


2 










19 


2 


2 


1877 


2 




1 




1 


3 


17 


4 




1609 






a 








16 


1 




1878 






1 


i 


2 


4 


19 




i 


1810 


i 


2 


1 


2 




2 


15 


5 




1879 


i 


3 


4 


8 


1 


1 


10 






1811 


2 


1 


1 


5 


5 


7 


6 


1 




1880 




1 


2 


1 


1 


8 


14 


2 




1812 




1 


2 


1 


3 


10 


9 


3 




1881 




4 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 


7 


1 


1813 




1 






3 


21 


1 


1 


i 


1882 






1 


1 


1 


5 


17 


3 




1814 


2 




3 


"5 




13 


2 


3 




1883 


i 






3 


4 


6 


12 


2 




1815 




i 


1 


7 


i 


12 


6 






1884 




3 




6 


2 


9 


6 


3 




1816 




3 




2 


3 


5 


9 


"7 




1885 


1 




i 


3 




12 


7 


3 


1 


1817 


i 










13 


5 


9 




1886 


2 


3 


4 


3 


2 


5 


5 


1 


3 


1818 








2 


3 


14 


6 


3 




1887 




2 


2 


1 


2 


12 


5 


2 


2 


1819 


"3 




2 


4 


2 


6 


4 


7 




1888 


1 


4 


7 








15 


2 




1820 




3 


4 


1 




9 


10 


2 




1889 


3 


1 


3 


1 


i 




14 


5 




1821 




2 


1 


7 




3 


10 


3 


"2 


1890 


1 


1 


10 


2 






11 




3 


1322 










"i 


13 


10 




1 


1891 


1 




2 








16 


2 


7 


1823 


4 


2 


5 


i 


3 


4 


8 


1 




1892 


2 





5 


1 


2 




10 


3 


4 


1824 


4 


5 


5 


2 


1 


6 


5 




i 


1893 


1 


1 


3 


2 


3 


1 


12 


2 


3 


1825 










1 


10 


10 


4 


3 


1894 






1 


2 


2 


6 


15 


1 


1 


1826 








1 


2 


20 


4 


1 




1895 


3 


2 


7 


3 


1 




3 


5 


4 


1827 


3 


9 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


6 


1 


1896 


1 




3 


3 


2 


3 


15 


1 


1 



150 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



MARCH. 




















Calm 




















Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W 


W. 


N.W 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W 


or 
Var. 


1732 


2 




7 






4 


12 


6 




1828 


2 


2 


1 






10 


9 


5 


2 


1733 


3 


2 


5 


"s 


3 


3 


3 


4 




1829 


2 


7 


7 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 


1734 








4 


5 


10 


10 


2 




1830 




1 


3 


4 




12 


10 




1 


1735 


"2 


6 


2 


6 


2 


2 


6 


5 




1831 




1 




4 


"2 


10 


6 


3 


5 


1736 




4 


5 


8 


3 


3 


5 


3 




1832 


i 




i 


1 




9 


9 


5 


5 


1764 






13 








18 






1833 


4 


3 


11 


2 


i 


3 


6 


1 




1765 






9 








22 






1834 






3 






5 


19 


3 


i 


1766 






14 








17 






1835 




1 


8 






2 


19 


1 




1767 






12 








19 






1836 




1 


4 


2 




5 


17 


2 




1768 






22 








9 






1837 


5 


8 


2 


1 






9 


6 




1769 






9 








22 






1838 


2 


2 


5 


1 


2 


6 


5 


6 


2 


1770 


6 




5 






8 


5 


7 




1839 


1 


4 


3 


8 


1 


3 


8 


2 


1 


1771 


5 


"i 


6 


"5 


"2 


5 


5 


2 




1840 





2 


9 








4 


6 


8 


1772 


1 


5 


12 


4 


5 


2 


2 






1841 






1 


4 


2 


i'6 


11 


2 


1 


1773 


3 


1 


2 


1 


5 


5 


13 


1 




1842 


i 


2 




1 




10 


11 


4 


2 


1774 




7 


8 


2 


5 


3 


4 




2 


1843 


2 


2 




6 


1 


6 


6 


2 


6 


1775 


1 




3 




3 


12 


8 


4 




1844 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 


8 


8 


4 


3 


1776 




"2 


4 


2 


2 


14 


7 






1845 


1 


3 


5 


3 


1 


6 


8 


4 




1777 


5 


6 


2 




3 


3 


7 


"5 




1846 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


8 


9 


3 


i 


1778 


1 


7 


8 




3 


3 


8 


1 




1847 


4 


4 


7 


2 


1 


3 


4 


2 


4 


1779 


3 


3 


3 






2 


16 


1 


3 


1848 


2 


6 


1 


2 


2 


6 


7 


1 


4 


1780 




1 


1 




3 


12 


12 


2 




1849 


1 


2 


5 


2 


1 


2 


16 


2 




1781 


2 


1 


7 


"l 


2 


8 


6 


2 


"2 


1850 


3 




4 


1 


3 


6 


9 


5 




1782 






13 








18 






1851 


1 


"2 


2 


4 


7 


6 


5 


4 




1783 






17 








14 






1852 


4 


3 


6 


2 


2 


3 


7 


4 




1784 


6 


"7 


5 


2 


2 




5 


4 




1853 


6 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


3 




1785 


15 


5 


1 






i 


6 


3 




1854 






2 


1 


5 


8 


12 


3 




1786 


3 


6 


6 


1 




3 


8 


4 




1855 


2 


i 


3 


2 


5 


4 


5 


6 


3 


1787 




1 


2 


O 


2 


6 


16 


1 




1856 


3 


7 


5 


1 


6 


2 


4 


2 


1 


1788 


8 


1 


12 


6 




2 


2 






1857 


2 


3 


7 


1 


2 


2 


9 


1 


4 


1789 


13 


3 


10 








1 


4 




1858 


9 


2 


1 


1 


1 


6 


5 


6 




1790 






7 






3 


15 


G 




18f>9 




2 




1 




7 


19 


2 




1791 


2 




2 






6 


18 


3 




1S60 


3 




2 




3 


8 


14 


1 




1792 


8 




6 






8 


9 






1861 


1 


1 




"i 


3 


8 


17 






1793 




1 


9 


4 




8 


5 


4 




1862 


1 


7 


14 


1 


3 


2 


3 






1794 


2 




8 




2 


8 


11 






1863 




3 


5 


3 


3 


8 


4 


5 




1795 


4 


1 


11 






7 


4 


4 




1864 


2 


3 


8 


2 


1 


3 


9 


2 


i 


1796 


1 




11 


3 






13 


3 




1S65 


4 


2 


3 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 




1797 






14 


3 






14 






1S66 


2 


5 


8 


3 




3 


5 


5 




1798 


1 


"a 


5 






i 


20 


"l 




1867 


4 


4 


7 


6 


1 


3 


4 


2 




1799 




1 


19 








9 


2 




1868 




1 






7 


13 


8 


2 




1800 


... 




17 






1 


8 


5 




18C9 


4 


5 


4 


2 


2 


1 


8 


5 




1801 




i 


5 








21 


4 




1870 


3 


4 


4 


5 


1 


1 


1 


10 


2 


1802 






2 








29 






1871 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


6 


15 


1 




1803 






5 








26 






1872 




7 


5 


3 


2 


9 


4 


1 




1804 


1 


3 


12 


2 


5 


1 


6 




i 


1873 


i 


6 


12 


2 




4 


4 


2 




1805 






2 


5 


4 


10 


4 


"4 


2 


1874 


4 




2 


1 




1 


17 


5 


i 


1806 


3 


"2 


10 


1 


1 


1 


6 


3 


4 


1875 


2 


3 


7 


4 


i 


1 


9 


3 


1 


1807 


2 


1 


16 








11 


1 




1876 


4 


2 


3 


2 




2 


12 


5 


1 


1808 




2 


13 


9 






4 




3 


1877 




1 


4 


4 


2 




15 


4 


1 


1809 


2 


2 


15 


1 




1 


10 






1878 




2 


2 




1 


2 


18 


6 




1810 


1 


3 


11 


2 




1 


7 


6 




1879 




3 


6 


"7 




4 


11 






1811 




3 


5 


2 




10 


10 


1 




1880 




8 


9 


2 




1 


10 


1 




1812 


4 


10 


1 


1 




9 


3 


3 




1881 




4 




5 


i 


2 


15 


4 




1813 




4 


2 


1 


i 


12 


8 


3 




1882 


i 


1 


3 






2 


22 


2 




1814 




7 


7 


5 


1 


8 


3 






1883 


8 


3 


5 


i 


i 


1 


6 


5 


1 


1815 


1 






1 


2 


19 


7 


"i 




1884 






4 


3 


5 


10 


4 


3 


2 


1816 


1 


2 


"4 


9 


1 


7 


4 


3 




1885 


1 


3 


4 


1 


1 


4 


5 


12 




1817 


1 




1 


2 


2 


5 


14 


6 




1886 


4 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


1 


1818 


1 


3 


1 




4 


9 


9 


4 




1887 


1 




1 


1 


3 


2 


10 


8 


5 


1819 




3 


4 


i 


1 


8 


12 


2 


... 


1888 


3 


4 


7 








9 


7 


1 


1820 


6 


1 


1 


2 




4 


15 


2 




1889 


2 




4 


4 


"i 


1 


16 


2 


1 


1821 


2 




4 


5 




4 


12 


3 


i 


1890 


2 


i 


5 




3 


2 


17 




1 


1822 


2 






1 


1 


12 


14 


1 




1891 


6 


2 


3 




2 


1 


9 


5 


3 


1823 


3 




i 


3 


2 


9 


11 


1 


1 


1892 




3 


6 


4 


2 


6 


4 


4 


2 


1824 


3 


4 


... 




1 


9 


5 


2 


7 


1893 


1 




4 






4 


16 


2 


4 


1825 






4 


"s 


2 


4 


6 


2 


5 


1894 


1 


3 


2 


"i 


2 


5 


13 


2 


2 


1826 


2 


4 


2 


6 


1 


6 


3 


5 


2 


1895 


t> 


3 


4 


1 


3 


12 


2 






1827 


3 


1 


2 






5 


15 


5 




1896 




2 


2 




1 


4 


20 


2 





THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



151 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



APRIL. 



Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


1732 


1 


3 


1733 


4 


10 


1734 




1 


1735 


1 


1 


1736 


1 


6 


1764 






1765 






1766 






1767 






1768 






1769 






1770 


5 


3 


1771 


2 


1 


1772 


1 


3 


177:! 


1 


2 


1774 


1 


2 


1775 




1 


1776 


4 


2 


1777 


2 


6 


1778 


3 


6 


1779 






1780 


3 


5 


1781 




3 


1782 






1783 






1784 


1 


1 


1785 


5 




1786 


2 


2 


1787 


4 


1 


1788 


2 




1789 


3 




1790 


1 


4 


1791 




3 


1792 


1 




1793 


2 


1 


1794 


1 




1795 






1796 


7 


1 


1797 


1 




1798 






1799 


1 




1800 


1 


1 


1801 


1 




1802 






1803 






1S04 


4 


4 


1805 


1 


6 


1806 


4 


1 


1807 


1 


6 


1808 


7 


2 


1809 


2 


8 


1810 






1811 


2 


2 


1812 


5 


7 


1813 


2 


11 


1814 




2 


1815 


1 


11 


1816 


2 


4 


1817 


4 


7 


1818 


1 


9 


1819 




8 


1820 


2 


1 


1821 






1822 


1 


4 


1823 


3 


3 


1824 


2 


6 


1825 


2 


2 


1826 


1 


3 


1827 




6 



11 

4 
7 



14 
13 

15 

20 

13 

15 

2 

5 

8 

1 

4 

1 

1 

8 

4 

3 

4 

15 

27 

12 



Hi 

9 

1 

5 

10 

19 

10 

17 

7 

11 

1 

16 

14 

13 

5 

9 

3 

7 

8 

3 

10 

6 

2 

10 

8 

10 



S.E. 



s.w. 



4 
6 
5 
10 
5 
6 
5 
1 
5 
6 
2 
4 



W. 



2 

1 

12 

7 

7 

16 

17 

15 

10 

14 

15 

9 

10 

5 



16 
13 

7 

8 

16 

5 

3 

18 

12 

21 

3 

12 

14 

11 

3 

3 

8 

2 

11 

8 

6 

11 

14 

12 

14 

16 

27 

23 

1 

2 

10 

16 

8 

4 

9 

7 

3 

4 

4 

7 

4 

5 

1 

3 

13 

12 

5 

7 

9 

9 

13 

3 



N.W 



Calm 

or 
Var. 



Year. 



1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
186J 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



N. 



N.E, 



6 
4 
11 
1 
2 
6 
7 
4 
5 
3 
2 

7 

7 
1 
4 
2 
4 
6 
4 
4 
2 
1 
1 



2 
2 

4 
3 
5 
7 
6 
5 
2 
2 
3 
3 
1 
8 
5 
11 
1 
2 
6 
4 
8 
3 
7 
1 

2 
3 

4 
3 
2 
1 



10 
8 
7 

13 
7 
3 

10 
5 
4 
4 
4 
9 
4 
2 

10 

10 
4 
7 
9 

11 
6 
8 
4 

10 
2 
2 
4 
6 
7 

12 

13 
3 
2 

10 
8 

13 
4 
2 
4 

11 

3 

10 



7 
14 
12 
12 

7 

7 
12 

7 



S.E. 



S.W. 



W. N.W. 



5 
3 

10 
4 
6 
5 
1 
1 
2 
3 
4 
2 
6 



6 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
3 
5 

3 
1 

3 
9 
2 
4 
2 
5 
12 
8 
4 
1 
4 
1 
3 
2 



6 

5 

6 

4 

3 

15 

10 

14 

10 

1 

6 



12 
3 

2 

11 

5 

5 

6 

5 

6 

16 

12 

12 

7 

5 

8 

7 

6 

8 

5 

6 

11 

10 

5 

12 

6 

8 

5 

6 

9 

8 

12 

12 

10 

3 

6 

4 

8 

3 

5 

8 

2 

3 

6 

5 



4 

10 

8 

3 

10 

17 



4 
9 
4 
1 
3 
5 
3 
2 
1 

1 
1 

13 
1 

2 
2 
4 
1 

4 

1 

i 

4 
4 
1 
3 
1 
3 
1 
9 
4 
1 
3 
3 
1 
1 



Calm 

or 
Var. 



1 
11 

7 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 A 



152 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



















MAY. 




































Calm 




















Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


s.w. 


•w. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


1732 


2 


2 


6 


3 


6 


4 


5 


3 




1828 




4 


12 


1 




3 


9 


1 


1 


1733 


1 


6 


15 


2 




1 


5 


1 




1829 


"i 


6 


6 


1 




6 


4 


2 


4 


1734 


1 


7 


7 




i 


4 


7 


4 




1830 




6 


9 


2 




7 


5 




2 


1735 


2 


6 


3 


i 




3 


8 


8 




1831 




6 


12 


2 


i 


5 




3 


2 


1736 


2 


13 


8 


1 




3 


2 


2 




1832 


3 


10 


6 


1 




2 


6 


2 


1 


1764 






10 








21 






1833 




1 


7 


4 




8 


11 


... 




1765 






18 








13 






1834 






10 


1 




5 


13 




2 


1766 






17 








14 






1835 




i 


14 


2 


2 


3 


9 




... 


1767 






16 








15 






1836 




11 


11 


1 




4 




4 




1768 






12 








19 






1837 


"i 


7 


7 


2 




3 


4 


6 


"l 


1769 






19 








12 






1838 


1 


11 


8 


2 




2 


2 


1 


4 


1770 


2 


6 


15 




"3 




3 


2 




1839 


2 


6 


9 


1 


i 


2 


5 


4 


1 


1771 


4 


5 


6 


i 


4 


"7 


4 






1840 


3 


8 


9 


1 




4 


4 


2 


... 


1772 


4 


7 


8 


1 


1 




8 




2 


1841 


1 


2 


6 


1 


i 


8 


8 


2 


2 


1773 


1 


8 


10 






"i 


10 


i 




1842 




6 


3 


5 


1 


6 


5 


2 


3 


1774 


7 


10 


5 






3 


3 


2 


1 


1843 




5 


17 




1 


3 


3 




2 


1775 


2 


1 


3 




"i 


7 


15 


2 




1844 


2 


2 


18 


1 




2 


2 


2 


2 


1776 


6 


4 


4 




2 


3 


10 


2 




1845 


2 


7 


14 






1 


4 


2 


1 


1777 


1 


2 


4 


"3 


2 


5 


12 


2 




1846 


... 


2 


5 


"3 




5 


11 


3 


2 


1778 




3 


7 


1 


6 


7 
1 


6 


1 




1847 




2 


10 


3 


"i 


5 


7 




3 


1779 




3 


7 




2 


7 


6 


1 


5 


1848 




1 


8 






6 


9 


1 


6 


1780 






4 


"2 


5 


10 


9 


1 




1849 


i 


4 


13 


"2 




4 


4 


1 


2 


1781 




"3 


12 


4 


3 


5 


1 


1 


2 


1850 


1 


2 


10 


2 


1 


4 


11 






1782 






15 








16 






1851 


5 


1 


3 




2 


4 


16 






1783 






12 








19 






1852 


5 


7 


6 




1 


2 


8 


"2 




1784 


"i 


i 


3 


"2 




*6 


13 


2 




1853 




1 


22 


"3 


2 




1 


2 




1785 




2 


3 






2 


19 


5 




1854 


1 


1 




3 


5 


7 


14 






1786 




1 


5 


"2 




3 


18 


2 




1855 


3 


10 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


"5 




1787 


2 


1 


8 


4 




2 


12 


2 




1856 




9 


2 


1 


5 


1 


11 




2 


17S8 




5 


9 


1 


"i 


7 


7 


1 




1857 


1 


7 


9 


2 


2 


2 


6 


"2 




1789 






10 


7 


2 


7 


4 


1 




1858 


5 


4 


11 




2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1790 


"i 


1 


17 


2 




2 


8 






1859 




4 


14 


4 


3 


1 


4 


1 




1791 


3 


1 


5 


3 




4 


13 


2 




1860 


1 




6 


4 


7 


3 


10 






1792 


3 





6 




i 


8 


7 


4 




1861 


4 


6 


3 


2 




1 


15 






1793 






6 


2 


1 


8 


4 


10 




1862 




2 


2 


4 


i 


5 


7 


2 


1 


1794 


1 


2 


7 






4 


11 


6 




1863 




3 


5 


3 




5 


9 


4 


2 


1795 


3 


2 


6 






5 


14 


1 




186 4 




2 


10 


3 




8 


7 


1 




1796 


2 


2 


10 


"4 


i 




12 






1865 


1 


2 


8 


5 


i 


6 


4 


1 




1797 


1 




9 






"i 


17 


3 




1S66 




1 


9 


6 




2 


11 


2 




1798 






10 








20 


1 




1867 


"5 


6 


12 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 




1799 




1 


12 


2 




i 


11 


4 




1868 


2 


2 


2 


2 


12 


7 


4 






1800 






14 






2 


15 






1869 


4 


6 


14 








6 


"i 




1801 






13 


"i 




1 


16 






1870 


2 


4 


3 


2 




2 


7 


8 


"3 


1802 






15 








16 






1871 


3 


6 




7 


3 




2 


8 


2 


1803 






5 








26 






1872 




9 


2 


1 




5 


12 


2 




lS'H 




1 


6 




"3 


12 


3 


2 


4 


1873 




3 


12 


1 




1 


13 


1 




1805 


•2 


4 


11 


1 




1 


2 


8 


2 


1874 


2 


4 


15 


1 




2 


4 


2 


1 


1806 


1 


8 


12 


1 




2 


4 


1 


2 


1875 


1 


2 


6 






2 


15 


4 


1 


1807 






20 








11 






1876 


2 


4 


10 


1 


i 




5 


6 


2 


1808 


"i 




7 


2 


"2 


"9 


5 




5 


1877 




6 


10 


2 


3 




10 






lXU'.t 




"i 


13 








15 


2 




1878 




2 


10 


4 


2 


4 


8 




i 


1810 






14 


2 






13 


2 




1879 


"3 


4 


9 


1 




1 


10 


"2 


1 


1811 




16 


6 


6 




6 


3 






1880 




3 


11 


1 




2 


13 


1 




1812 




4 


10 


4 




4 


7 


"2 




1881 


1 


6 


6 






3 


9 


3 


3 


1813 




13 


4 


2 




5 


5 


2 




1882 




2 


9 


3 


1 


6 


5 


3 


2 


1814 




10 


12 


1 




6 


2 






1883 


"i 


8 


2 




1 


5 


11 


3 




1815 


"2 


2 


7 


3 


"1 


7 


7 


2 




1884 




5 


4 


1 


2 


7 


7 


3 


2 


1816 




2 


11 


4 






9 


5 




1885 




3 


5 


2 


1 


4 


8 


8 




1817 




5 


8 


2 




3 


12 


1 




1886 


i 


6 


4 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


3 


1818 




8 


15 




"2 


2 


3 


1 




1887 


2 


2 


5 


2 


4 


1 


4 


7 


4 


1819 


"i 


3 


9 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 




1888 




2 


6 


4 


1 


4 


6 


6 


2 


1 -JO 




1 


15 


1 




7 


5 


2 




1889 


i 


2 


16 


3 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1821 


4 


2 


10 


3 




2 


7 


2 


i 


1890 




2 


15 


2 


4 




6 


2 




1822 






14 


2 


"i 


3 


5 




6 


1891 


6 


3 


8 


1 


2 


"i 


4 


3 


3 


1823 


1 


1 


8 


3 


2 


4 


12 






1892 




2 


9 




1 


3 


11 


2 


3 


1*:: j 


1 


6 


13 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1893 


2 


1 


10 


i 


3 


2 


10 




2 


1825 




5 


15 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


4 


1894 


5 


3 


6 


1 


2 


2 


8 


"4 




1826 






20 


2 




3 


6 






1895 


3 


5 


8 


2 


1 




9 


2 


"i 


1827 




5 


8 


4 


"2 


6 


5 




i 


1896 


6 


6 


4 






i 


9 


3 


2 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



153 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



JUNE. 


















C 


aim 




















Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


s.w. 
2 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
ar. 


Year. 


N". 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


s.w. 


W. 


sr.w. 


or 
Var. 


1731 


2 


6 


5 


1 


1 


9 


4 




1828 




4 


5 




2 


8 


8 


2 


1 


1732 




5 


7 


1 




2 


11 


4 




1829 


2 


6 


2 


"2 


2 


3 


6 


4 


3 


1733 


2 




11 


2 


i 


7 


7 






1830 


1 


6 


4 






4 


3 


7 


5 


1734 


1 


"8 


7 


4 


2 


1 


5 


2 




1831 




6 


5 


2 


i 


9 


2 


3 


2 


1735 




6 


4 


1 


2 


1 


13 


3 




1832 




8 


6 


1 






9 


2 


4 


1764 






16 








14 






1833 


"i 




7 


2 


2 


"5 


11 




2 


1765 






13 








17 


. . * 


( ( 


1834 


1 




3 


1 




6 


17 


2 




1766 






16 








14 






1835 


1 


2 


13 




i 


2 


10 


1 




1767 






14 








16 






1836 






4 


2 


2 


10 


12 






1768 






8? 








12? 






1837 


4 


2 






5 


10 


5 


1 


3 


1769 






12 








18 






1838 


1 


3 


"7 


i 




8 


4 


1 


5 


1770 


i 


6 


1 




4 


6 


11 


i 




1839 


1 


9 


7 


1 




4 


5 


1 


2 


1771 


4 


8 


6 








10 


2 




1840 


1 


2 


4 


2 




6 


10 


4 


1 


1772 


3 


4 


5 




"3 


"7 


7 


1 




1841 


2 


4 


9 


1 




2 


9 


1 


2 


1773 


5 


8 


2 




3 


3 


9 






1842 




7 


6 


2 




3 


9 


3 




1774 


2 


3 


2 


2 


6 


3 


9 


3 




1843 




5 


16 


1 






4 


3 


1 


1775 


1 


10 


10 


1 




3 


5 






1844 


i 


3 


6 


1 




7 


6 


2 


4 


1776 


1 


7 


2 




3 


6 


9 


'2 




1845 


1 




3 


1 


i 


7 


9 


6 


2 


1777 


1 


3 


4 




3 


12 


7 






1846 




i 


4 


2 


2 


3 


12 




6 


1778 




1 


4 




3 


8 


11 




3 


1847 


2 


3 


5 


2 




4 


9 


3 


2 


1779 




3 


16 


i 




3 


3 


i 


3 


1848 




1 


16 


1 




2 


8 




2 


1780 


"i 


1 


3 


1 


2 


4 


15 


1 


2 


1849 


3 


3 




2 




1 


12 


4 


5 


1781 






21 








9 






1850 




1 


"5 






3 


18 


3 




1782 






5 








25 






1851 






5 


i 


3 


5 


15 


1 




1783 






12 








18 






1852 


6 


3 


4 


1 


3 


2 


9 


1 


1 


1784 


i 


2 


9 


"3 




4 


10 


i 




1853 






6 


6 


1 


3 


12 


2 




1785 


l 


1 


5 


1 




7 


11 


4 




1854 


3 


"i 


4 


4 


4 


5 


7 


1 


1 


1786 






17 


1 




5 


7 






1855 


1 


2 


4 


1 


4 


4 


11 


2 


1 


1787 


"i 


"2 


8 


2 


3 


3 


8 


3 




1856 


4 


4 


11 




2 


2 


4 


1 


2 


1788 




1 


17 


1 






8 


3 




1857 




3 


5 




1 


13 


1 


6 


1 


1789 


2 


2 


14 






6 


3 


3 




1858 




2 


3 


i 


2 


10 


8 


3 


1 


1790 






4 


i 




1 


21 


3 




1859 


i 


4 


6 


3 


1 


1 


11 


2 


1 


1791 


"i 


7 


8 


2 




5 


6 


1 




1860 






14 


1 


4 


7 


3 


1 




1792 




2 


13 


1 


i 


4 


8 


1 




1861 


'2 


3 


15 


2 


1 


3 


4 






1793 


i 




2 


2 


2 


8 


9 


6 




1862 




1 


3 


1 


1 


4 


13 


4 


3 


1794 




1 


11 


2 




9 


4 


3 




1863 




2 


5 


3 


2 


7 


6 


1 


4 


1795 


i 


1 


18 




i 


4 


3 


2 




1864 


"i 


1 


3 


2 


3 


4 


14 


2 




1796 




1 


4 


i 




7 


15 


2 




1865 






6 


6 


1 


6 


10 


1 




1797 






15 








13 


2 




1866 


"2 


4 


6 


2 


2 


3 


10 


1 




1798 






6 






2 


22 






1867 


4 


4 


2 


1 


1 


2 


14 


2 




1799 




2 


5 


i 




1 


19 


2 




1868 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


6 


15 






1800 




2 


8 








16 


4 




1869 


4 


4 


4 




1 


2 


10 


"5 




1801 




1 


7 






i 


21 






1870 


2 


3 


2 


2 






14 


6 


i 


1802 






8 








21 




i 


1871 


3 


7 


4 


5 




2 


1 


2 


6 


1803 






9 








21 






1872 


2 




8 




6 




12 


1 


1 


1804 


i 


i 


5 






8 


7 


4 


4 


1873 




2 


8 


"2 




4 


10 


3 


1 


1805 


2 


4 


6 


i 




1 


9 


3 


4 


1874 


4 


3 


6 




i 


4 


8 


4 




1806 


2 


1 


5 




"i 


6 


10 


2 


3 


1875 




3 


5 




1 


2 


13 


2 


4 


1807 






10 








20 






1876 


i 


6 


4 


"i 


2 


1 


11 


4 




1808 




3 


12 






3 


10 


2 




1877 




1 


10 


1 


1 


4 


12 


1 




1809 




2 


9 








19 






1878 


"5 


7 


8 


1 




1 


7 


1 




1810 




3 


4 


"5 




"i 


13 


4 




1879 


2 


4 


9 


2 


i 


5 


7 






1811 


... 


4 


8 




"i 


12 


4 


1 




1880 


2 


4 


12 






2 


8 




2 


1812 




1 


9 




1 


10 


8 


1 




1881 




4 


5 


3 




4 


11 


2 


1 


1813 




14 


6 


5 




2 




3 




1882 


3 


5 


1 


2 


4 


6 


2 


7 




1814 


2 


2 


13 


3 




2 


6 


2 




1883 


3 


2 


9 




2 


5 


9 






1815 




9 


6 


2 


1 


7 


4 


1 




1884 


2 


5 


3 








7 


"7 


6 


1816 


2 


3 


6 


3 


3 


3 


2 


8 




1885 


1 


7 


1 


2 




4 


9 


4 


2 


1817 




4 


4 


4 


2 


8 


7 




i 


1886 


2 


4 


7 






2 


10 


4 


1 


1818 


i 


1 


1 


6 


4 


3 


14 






1887 


1 


2 


7 


"i 


"3 


1 


7 


6 


2 


1819 


1 




2 


2 


3 


8 


13 


i 




1888 




5 


14 


2 


2 




2 


2 


3 


1820 


3 


2 


9 






2 


10 


4 




1889 


"i 


11 


1 


2 


3 


10 






2 


1821 


2 


3 


23 




■ •■ 




1 




i 


1890 


1 




6 


2 


2 


1 


17 




1 


1822 






12 






4 


10 




4 


1891 




"3 


13 


2 


1 


1 


5 


3 


2 


1823 


i 


3 


8 






3 


12 


2 


1 


1892 


2 


2 


6 


1 


2 


1 


12 


1 


3 


1824 


i 


2 


2 


2 




4 


17 


1 


1 


1893 


4 


1 


7 


2 


2 


2 


8 


2 


2 


1825 


l 


1 


4 




i 


10 


6 


2 


5 


1894 


2 


3 


8 


1 


2 


2 


9 


3 




1826 




4 


4 




1 


2 


14 


1 


4 


1895 


1 


2 


10 


1 


1 


1 


12 


2 




1827 


i 


1 


4 






8 


13 


2 


1 


1896 


3 


3 


10 


1 


1 


1 


9 


2 





L54 



Mil ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 















r 


[Able XXXII. — continued 
















JULY. 










I 










Calm 






1 












Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. . 

1 


S. 

| 


s. \v. 


w. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


s.w. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


1731 


4 


5 


4 




4 


1 


12 


1 




1828 


3 


8 


7 


3 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1732 


2 


3 


2 


2 


1 


5 


10 


6 




1829 


5 


6 


3 


3 


1 


5 


6 




2 


1733 


1 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


15 


4 




1830 


1 


5 


2 


1 


1 


10 


5 


3 


3 


1734 


3 


1 


8 


2 




3 


8 


6 




1831 




6 


1 


1 




7 


6 


4 


6 


1735 


3 


5 


2 


4 


3 


4 


7 


3 




1832 


2 


2 


7 






4 


5 


4 


7 


1764 






12 








19 




... 


1833 






6 


i 


i 


5 


12 




6 


1705 






9 








22 






1834 




3 


18 




2 


4 


2 


"i 


1 


1766 






16 








15 






1835 






7 


"s 




8 


12 


1 


1 


1767 






14 








17 






1836 




2 


3 


2 


"i 


5 


14 


4 


... 


1768 






18 








13 






1837 


"5 


3 


3 


2 


2 


7 


2 


5 


2 1 


1769 






12 








19 






1838 


2 


1 


7 




1 


6 


10 


4 


... 


1770 


5 


4 


8 




4 


3 


6 


1 




1839 




1 


5 


2 


2 


9 


8 


1 


3 1 


1771 


1 


3 


3 






9 


13 


2 




1840 


"i 


2 


2 






5 


11 


4 


6 1 


1772 


5 


4 


2 




2 


8 


9 


1 




1841 


1 


3 


6 


"i 




3 


8 


4 


5 


1773 


3 


3 


5 




2 


6 


12 






1842 


1 


3 


7 


1 


2 


4 


5 


4 


i ; 


1774 




2 


1 




7 


8 


10 


3 




1843 


2 


2 


1 


2 




7 


9 


6 


2 


1775 


3 


1 


5 


2 


7 


5 


5 


2 


1 


1844 


1 




6 


4 


2 


3 


10 


2 


3 


1776 


1 


2 


7 


2 


4 


8 


6 


1 




1845 


1 


2 


6 


3 


1 


4 


8 


5 


1 


1777 




1 


10 




1 


4 


12 




"3 


1846 




1 


4 


2 


2 


9 


10 


3 




1778 




1 


3 




3 


8 


11 


i 


4 


1847 






11 






1 


16 




3 


1779 




1 


4 


2 


2 


5 


9 


1 


7 


1848 






2 




2 


5 


20 


"i 


1 


1780 


1 




6 


1 




4 


16 


1 


2 


1849 


"i 


6 


2 






7 


8 


4 


3 


1781 






14 








17 






1850 




1 


10 




4 


4 


9 


3 




1782 






8 








23 






1851 




2 


7 




2 


4 


16 






1783 






8 








23 






1852 


4 


9 


7 


i 


2 




7 


"i 




1784 




"s 


1 




3 


"9 


12 


1 




1853 






1 


2 


5 


9 


11 


3 




1785 




1 


2 


"4 


3 


13 


5 


3 




1854 


"2 


4 


2 




3 


14 


4 


2 




1786 


1 










2 


23 


5 




1855 




6 


7 


2 


1 


2 


9 


1 


3 


1787 


1 




9 


i 


3 


3 


13 


1 




1856 


"4 




8 






11 




7 


1 


1788 






1 


2 


2 


12 


13 


1 




1857 


2 


i 


1 






10 


13 


3 


1 


1789 




1 


5 


2 


1 


14 


7 


1 




1858 


1 


4 


2 


3 


2 


7 


8 


4 




1790 


1 


1 


1 


2 




15 


9 


2 




1859 






11 




1 


2 


16 


1 




1791 






4 




3 


8 


9 


7 




1860 


1 


6 


9 


i 


1 




13 






1792 






4 


3 


1 


13 


5 


5 




1861 




1 


6 


4 


2 


"3 


15 






1793 






7 


3 




8 


12 


1 




1862 




1 




2 


1 


8 


15 


3 


i 


1794 






7 


2 




7 


12 


3 




1863 




3 


"4 






3 


16 


4 


1 


1795 


3 


3 


7 


2 


2 


1 


11 


2 




1864 


"2 




8 


"i 


i 


4 


14 


1 




1796 


1 


2 


3 






4 


18 


3 




1865 






8 


5 


2 


5 


11 






1797 






7 




1 


1 


22 






1866 


"i 


6 


8 


4 




3 


9 






1798 






2 






4 


25 






1867 


6 


4 


8 


2 


1 


1 


7 


"2 




1799 






16 








15 






1868 


4 


6 


2 


1 


2 


6 


9 


1 




1800 




2 


3 








26 






1869 


4 


2 


2 




8 


2 


13 






1801 






13 


"i 






16 


1 




1870 




2 


4 


4 


1 


2 


8 


"7 


3 


1802 






14 








16 




"i 


1871 




1 


1 


3 


3 


5 


15 


3 




1803 






9 








22 






1872 


3 




10 


1 


4 


1 


11 


1 




1804 


1 


"4 


11 






2 


7 


'2 


4 


1873 


1 


i 


2 




2 


8 


12 


3 


2 


1805 




3 


8 




2 


2 


11 


3 


2 


1874 


1 


1 


2 


i 


3 


2 


16 


3 


2 


lsi).; 


"l 


4 


9 


i 




2 


8 


2 


4 


1875 


3 


5 


8 








10 


3 


2 


I-": 






5 








26 






1876 


3 


1 


2 








18 


6 


1 


1,-os 




4 


16 


"2 






7 




2 


1877 


3 






2 


"5 


5 


15 


1 




1809 






13 








16 


"2 




1878 


1 


"5 


9 


1 




2 


10 


3 




1810 




4 


5 


3 




1 


16 


2 




1879 


1 


6 


5 


1 




2 


15 


1 


... 


1811 


i 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 


16 


1 




1880 




5 


12 






1 


12 


1 




1812 


l 


4 


5 




3 


8 


9 


1 




1881 




1 








2 


21 


6 


1 


1813 


l 


4 


7 


3 


2 


7 


6 


1 




1882 




2 


2 




i 


11 


12 


3 




1814 




2 




1 


1 


15 


9 


3 




1883 


i 


4 


4 


1 


4 


6 


6 


4 


i 


1815 




9 


4 






3 


15 






1884 




1 








2 


21 


6 


1 


1816 


i 


9 


7 


2 


4 




7 


i 




1885 




2 


2 




"i 


11 


12 


3 




1817 


3 


3 


1 


5 


2 


4 


10 




3 


1886 


"i 


4 


4 


"1 


4 


6 


6 


4 


i 


1818 


3 


5 


1 


2 


1 


4 


15 






1887 


1 


1 


1 




1 


4 


17 


5 


1 


1-M. 






11 


2 




4 


10 


4 




1888 




4 


11 


3 


2 


3 


6 


1 


1 


1820 




"7 


13 


1 






9 


1 




1889 


'3 


1 


10 


2 


1 




11 


3 


... 


1821 




4 


5 


1 


i 


"3 


11 


1 


5 


1890 


1 




6 


2 


2 


4 


15 


1 




1822 




3 


11 


2 




1 


1 13 




1 


1891 


2 


2 


4 




3 


2 


12 


3 


3 


1823 




1 


6 


3 




9 


7 


2 


3 


1892 




1 


12 


i 






15 




2 


1824 


i 




3 


3 






19 


4 


1 


1893 


'1 


5 


7 


1 


i 


1 


10 


2 


3 


1825 


i 


i 


11 


2 


4 


i 


4 


1 


6 


1894 


1 


3 


8 




1 


2 


14 


1 


1 


1826 




1 


4 


2 


1 


9 


8 


2 


4 


1895 


2 


1 


6 


i 


2 


2 


15 


2 




1827 

i 






7 


1 


1 


8 


13 


1 




1896 


7 


1 


4 




1 


1 


13 


2 


2 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



155 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



AUGUST. 




















Calm 




















Calm 


Year. 


N. 


NE. 


E. 


SE. 


S. 


SW. 


W. 


NW. 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


NE. 


E. 


SE. 


s. 


sw. 


W. 


NW. 


or 
Var. 


1731 


5 


3 


15 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 




1828 


6 


3 


7 


2 


1 


4 


6 


2 




1732 


1 


3 


4 


3 


1 


5 


9 


5 




1829 


2 


5 


3 


3 




3 


5 


6 


4 


1733 




1 


4 


1 


1 


7 


11 


6 




1830 




9 


7 




i 


2 


6 


2 


4 


1734 


i 


1 


4 


1 


1 


6 


15 


2 




1831 


i 


1 


4 


1 




4 


8 


4 


8 


1735 




3 


4 


3 


1 


8 


12 






1832 


1 


6 


1 


1 




5 


12 


1 


4 


1764 






12 








18 




1 


1833 


1 




4 






1 


22 




3 


1765 






18 




• • ■ 




13 






1834 




i 


6 




"3 


6 


10 




5 


1766 






7 








24 






1835 




1 


10 


"4 




2 


12 


2 




1767 






5 








26 






1836 






5 


4 


"2 


3 


13 


4 




1768 






14 








17 






1837 


i 


2 


9 


2 




6 


5 


4 


"2 


1769 






11 




. ■ i 




20 






1838 


2 


2 


2 


1 




4 


12 


3 


5 


1770 


i 


4 


2 




1 


ri 


10 


2 




1839 


2 


5 


1 




i 


13 


4 


2 


3 


1771 


2 


2 


1 




3 


9 


12 


2 




1840 


1 « • 


3 


3 


"i 




5 


15 


2 


2 


1772 


l 


1 


2 


2 


2 


7 


15 


1 




1841 




2 


2 


2 




8 


13 


2 


2 


1773 


3 


2 


5 


2 


4 


3 


12 






1842 




1 


5 




i 


12 


5 


2 


5 


1774 


4 


2 


1 


2 


5 


7 


9 


"i 




1843 




1 


3 


1 


1 


9 


9 


2 


5 


1775 




2 


3 


2 


9 


9 


5 


1 




1844 


"i 




4 


1 




2 


15 


4 


4 


1776 




4 


3 


4 


2 


6 


10 


1 


i 


1845 


2 


4 


4 


1 




3 


7 


5 


5 


1777 




2 


2 




2 


10 


10 


1 


4 


1846 




3 


10 


1 


i 


3 


7 


1 


5 


1778 


"l 


1 


3 


i 


2 


5 


17 




1 


1847 




1 


4 


1 


2 


5 


12 


3 


3 


1779 


1 


1 


8 


2 


2 


9 


3 


i 


4 


1848 




1 


5 


1 


1 


3 


11 


2 


7 


1780 




2 


16 


2 


1 


3 


3 




4 


1849 






4 


1 


1 


4 


11 


1 


9 


1781 






15 








16 






1850 






2 




1 


6 


13 


9 




1782 






5 








26 






1851 






9 


2 


1 


9 


8 


2 




1783 






13 








18 






1852 


"2 


6 


2 




1 


5 


14 


1 




1784 


3 


2 


3 




i 


4 


16 


2 




1853 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


5 


11 


7 




1785 


2 


3 


7 


i 


1 


4 


9 


4 




1854 


2 






1 


1 


8 


13 


6 




1786 






8 


2 




5 


14 


2 




1855 




"i 


"i 


1 


2 


6 


15 


3 


2 


1787 




2 


5 






1 


18 


5 




1856 




2 


5 


1 


5 


6 


7 


3 


2 


1788 


"i 


2 


2 






8 


17 


1 




1857 




4 


12 


1 


1 


2 


8 




3 


17S9 


1 




6 


3 




16 


4 


1 




1858 




1 


5 


1 


3 


10 


8 


3 




1790 






6 


2 




5 


16 


2 




1859 




1 


4 




2 


7 


17 






1791 


1 


"l 


5 


3 


4 


2 


9 


6 




1860 




3 


2 


i 


3 


6 


16 






1792 




2 


20 




2 


4 


3 






1861 








1 


2 


7 


20 


1 




1793 


... 




5 


1 


2 


7 


16 






1862 




i 


i 


7 


1 


1 


15 




5 


1794 


5 




4 




3 


4 


9 


6 




1863 




4 


i 


1 


1 


8 


11 


4 


1 


1795 


2 




4 


1 


1 


6 


15 


2 




1864 




1 


8 


4 


2 


5 


10 




1 


1796 


1 




2 




1 


7 


19 


1 




1865 


i 


1 


8 


6 


1 


6 


8 






1797 






2 






6 


18 


5 




1866 




2 


6 


4 


2 


5 


11 


i 




1798 






3 


i 




1 


23 


3 




1867 


2 


1 


1 




3 


10 


14 






1799 






8 




i 


4 


18 






1368 


2 


4 


5 




6 


6 


8 






1800 




4 


9 








18 






1869 


4 


2 


1 




2 


2 


18 


2 




1801 






12 








19 






1870 


2 


9 


3 






2 


6 


9 




1802 






8 








23 






1871 






2 


2 


2 


7 


15 


3 




1803 






5 








26 






1872 


"2 




9 


3 


5 




12 






1804 




2 








"5 


17 


1 


6 


1873 




"i 


8 




1 


6 


15 






1805 


1 


1 


2 


l 




7 


14 


4 


1 


1874 




2 


6 


i 




4 


17 


1 




1806 


1 


1 


2 


i 


1 


5 


13 


4 


3 


1875 


i 




8 


1 




1 


14 


2 


4 


1807 






8 








23 






1876 


4 


i 


6 




2 


2 


9 


1 


6 


1808 




1 


8 


"i 


i 


4 


14 


"i 


i 


1877 




2 


11 


4 


2 


1 


10 


1 




1809 




1 


15 








15 






1878 




3 


13 


6 






8 




"i 


1810 




1 


8 






"a 


18 


2 




1879 




2 


8 


2 


i 


4 


14 






1811 


3 




3 




1 


8 


11 


5 




1880 




1 


17 




1 


3 


8 


i 




1812 


1 


9 


10 


§ 


1 


3 


3 


1 




1881 


1 


7 


4 


"i 




3 


8 


7 




1813 


1 


2 


3 




2 


8 


10 


5 




1882 


1 


1 






2 


4 


15 


6 


2 


1814 






2 


6 




7 


12 


4 




1883 


1 


1 


i 




2 


3 


19 


4 




1815 


1 




2 




2 


12 


13 


1 




1884 




1 


3 


2 


4 


11 


6 


2 


2 


1816 


1 


4 


7 


3 




2 


9 


4 


"i 


1885 




11 


7 


1 


1 


2 


6 


2 


1 


1817 


1 


3 


3 


8 


3 


7 


6 






1886 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


19 


1 


1 


1818 


2 


10 


2 


4 


1 


4 


6 


2 




1887 


2 


3 


6 






4 


11 


4 


1 


1819 






14 






11 


3 


3 




1888 


1 


1 


5 


i 


2 


7 


11 


2 


1 


1820 






4 




2 


9 


14 


2 




1889 


1 


1 


3 


1 




3 


21 




1 


1821 


i 


i 


10 






4 


13 




'2 


1890 




2 


6 


1 




4 


15 


2 


1 


1822 


1 


1 




2 


1 


6 


11 


2 


7 


1891 


i 


2 


7 


2 


i 


3 


11 


3 


1 


1823 






i 




3 


9 


11 


5 


2 


1892 




1 


5 


1 




3 


19 




2 


1824 


i 


3 


9 






1 


10 


2 


5 


1893 


2 




4 


1 


i 




14 


*3 


6 


1825 






6 






4 


9 


4 


8 


1894 






5 


1 




3 


18 


4 




1826 




i 


3 




4 


11 


8 


1 


3 


1895 


2 


"i 


1 


2 




4 


18 




3 


1827 


i 


2 


7 


2 


1 


3 


6 


6 


3 


1896 


6 


3 


3 








15 


3 


1 



!.">« 



MR ROBERT COCKBTTRN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



















SEPTEMBER. 


























1 












Calm 
















| 




Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


s.w. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


s.w. 


w. 'n.T: 


or 


















1 


Var. 




















Var. 


1731 


1 




1 


2 


3 


7 


14 


2 




1828 


2 


2 


5 


3 


2 


6 


2 




8 


1732 


3 


"2 


3 


5 




7 


8 


2 




1829 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


5 


6 


5 


5 


1733 


2 




3 


2 


4 


10 


8 


1 




1830 




4 




1 


2 


14 


5 


2 


2 


1734 


2 


"l 


1 


1 




7 


14 


4 




1831 




6 


2 


6 


1 


8 


5 




2 


1735 


2 


1 


2 


1 




8 


12 


4 


... 


1832 






3 






6 


12 


6 


3 


1764 






3 








27 






1833 


"i 




6 


2 


2 


4 


10 


1 


4 


1765 






10 








20 






1834 




"i 


14 




1 


4 


6 




4 


1766 






8 








22 






1835 


"i 




7 


"i 




6 


12 




... 


1767 






8 








22 






1836 


1 


"7 


2 


1 


'2 


4 


9 


4 




1768 






12 








18 






1837 


1 


4 


5 


7 




7 


2 


3 


"i 


1769 






9 








21 






1838 


2 


3 


4 




"i 


4 


5 


1 


10 


1770 


2 


"4 


9 


2 


4 


4 


4 


"i 




1839 






2 




5 


7 


8 


1 


7 


1771 


6 


2 


6 




4 


5 


5 


2 




1840 


"i 


"5 


2 






8 


10 


2 


2 


1772 


3 


2 


4 


"i 


3 


7 


9 


1 




1841 




1 


8 


4 


2 


6 


4 


1 


4 


1773 






2 


3 


4 


12 


9 






1842 


"2 


8 


3 


1 


>•■ 


2 


8 


2 


4 


1774 


2 


2 


7 


4 


7 


2 


6 






1843 


3 


2 


4 


2 


1 


2 


12 


2 


2 


1775 


5 


4 


5 


1 


5 


1 


9 






1844 


1 


2 


13 








12 


1 


1 


1776 




6 


3 


4 


1 


5 


7 


4 




1845 


1 


1 


5 


i 


"2 


6 


7 


2 


5 


1777 






1 


2 


2 


5 


12 


1 


"7 


1846 


1 




7 


2 


2 


3 


8 




7 


1778 


4 


i 


2 


1 


3 


4 


9 


2 


4 


1847 


1 




3 


1 


1 


7 


9 


6 


2 


1779 




1 


2 




4 


8 


7 


2 


6 


1848 


2 


2 


6 




1 


3 


11 


2 


3 


1780 






6 


"5 


2 


10 


7 






1849 




2 


14 


"3 


1 


1 


6 




3 


1781 






10 








20 






1850 


"2 


3 


3 


6 


11 


1 


4 






1782 






12 








18 






1851 




3 


7 




2 


3 


14 


"i 




1783 






7 








23 






1852 


"7 


2 


1 


"i 


3 


2 


11 


3 




1784 






6 


"i 




"8 


14 


i 




1853 




3 


3 


3 


4 


9 


4 


4 




1785 




1 


8 


5 




8 


5 


3 




1854 




1 




2 




6 


17 


3 


"i 


1786 








1 




6 


18 


5 




1855 


"3 


1 


"5 






6 


12 




3 


1787 


"i 




16 


2 




6 


10 


1 




1856 


2 


6 


6 


2 


"i 


7 


2 


"a 


1 


1788 






8 


2 




3 


15 


2 




1857 


1 


5 


4 




2 


8 


3 




7 


1789 


2 


2 


7 






5 


14 






1858 




1 


1 


2 


4 


9 


12 


i 




1790 


4 


1 


1 






5 


13 


6 




1859 




2 


1 




6 


6 


14 


1 




1791 


2 




10 


1 




6 


7 


4 




1860 


"i 


4 


1 




3 


5 


15 


1 




1792 


5 




7 






3 


13 


2 




1861 




2 






1 


10 


11 


6 




1793 






5 


3 




4 


15 


3 




1862 


"3 




2 


2 


5 


6 


10 


2 




1794 


3 




10 


1 


1 


6 


9 






1863 






6 


3 


1 


3 


9 


3 


"5 


1795 


3 


i 


4 


4 


3 


3 


9 


3 




1864 






4 


1 


1 


8 


14 




2 


1796 






5 


5 




1 


19 






1865 






3 


2 


2 


8 


13 


"2 




1797 


i 




4 






3 


17 


5 




1866 


i 


"'2 


2 


2 


10 


6 


6 


1 




1798 




i 


5 






2 


20 


2 




1867 


2 


4 


2 




8 


3 


10 


1 




1799 






9 


3 




2 


15 


1 




1868 


4 


8 


4 


2 


3 


3 


4 


2 




1800 




i 


11 




1 


5 


11 


1 




1869 


1 


2 


2 




10 


4 


10 


1 


... 


1801 






18 








12 






1870 


1 




6 


"3 


1 


7 


9 


3 




1802 






8 








22 






1871 


1 


"7 


7 


3 




4 


5 


3 




1803 






5 








25 






1872 


2 


1 


8 




1 




14 


4 


. . . 


1804 


i 


i 


5 






i'6 


7 


2 


4 


1873 


2 


2 


4 






4 


16 


2 




1805 




1 


2 


2 




6 


11 


3 


5 


1874 


1 




2 


i 


i 


2 


20 


1 


"2 


1806 




2 


2 




4 


9 


10 


1 


2 


1875 




4 


11 


1 




4 


8 


2 




1807 


i 


3 


6 








18 


2 




1876 


6 


3 


5 


2 


"2 


2 


6 


3 


"i 


1808 


2 


3 


5 


"i 


"i 


2 


11 


2 


3 


1877 


2 


1 


4 


6 




1 


10 


5 


1 


1809 






13 


1 






16 






1878 




2 


5 




i 


6 


14 


2 




1810 






10 








20 






1879 




1 


4 


2 




5 


17 


1 




1811 


"2 


"8 


3 


"4 


"2 


2 


6 


3 




1880 




2 


4 


2 


"i 


4 


16 


1 


.. • 


1812 


4 




6 


1 




10 


8 


1 




1881 




3 


8 


3 


2 


2 


12 






1813 


1 


"5 


6 


2 


i 


9 


6 






1882 


2 


1 


3 


2 


4 


9 


5 


4 




1814 




6 


5 


1 


1 


13 


1 


3 




1883 




2 


9 


2 


2 


1 


7 


5 


"2 


1815 


i 


1 


2 


5 


2 


10 


6 


3 




1884 






3 


3 




7 


11 




6 


1816 


1 


9 




4 




6 


6 


3 


i 


1885 




4 




1 




6 


11 


8 




1817 


1 


2 


2 


6 


"5 


7 


2 


5 




1886 


i 


3 


4 


2 


"3 


4 


10 


1 


2 


1818 


2 


1 


4 


7 


5 


7 


3 


1 




1887 


1 


2 


3 


1 


5 


4 


7 


6 


1 


1819 




2 








7 


16 


5 




1888 


4 




5 








12 


1 


8 


1820 


"4 


■ «■ 


3 




3 


2 


18 






1889 


2 


2 


9 






3 


10 


2 


2 


1821 


1 






3 


1 


4 


17 


2 


"2 


1890 


• •• 


■ •■ 


3 


"2 


2 


1 


17 


1 


4 


1822 




2 


9 


3 




2 


10 


1 


3 


1891 


3 




2 




2 


6 


14 


... 


3 


1823 


"i 




3 


1 


"2 


6 


14 


1 


2 


1892 






3 




2 


3 


20 


1 


1 


1824 


1 


"2 


5 


1 




14 


2 


5 




1893 


"3 


"i 


2 


i 




5 


14 


2 


2 


1825 


1 


1 


3 


3 


"2 


10 


5 


3 


2 


1894 


3 


2 


14 


1 




1 


4 


3 


2 


1826 




1 


7 


2 


2 


7 


8 


2 


1 


1895 


2 


1 






i 


1 


16 


3 


6 


1827 




1 


9 


1 


4 


5 


7 


2 1 


1896 


1 


3 


i'6 


i 


1 


1 


10 


1 


2 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



157 



OCTOBER. 


















C 


aim 




















Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 


















V 


ar. 




















Var. 


1731 


1 


1 


1 


6 


8 


7 


6 


1 




1828 








4 


3 


9 


11 


1 


3 


1732 




3 


2 


7 


4 


9 


5 


1 




1829 


4 


"2 


"i 


3 




8 


11 


2 




1733 




1 


1 


2 


1 


12 


8 


6 




1830 


1 








2 


4 


10 


5 


*9 


1734 


3 


3 


1 


1 


3 


6 


7 


7 




1831 




"i 


i 


"i 


1 


22 


4 




1 


1735 


1 




8 


5 


1 


5 


10 


1 




1832 




1 




2 




10 


12 


2 


4 


1764 






4 








27 






1833 




1 


*8 


2 


i 


6 


10 




3 


1765 






3 








28 






1834 










1 


6 


20 


4 




1766 






9 








22 






1835 




2 


i 


2 




8 


13 


5 




1767 














31 






1836 


4 




3 


5 




6 


12 


1 




1768 






17 








14 






1837 


1 




2 




"4 


5 


14 


5 




1769 






14 








17 






1838 


1 


"2 


2 


i 


1 


6 


12 


2 


"4 


1770 






5 




2 


li 


13 






1839 




2 


6 


3 


3 


9 


2 


1 


5 


1771 


2 


i 




2 


4 


15 


7 






1840 


"i 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


10 


10 


2 


1772 


1 


1 


6 


5 


6 


8 


4 






1841 




7 


6 


2 


1 


1 


8 


5 


1 


1773 


2 








10 


5 


14 






1842 


"2 


1 


1 


1 




1 


13 


10 


2 


1774 


1 




3 


3 


3 


7 


14 






1843 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 


4 


13 


4 


1 


1775 


1 


2 




1 


1 


7 


15 


3 


i 


1844 




3 


1 


6 


4 


4 


8 


3 


2 


1776 




4 


3 


2 


2 


8 


11 


1 




1845 




2 


1 


2 


2 


3 


17 


2 


2 


1777 




2 


8 


1 


4 


6 


9 




i 


1846 


"i 


4 


2 


6 


3 


5 


7 




3 


1778 


3 


2 


6 


3 


5 


2 


1 


"i 


8 


1847 




3 


9 


5 


1 


5 


7 


i 




1779 






4 




4 


10 


7 


3 


3 


1848 


"3 


7 


2 


4 


2 


5 


5 


1 


"2 


1780 






3 




4 


11 


10 




3 


1849 


1 


3 


4 






9 


8 


5 


1 


1781 






1 






... 


30 






1850 


3 


1 


1 




2 


8 


10 


6 




1782 






14 








17 






1851 


2 








3 


14 


12 






1783 














31 






1852 


6 


"2 


3 


i 


2 


2 


13 


i 


"i 


1784 


2 




5 


4 


4 


"2 


11 


"3 




1853 


2 


1 


2 


5 


6 


6 


6 


3 




1785 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


4 


17 


3 




1854 


2 


2 






2 


10 


7 


4 


4 


1786 






16 


1 




4 


8 


2 




1855 


1 


2 


2 


i 


4 


5 


12 


2 


2 


1787 






10 


3 


1 


6 


9 


2 




1856 




2 


2 


3 


5 


7 


3 


5 


4 


1788 


2 




4 






5 


17 


3 




1857 


2 


1 


6 


1 


1 


5 


6 


3 


6 


1789 


3 


1 


8 


4 




6 


9 






1858 




1 


5 




1 


7 


14 


2 


1 


1790 


2 




10 


2 


"3 


6 


7 


1 




1859 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


5 


8 


2 




1791 


1 


1 


11 


7 




2 


7 


2 




1860 




2 


2 




2 


6 


18 


1 




1792 


2 




15 


5 




4 


4 


1 




1861 








"2 


9 


8 


10 


2 




1793 


1 




4 






14 


12 






1862 


>•* 




4 


2 


2 


2 


21 






1794 


2 






3 


1 


6 


12 


"7 




1863 




"2 


4 


3 


3 


6 


12 




i 


1795 




1 


1 


10 


5 


8 


4 


2 




1864 






15 


4 




2 


8 




2 


1796 








1 




1 


27 


2 




1865 


2 


2 


12 


4 




1 


6 


4 




1797 






6 


3 




3 


12 


7 




1866 


1 


2 


1 


4 


"5 


5 


10 


3 




1798 






6 






3 


22 






1867 






3 


1 


4 


8 


15 






1799 






7 






2 


15 


"7 




1868 






2 


1 


6 


6 


14 


"2 




1800 






5 






2 


22 


2 




1869 


"3 


6 


1 


2 


2 


2 


8 


7 




1801 


*3 


i 


4 








20 


3 




1870 


2 


3 


8 




3 


2 


12 


1 




1802 






5 








26 






1871 


1 


1 


7 




1 


6 


14 


1 




1803 






13 








18 






1872 


3 




4 


i 


2 


1 


18 


2 




1804 


3 




3 


5 


2 


8 


8 




2 


1873 


1 




2 






10 


18 






1805 


3 


3 


5 


6 




2 


4 


i 


7 


1874 


1 




3 


i 


3 


3 


14 


'5 


i 


1806 


2 


2 


6 


5 


1 


5 


6 


2 


2 


1875 




i 


14 


2 


2 


1 


8 


1 


2 


1807 


1 




6 








23 


1 




1876 


2 


2 


10 


2 


2 


4 


6 


2 


1 


1808 


2 


2 






2 


9 


8 


7 


i 


1877 




1 


1 


3 


3 


4 


16 


3 




1809 






13 








18 






1878 


"2 




1 


6 


8 


4 


7 


3 




1810 




i 


8 






"l 


21 






1879 




i 


5 


1 




1 


22 


1 




1811 


i 


1 


2 


"8 


3 


10 


6 






1880 


i 


7 


4 


1 






7 


10 


1 


1812 


1 


8 


1 


3 


2 


8 


4 


3 


1 


1881 




3 


7 


8 


"i 


3 




9 




1813 




5 


10 


5 


1 


5 


1 


4 




1882 


i 


1 


6 


4 


5 


4 


"7 


1 


2 


1814 








5 


2 


10 


10 


4 




1883 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


7 


14 


4 




1815 




5 


3 


6 


4 


11 


2 






1884 


3 


1 


2 




1 


4 


14 


5 


i 


1816 


3 


1 


7 


7 


1 


3 


7 


2 




1885 


1 


7 


5 


2 




2 


5 


9 




1817 


5 


7 


2 


8 


4 


3 


1 




i 


1886 




6 


7 


2 


4 


4 


8 






1818 






4 


8 


2 


13 


4 






1887 


i 


1 








4 


17 


6 


"2 


1819 


3 


4 


4 




3 


5 


9 


3 




1888 


1 




"i 


"i 


2 


9 


12 


5 




1820 


3 


1 


5 


2 


5 


2 


11 


2 




1889 


1 


i 


9 


4 


3 


2 


9 


1 


"i 


1821 








3 




7 


20 




1 


1890 


2 




1 




1 


2 


22 


3 




1822 


i 


3 


6 


6 


3 


8 


3 




1 


1891 






1 


3 


8 


4 


8 


1 


6 


1823 


1 


1 


4 


5 


2 


10 


7 




1 


1892 


4 


i 


3 


2 


1 


3 


15 


2 




1824 


1 


2 


6 


1 


1 


5 


10 


4 


1 


1893 


1 




2 






2 


23 




3 


1825 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


7 


11 


3 


1 


1894 


3 


2 


6 


"5 


2 




9 


2 


2 


1826 






1 


4 


2 


10 


11 




3 


1895 


7 


2 


3 


■». 


1 




16 


1 


1 


1827 


i 


3 


10 


2 


2 


3 


5 


2 


3 


1896 


7 


2 


2 


1 




2 


11 


5 


1 











































158 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXII. — continued. 



NOVEMBER. 




















Calm 








1 1 












Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


1731 




3 


2 


1 




3 


16 


5 




1828 


2 


4 


2 


5 


3 


6 


5 


2 


1 


1732 


3 


1 




6 


3 


3 


10 


4 




1829 


1 


3 


2 


2 




7 


8 


3 


4 


1733 


1 






1 


4 


12 


11 


1 




1830 




1 


2 


5 


"i 


14 


6 


1 




1734 


1 


i 




3 


6 


13 


6 






1831 




1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


12 


6 


"2 


1735 


1 


i 




6 


10 


4 


5 


3 




1832 


"i 






3 


4 


7 


12 


1 


2 


1764 






15 








15 






1833 






1 




1 


5 


18 


2 


3 


1765 






7 








23 






1834 






6 


3 




3 


17 


1 




1766 






5 








25 






1835 


"i 




8 


4 


2 


3 


12 






1767 






6 








24 






1836 


1 


4 


2 


2 




3 


15 


3 




1768 






8 








22 






1837 


1 




2 


2 


"2 


7 


12 


4 




1769 






6 








24 






1838 




3 


6 


6 


2 


1 


8 


2 


2 


1770 


5 


i 


5 


3 


2 


"8 


4 


2 




1839 


1 


2 


6 


6 


1 


6 


5 




3 


1771 


2 




1 




5 


17 


3 


2 




1840 


2 


2 




4 


1 


5 


8 


"i 


4 


1772 


3 


i 


2 


4 


5 


8 


6 


1 




1841 


2 






2 


2 


3 


11 


1 


9 


1773 


1 




1 


2 


4 


12 


9 


1 




1842 


1 


4 


5 


5 




4 


6 




5 


1774 


3 


i 


4 


4 




4 


10 


3 


1 


1843 




1 


1 


2 


'2 


10 


11 


2 


1 


1775 


4 


3 


6 


5 


2 


6 


2 


2 




1844 






9 


2 




5 


7 


1 


6 


1776 




2 


1 


4 


7 


11 


3 


2 




1845 






2 


6 


i 


3 


14 


2 


2 


1777 










1 


3 


26 






1846 


2 


1 


1 


5 


4 


4 


8 


1 


4 


1778 


i 


2 


"fi 


2 


3 


5 


7 




5 


1847 


2 








2 


8 


13 


1 


4 


1779 


4 


4 


1 




1 


3 


8 


"2 


7 


1848 


2 




1 




1 


4 


16 


4 


2 


1780 


1 


3 


2 






4 


15 


3 


2 


1849 


1 






2 


2 


10 


8 


1 


6 


1781 






7 








23 






1850 


3 




1 


1 


4 


4 


17 






1782 






19 








11 


... 




1851 


3 








1 


4 


15 


7 




1783 






10 








20 






1852 


2 


4 


1 


2 


2 


8 


9 


2 




1784 


i 


i 


3 


i 




9 


12 


3 




1853 


2 




2 


2 


7 


5 


5 


7 




1785 


l 


1 


3 






2 


19 


4 




1854 


3 


"5 


2 




1 


8 


6 


5 




1786 


8 


3 


9 


4 


"i 


1 


3 


1 




1855 


3 


4 


4 


2 


3 


7 




2 


5 


1787 


14 




3 


1 


1 


1 


6 


4 




1856 


5 








2 


3 


8 


9 


3 


1788 


1 


1 


1 


5 


2 


7 


11 


2 




1857 


1 


"2 


"6 


"3 


3 


4 


3 


1 


7 


1789 


3 




8 


1 




11 


7 






1858 




1 


2 


3 


5 


4 


14 


1 




1790 


3 


1 


11 


3 


"i 


3 


7 


i 




1859 






1 


1 


5 


10 


12 


1 




1791 


3 


2 


5 


1 


2 


5 


11 


1 




1860 






9 


10 


4 


1 


4 


1 


1 


1792 


1 


2 


3 






11 


8 


5 




1861 


"4 


3 


2 


1 


2 


7 


10 


1 




1793 


2 




20 


i 




2 


3 


2 




1862 


1 






3 


2 


14 


5 




5 


1794 


1 




7 


6 




7 


7 


2 




1863 




i 


3 


1 


2 


4 


16 




3 


1795 


7 




3 


1 


6 


4 


4 


5 




1864 


3 


1 


7 


2 


2 


3 


8 


2 


2 


1796 


3 


"i 


6 




2 


2 


16 






1865 


2 


2 


5 


3 


1 


5 


8 


4 




1797 






10 






1 


17 


2 




1866 


1 






1 


1 


4 


18 


5 




1798 






9 








19 


2 




1867 


4 


"1 






2 


4 


14 


5 




1799 






4 


1 






24 


1 




1868 


4 


1 


6 


4 


2 


2 


7 


4 




1800 


• •• 




1 






"i 


28 






1869 


1 










1 


12 


16 




1801 




2 


3 








20 


"5 




1870 






3 




1 


4 


18 


4 




1802 






16 








14 






1871 


"5 


"3 


6 


2 




2 


7 


5 




1803 






10 








19 




1 


1872 




5 


5 


1 


2 


8 


7 


2 




1804 


2 


2 


6 


8 


1 


3 


4 




4 


1873 


2 


2 


6 


1 


1 


2 


13 


3 




1805 


2 




1 




1 


8 


13 


2 


3 


1874 


2 


2 


4 


1 


2 


1 


12 


4 


2 


1806 




"i 


3 


i 


1 


6 


16 


1 


1 


1875 


4 


4 


5 


3 


2 




7 


3 


2 


1807 


2 


3 


4 








15 


6 




1876 


2 


2 


9 


2 


1 


4 


8 


1 


1 


1808 




3 


6 


2 


1 


4 


9 




5 


1877 








2 


3 


14 


10 


1 




1809 


3 




12 








15 






1878 


"4 


"4 


3 






4 


8 


7 




1810 


1 


"i 


10 




1 


"i 


9 


i 




1879 


1 


4 


5 






1 


15 


4 




1811 






3 






14 


10 


3 




1880 


2 


2 






2 


8 


12 


4 




1812 


i 


2 


5 


"7 




8 


3 


4 




1881 








"3 


2 


10 


12 


3 




1813 








4 


3 


10 


8 


5 




1882 


2 




"3 


1 


2 


8 


9 


4 


"i 


1814 




i 


"i 


1 


2 


4 


15 


3 




1883 


2 




1 




3 


5 


16 


2 


1 


1815 


2 


1 




2 


1 


10 


11 


3 




1884 


2 


2 




3 


1 


8 


6 


7 


1 


1816 


3 


3 


i 


2 




8 


6 


6 


"l 


1885 




2 


4 


6 


1 


8 


5 


2 


2 


1817 






i 


4 


6 


9 


7 


3 




1886 


3 




1 






12 


10 


4 




1818 


"i 


8 


9 


2 


8 


2 








1887 


1 


"2 


4 


"i 


"3 


8 


4 


3 


4 


1819 


3 


4 


1 






5 


18 


4 




1888 




2 


9 


3 


2 


1 


12 




1 


1820 


1 


1 


5 


"i 


"2 


4 


10 


6 




1889 


i 


2 


2 


1 


1 


4 


18 




1 


1821 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1 


6 


16 






1890 






3 


2 


3 


2 


17 


"l 


2 


1822 








3 


4 


17 


5 




i 


1891 


i 




6 


1 




2 


13 


2 


5- 


1823 




i 


2 


1 


2 


7 


13 




4 


1892 






4 


5 


"5 


3 


10 




3 


1824 


i 


2 




1 


1 


6 


16 


3 




1893 


"5 


"3 


3 




2 


2 


9 


4 


2 


1825 


3 


1 


2 




1 


7 


10 


4 


2 


1894 








i 


3 


10 


12 


2 


2 


1826 


2 




1 


i 




6 


9 


7 


4 


1895 


2 


3 


6 


2 


2 


2 


12 




1 


1827 


1 




8 




2 


5 


12 


5 


2 


1896 


2 




4 


2 


1 


3 


15 


2 


1 













THE METEOROLOGY OF 


EDINBURGH. 










159 










Table XXXII. — continued. 






















DECEMBER. 
































Calm 




















Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


isr.w. 


or 
Var. 


1731 


3 




1 


2 


2 


4 


15 


4 




1828 






5 


1 




16 


4 




5 


1732 


3 




4 


5 


6 


6 


5 


2 




1829 


i 


2 


2 


5 


4 


6 


2 


"i 


8 


1733 


t*« 








4 


16 


10 


1 




1830 


3 


2 


4 


7 




4 


5 


3 


3 


1734 




"i 


i 


2 


10 


10 


5 


2 




1831 








2 


3 


14 


10 




2 


1735 


2 


3 


1 


3 


10 


1 


8 


3 




1832 






i 


3 




13 


11 


2 


1 


1764 






18 








13 






1833 


i 




2 






6 


20 


1 


1 


1765 






14 








17 






1834 






2 


1 




5 


23 






1766 
1767 


... 




15 








15 






1835 


2 


"i 


7 






4 


16 


"i 








13 








18 






1836 


3 


4 


3 


i 




5 


12 


3 




1768 






12 








19 






1837 


4 


3 


3 






12 


6 


3 




1769 




... 


4 








27 






1838 




1 




2 


"i 


13 


12 


1 


i 


1770 


4 








3 


15 


7 


2 




1839 






4 


8 


3 


5 


6 




5 


1771 




2 


"2 


4 


9 


7 


6 


1 




1840 




'3 


3 


1 


5 


4 


8 


3 


4 


1772 


1 




4 




5 


14 


5 


1 


i 


1841 


"i 




2 






8 


16 


1 


3 


1773 


3 


4 


8 


4 




6 


5 


1 




1842 






1 


"i 




10 


17 




2 


1774 


1 


1 


4 


4 


"5 


9 


4 


2 


i 


1843 












11 


18 


"i 


1 


1775 




1 


1 




8 


12 


8 


1 




1844 






8 


14 


i 


2 


4 




2 


1776 




3 


2 


2 


5 


10 


6 


1 


"2 


1845 


4 










6 


16 


"4 


1 


1777 


2 


2 


5 




1 


8 


10 


3 




1846 


7 


2 








3 


13 


5 


1 


1778 






4 


2 


1 


3 


20 


1 




1847 






2 


"7 


4 


5 


9 


2 


2 


1779 


i 






3 


1 


4 


10 


5 


"7 


1848 






1 


6 


4 


6 


11 




3 


1780 


2 


3 


"7 


1 


3 


4 


10 


1 




1849 


2 


"2 


5 


8 




1 


9 


3 


1 


1781 






13 








18 






1850 








1 


8 


18 


4 






1782 






13 








18 






1851 


"i 






1 


3 


22 


4 






1783 






17 








14 






1852 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


13 


7 






1784 


"i 


ii 


8 








4 


i 




1853 


3 


3 


2 


6 


5 


8 


2 


'2 




1785 


7 


5 


4 


4 


i 


3 


5 


2 




1854 


1 








... 


8 


16 


6 




1786 


8 


2 


4 






7 


9 


1 




1855 


1 


"2 




3 


2 


14 


5 


3 


i 


1787 


12 


1 


7 




i 


4 


5 


1 




1856 


4 


1 


i 




4 


7 


8 


4 


2 


1788 


11 


4 


4 


"i 




1 


6 


4 




1857 


1 








4 


14 


8 


2 


2 


1789 






2 


1 


"i 


13 


12 


2 




1858 










6 


16 


8 


1 




1790 


6 


i 




1 




6 


8 


9 




1859 


3 


3 


i 


3 


3 


11 


5 


1 


i 


1 1791 


9 




i 






4 


12 


5 




1860 


4 


1 


5 


4 


6 




5 


2 


4 


1792 


3 


i 


2 


i 


2 


8 


12 


2 




1861 


3 


1 






2 


"7 


11 


1 


6 


1793 






8 


1 




7 


12 


3 




1862 






4 


2 


2 


10 


6 


5 


2 


1794 


i 




9 


1 


2 


14 


1 


3 




1863 


2 




1 




2 


15 


10 


1 




1795 


1 


i 


1 


2 


5 


5 


16 






1864 




i 


10 


"3 


2 


4 


11 






1796 


2 


l 


6 






1 


17 


4 




1865 




1 


4 


4 


1 


7 


12 


2 




1797 




i 


3 






5 


19 


3 




1866 


"i 


1 




1 


4 


10 


11 


3 




1798 




l 


15 


i 




2 


12 






1867 






"2 


1 


2 


10 


12 


4 




1799 




2 


20 


3 






6 






1868 


"i 


"2 


4 


4 


6 


5 


7 


2 




1800 


"i 




10 






"i 


19 






1869 


4 


1 


3 




2 


3 


15 


3 




1801 


3 


2 


8 








13 


5 




1870 


3 




11 




• •» 


3 


10 


4 




1802 






8 






■ •■ 


23 






1871 


3 




3 


i 


1 


7 


15 


1 




1803 






15 








16 






1872 


1 




4 


6 


12 




7 


1 




1804 




2 


12 


i 


2 


3 


6 




"5 


1873 


2 








2 


5 


19 


3 




1805 


6 


1 




1 




6 


13 


4 




1874 


5 


"3 


2 


i 




2 


11 


3 


4 


1806 


2 


2 








17 


5 


2 


3 


1875 






4 




"l 


2 


20 


3 


1 


1807 


1 


2 


6 




.;. 




21 


1 




1876 




2 


11 


"5 


2 


3 


6 


1 


1 


1808 


6 




4 


"5 




"2 


8 


4 


"2 


1877 




1 




4 


2 


4 


18 


2 




1809 


2 


1 


2 






2 


21 


3 




1878 


2 


2 


2 


1 




2 


20 


2 




1810 


2 


3 




"i 




4 


19 


2 




1879 




1 






2 


7 


20 


1 




1811 


2 




2 


1 


"i 


6 


14 


5 




1880 




3 


i 


i 


1 




15 


9 


i 


1812 




6 


2 


11 


8 


4 








1881 




1 


2 


1 


2 


6 


17 


2 




1813 




7 




3 


2 


13 


6 






1882 




5 


3 


2 


1 


3 


13 


4 




1814 


2 


2 


4 


6 




11 


2 


4 




1883 


3 


4 








3 


18 


3 




1815 


1 




1 


5 


2 


6 


9 


7 




1884 


1 


2 




i 


4 


5 


14 


3 


"i 


1816 


1 


"i 


3 


5 


2 


9 


8 


2 




1885 




3 


2 


1 




4 


14 


6 


1 


1817 


4 




1 


4 


3 


9 


2 


8 




1886 


i 


4 




2 


2 


5 


10 


7 




1818 


1 


2 


2 


4 


4 


9 


3 


6 




1887 


1 


... 


i 




2 


5 


15 


7 




1819 


1 


4 


4 


3 




5 


9 


5 




1888 


1 


... 


1 


"i 


3 


4 


14 




"7 


1820 




5 


9 


4 




5 


7 




i 


1889 






2 




3 


4 


18 


"i 


3 


1821 




1 


1 


2 


4 


6 


15 


"i 


1 


1890 


3 




12 


3 


2 




7 




4 


1822 






4 


6 


3 


11 


4 




3 


1891 


1 




1 




2 


6 


15 


"i 


5 


1823 






1 


1 


1 


12 


10 


3 


3 


1892 


2 


2 


3 


"2 


1 


2 


12 


2 


5 


1824 




1 








13 


13 


4 




1893 




1 


2 


1 


2 


11 


10 


2 


2 


1825 


i 


1 


4 


5 


i 


9 


1 


4 


"5 


1894 


1 




2 


2 


1 


4 


15 


4 


2 


1826 








6 


2 


8 


8 


2 


5 


1895 






5 


6 


1 


1 


14 


2 


2 


1827 




2 






2 


17 


8 


1 


1 


1896 


"i | 3 


6 


2 


1 


7 


6 


4 


1 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 B 



1»>0 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table XXXII. — continued. 













ANNUAI 


VALUES. 














1 


















Calm 


















1 


Calm 


Year. 


N. 


N.E 
27 


E. 
50 


S.E. 
44 


S. 


S.W 


. W. 


N.W 


or 
Var. 


Year. 


N. 


N.E 


. E. 


S.E. 
30 


S. 
12 


S.W 


W. 


N.W 


or 
Var. 


1732 


18 


31 


60 


98 


38 




1829 


25 


47 


49 


49 


70 


37 


46 


1733 


15 


25 


48 


25 


28 


110 


86 


28 




1830 


10 


42 


35 


29 


10 


98 


71 


32 


38 


1734 


12 


24 


36 


21 


38 


91 


109 


34 




1831 


3 


40 


43 


27 


11 


101 


71 


35 


34 


1735 


18 


33 


36 


33 


35 


60 


116 


34 




1832 


8 


37 


37 


20 


7 


90 


100 


27 


40 


1764 






137 








229 






1833 


8 


8 


70 


19 


13 


60 


151 


8 


28 


1705 






137 








225 




3 


1834 


2 


8 


82 


7 


11 


66 


157 


14 


18 


1766 






131 








230 






1835 


10 


10 


86 


21 


5 


44 


174 


15 




1767 




... 


131 








234 






1836 


16 


39 


44 


23 


8 


53 


146 


37 




1768 






169 








187 






1837 


29 


39 


44 


23 


25 


71 


78 


46 


10 


1769 




... 


125 








240 






1838 


21 


32 


62 


24 


15 


59 


85 


32 


35 


1770 


37 


28 


52 


"8 


25 


101 


86 


28 




1839 


10 


32 


48 


37 


21 


72 


87 


24 


35 


1771 


33 


28 


45 


15 


37 


97 


86 


24 




1840 


12 


37 


44 


23 


9 


59 


107 


40 


35 


1772 


31 


34 


66 


21 


35 


71 


90 


14 


4 


1841 


12 


26 


53 


28 


10 


63 


110 


27 


36 


1773 


28 


28 


40 


18 


47 


80 


118 


5 


1 


1842 


9 


44 


41 


28 


7 


70 


101 


32 


33 


1774 


26 


31 


43 


26 


45 


69 


95 


21 


9 


1843 


12 


30 


59 


18 


10 


69 


110 


34 


23 


1775 


18 


25 


43 


23 


48 


91 


98 


16 


3 


1844 


9 


18 


73 


33 


8 


48 


119 


28 


30 


1776 


14 


40 


42 


26 


38 


95 


85 


15 


11 


1845 


14 


28 


55 


25 


12 


56 


112 


37 


26 


1777 


14 


34 


55 


8 


25 


61 


131 


22 


15 


1846 


15 


23 


51 


32 


17 


59 


116 


19 


33 


1778 


16 


27 


51 


12 


37 


63 


121 


11 


27 


1847 


14 


20 


61 


37 


14 


53 


108 


27 


31 


1779 


9 


19 


51 


8 


22 


74 


111 


23 


48 


1848 


10 


24 


53 


23 


18 


55 


128 


20 


35 


1780 


17 


21 


61 


21 


24 


66 


117 


16 


23 


1849 


11 


28 


58 


26 


9 


51 


123 


24 


35 


1781 






145 








212 




8 


1850 


13 


12 


62 


21 


41 


67 


119 


30 




1782 






154 








211 






1851 


14 


16 


40 


15 


45 


93 


121 


21 




1783 






125 








240 






1852 


46 


46 


41 


13 


23 


45 


127 


20 


5 


1784 


30 


37 


55 


21 


11 


49 


129 


34 




1853 


26 


18 


57 


40 


42 


68 


77 


37 


f 


1785 


45 


30 


45 


19 


9 


54 


125 


38 




1854 


17 


19 


23 


16 


29 


89 


124 


42 


6 


1786 


28 


21 


93 


13 


1 


49 


130 


30 




1855 


22 


38 


44 


19 


23 


59 


92 


37 


31 


1787 


37 


11 


76 


17 


11 


51 


133 


29 




1856 


25 


39 


50 


18 


43 


62 


58 


47 


24 


1788 


29 


17 


71 


23 


8 


62 


131 


25 




1857 


16 


38 


56 


9 


20 


82 


87 


25 


32 


1789 


33 


13 


88 


20 


6 


95 


85 


25 




1858 


26 


26 


43 


14 


28 


83 


94 


41 


10 


1790 


19 


10 


70 


24 


4 


61 


140 


37 




1859 


9 


22 


49 


17 


34 


74 


139 


18 


3 


1791 


27 


16 


76 


18 


14 


63 


113 


38 




1860 


18 


23 


64 


24 


44 


46 


130 


11 


6 


1792 


30 


14 


104 


13 


7 


78 


90 


30 




1861 


15 


23 


44 


17 


33 


72 


137 


15 


9 


1793 


12 


5 


88 


17 


5 


83 


116 


39 




1862 


8 


15 


40 


28 


35 


62 


116 


24 


37 


1794 


16 


3 


78 


16 


9 


87 


115 


41 




1863 


4 


22 


37 


20 


26 


93 


109 


30 


24 


1795 


42 


21 


79 


24 


24 


54 


94 


27 




1864 


8 


11 


91 


29 


24 


62 


113 


16 


12 


1796 


17 


8 


59 


16 


12 


39 


198 


17 




1865 


14 


15 


78 


49 


20 


63 


100 


26 




1797 


3 


1 


94 


6 


1 


24 


206 


30 




1866 


14 


27 


58 


36 


28 


54 


118 


30 




1798 


1 


6 


77 


3 




20 


245 


13 




1867 


34 


26 


52 


15 


35 


54 


127 


22 




1799 


1 


7 


133 


13 


i 


16 


176 


18 




1868 


29 


33 


32 


18 


54 


95 


90 


15 




1800 


3 


11 


123 


1 


3 


19 


190 


15 




1869 


34 


32 


39 


10 


44 


36 


126 


44 




1801 


7 


9 


100 


4 




2 


221 


22 




1870 


22 


33 


48 


28 


8 


33 


101 


81 


11 


1802 






96 








266 




3 


1871 


19 


35 


54 


36 


15 


52 


115 


31 


8 


1803 






102 








262 




1 


1872 


16 


35 


62 


28 


38 


55 


111 


20 


1 


1804 


20 


22 


76 


20 


13 


68 


84 


18 


45 


1873 


14 


24 


70 


12 


8 


57 


156 


21 


3 


1805 


19 


27 


45 


29 


12 


61 


98 


34 


40 


1874 


25 


19 


49 


12 


17 


35 


158 


34 


16 


1806 


17 


28 


61 


15 


11 


67 


113 


27 


26 


1875 


15 


28 


87 


14 


12 


21 


137 


26 


26 


1807 


10 


17 


92 








229 


17 




1876 


35 


28 


76 


19 


17 


19 


113 


39 


20 


1808 


24 


23 


73 


22 


9 


45 


117 


27 


26 


1877 


7 


20 


56 


38 


30 


45 


143 


24 


2 


1809 


9 


17 


148 


2 




3 


171 


15 




1878 


14 


30 


67 


26 


18 


34 


147 


26 


3 


1810 


5 


25 


88 


18 


i 


24 


177 


27 




1879 


9 


38 


68 


36 


12 


32 


155 


12 


3 


1811 


13 


31 


56 


30 


16 


91 


101 


27 




1880 


6 


41 


81 


11 


9 


36 


141 


37 


4 


1812 


19 


52 


61 


34 


20 


85 


66 


28 


1 


1881 


2 


48 


46 


33 


17 


39 


120 


53 


7 


1813 


5 


66 


40 


28 


18 


124 


56 


27 


1 


1882 


12 


20 


45 


20 


22 


68 


130 


40 


8 


1814 


7 


43 


49 


42 1 


13 j 


109 


68 


34 




1883 


23 


27 


40 


20 


24 


52 


137 


36 


6 


1815 ' 


10 


43 


31 


37 


16 


113 


92 


23 




1884 


11 


26 


30 


25 


21 


70 


120 


41 


22 


1816 i 


17 


42 


57 


51 


18 


49 


82 


47 


3 


1885 


4 


49 


41 


26 


8 


71 


92 


63 


11 


1817 


20 


31 


26 


46 


30 


77 


87 


43 


5 


1886 


18 


48 


48 


22 


23 


54 


106 


32 


14 


1818 


12 


48 


49 


40 


43 


79 


77 


17 




1887 


12 


20 


32 


11 


27 


59 


113 


64 


27 


1819 


18 


29 


57 


19 


18 


81 


104 


44 




1888 


14 


29 


72 


17 


18 


35 


119 


34 


28 


1820 


19 


31 


73 


12 


12 


53 


134 


30 


2 


1889 


18 


22 


75 


20 


21 


31 


148 


17 


13 


1821 


11 


15 


68 


31 


7 


51 


147 


15 


20 


1890 


14 


6 


79 


18 


23 


25 


169 


14 


17 


1822 


6 


14 


61 


29 


21 


87 


106 


12 


29 


1891 


26 


14 


60 


13 


24 


30 


126 


28 


44 


1823 


15 


14 


60 


26 


18 


79 


114 


19 


22 


1892 


14 


17 


67 


19 


19 


29 


153 


20 


28 


i 1824 


16 


33 


48 


12 


7 


70 


122 


35 


23 


1893 


23 


18 


59 


11 


17 


31 


148 


22 


36 


1825 


13 


14 


56 


21 


16 


80 


87 


32 


46 


1894 


18 


20 


63 


26 


17 


45 


132 


26 


18 


1826 


5 


14 


48 


27 


17 1 


01 


94 


29 


30 


1895 


38 


25 


64 


21 


12 


17 


145 


23 


20 


1827 


11 


32 


63 


14 


16 


78 


99 


34 


18 


1896 


38 


24 


52 


10 


8 


26 


160 


36 


12 


1828 


18 


35 


58 


36 


16 


88 


74 


15 


26 



























THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH.. 

Table XXXIII. 

Direction of the Wind. Mean Monthly Percentages, ] 


L764 


-1896. 




161 




N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 

6-2 
6-0 
6-0 
5-6 
5-4 
3-9 
3-7 


S. 

5-9 
5-0 
4-5 
3-8 
3-6 
3-7 
4-4 


S.W. 

18-5 
19-4 
14-6 
11-1 
10-4 
12-3 
13-9 


W. 

37'1 
36-2 
32-0 
27-8 
27-2 
33-2 
38-6 


N.W. 


Calm 

or 
Var. 




N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


s.w. 


W. 


N.W. 


Calm 
or 

Var. 


Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
April 
May 
June 
July 


4-1 
4-6 
6-4 
5-3 
3-8 
3-7 
3-2 


47 
4-8 
7-2 
10-5 
11 "0 
9-1 
6-8 


13-1 
13-2 
17-6 
24-6 
29-5 
24-1 
19-6 


7-2 
7-8 
8-'8 
8-3 
5-9 
6-4 
6-2 


3-2 
3-0 
2-9 
3-0 
3-2 
3-6 
3-6 


Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Dec. 

Mean. 


2-6 
3--8 
3-8 
5-2 
5-0 

4-3 


5-5 
5-7 
4-5 
4-3 
4-1 

6-5 


17-7 
17-3 
14-0 
13-2 
12'8 

18-1 


3-8 
5-2 
7-0 
6-0 
6-2 

5'4 


3-8 
5-4 
6-2 
5-3 
5-6 

4-7 


14-7 
15-2 
15-8 
16-6 
20-0 

15-1 


40-8 
36-7 
38-4 
37-6 
35-8 

35-3 


6-5 
6-0 
7-1 
7-8 
6-9 

7-1 


4-6 
4-7 
3-2 
4-0 
3-5 

3-5 



Table XXXIV. 



Percentage Frequency 


of 


Wind Direction D 


ecennial Means. 


East 


Wind includes 


N.,N.E.,E.,S.E. 


; West Wind, S., S.W., W., 


N. W. Calms and Variables have 


been excluded. 








January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Year. 
















E. 


w. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


w. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


W. 


1764-69, . 


33-9 


66-1 


35-9 


64-1 


42-5 


57-5 


51-7 


48-3 


49-5 


50-5 


46-5 


53-5 


1770-79, . 






34-8 


65-2 


23-2 


76-8 


407 


59-3 


31-0 


69-0 


50-0 


50-0 


43-2 


5G-8 


1780-89, . 






36-6 


63-4 


43-0 


57-0 


51-6 


48'4 


447 


55-3 


39-6 


60-4 


45-3 


54-7 


1790-99, . 






25-8 


74-2 


28-7 


71-3 


40-6 


59-4 


53-3 


46-7 


40-7 


59-3 


38-7 


61-3 


1800-09, . 






36-8 


63-2 


28-7 


71-3 


447 


55-3 


41-0 


59-0 


46-8 


53-2 


34-4 


65-6 


1810-19, 






22-9 


77-1 


19-9 


80-1 


33-6 


66-4 


53-7 


46-3 


59-4 


40-6 


45-5 


54-5 


1820-29, 






34-6 


65-4 


29-6 


70-4 


32-2 


67-8 


40-5 


59-5 


51-9 


38-1 


40-9 


59-1 


1830-39, 






29-6 


70-4 


23-6 


76-4 


32-9 


67-1 


48-4 


51-6 


59-6 


40-4 


40-4 


59-6 


1840-49, 






25-3 


74-7 


31-9 


68-1 


34-9 


65-1 


51-6 


48-4 


49-2 


40-8 


44-7 


55-3 


1850-59, 






28-8 


71-2 


29-3 


707 


34-8 


65-2 


48-5 


51-5 


53-9 


46-1 


36-0 


64-0 


1860-69, 






25-8 


74-2 


25-0 


75-0 


39-8 


60-2 


44-4 


55 6 


49-3 


50-7 


39-3 


60-7 


1870-79, 






25-4 


74-6 


37-8 


62-2 


40-1 


59-9 


54-4 


45-6 


51-5 


48-5 


46-3 


53-7 


1880-89, 






21-4 


78-6 


26-8 


73-2 


35-8 


64-2 


54-8 


45'2 


45-7 


54-3 


48-4 


51-6 


1890-96, 






26-8 


73-2 


33-7 


66-3 


30-2 


69-8 


51-0 


49-0 


53-9 


46-1 


48-0 


52-0 


Means. 


























1764-1896, 


29-1 


70'9 


29-5 


70-5 


38-3 


617 


47-5 


52-5 


51-4 


48-6 


42-3 


57-7 




Jul 


y- 


August. 


September. 


Oct 


)ber. 


November. 


December. 


Year. 


Year. 




















E. 


w. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


w 


5 


E. 

38-2 


W. 

61-8 


1764-69, . 


43-5 


56-5 


36-2 


63-8 


27-8 


72-2 


25-3 


74-7 


26-1 


73-9 


41-5 


58 


1770-79, 






31-9 


68-1 


26-3 


73-7 


36*4 


63-6 


24-9 


75-1 


30-3 


69-7 


247 


75-3 


33-2 


66-8 


1780-89, 






24-0 


76-0 


34-7 


65-3 


32-0 


68-0 


28-0 


72-0 


38-6 


61-4 


51-3 


48-7 


39-1 


60-9 


1790-99, 






26-1 


73-9 


25-5 


74-5 


32-7 


67-3 


26-0 


74-0 


39-0 


61-0 


33-9 


66-1 


34-7 


65-3 


1800-09, 






41-8 


58-2 


28-1 


71-9 


22-9 


67-1 


32-9 


67-1 


32-5 


67-5 


34-3 


65-7 


36-2 


63-8 


1810-19, 






38-1 


61-9 


37-9 


62-1 


38-1 


61-9 


44-2 


55-8 


31-1 


68-9 


32-6 


67-4 


38-2 


61-8 


1820-29, 






46-2 


53-8 


31-5 


68-5 


31-9 


68-1 


31-1 


68-9 


21-6 


78-4 


25-2 


74-8 


35-7 


64-3 


1830-39, 






36-9 


63-1 


35-1 


64'9 


36-3 


63-7 


19-4 


80-6 


28-5 


71-5 


24-9 


75-1 


347 


65-3 


1840-49, 






30-9 


69-1 


27-8 


72-2 


42-7 


57-3 


35-4 


64-6 


26-1 


73-9 


27-6 


72-4 


36-5 


63-5 


1850-59, 






34-1 


65-9 


23-8 


76-2 


30-9 


69-1 


25-3 


747 


24-9 


75-1 


16-4 


83-6 


32-1 


67-9 


1860-69, 






39-6 


60-4 


28-1 


71-9 


24-6 


75-4 


28'8 


71-2 


29-8 


70-2 


25-2 


74-8 


33-3 


66-7 


1870-79, 






31-3 


68-7 


40-8 


59-2 


37-2 


62-8 


30-1 


69-9 


35-3 


64-7 


26-3 


737 


38-0 


62-0 


1880-89, 






27-6 


72-4 


30-6 


69-4 


33-3 


667 


34-3 


65-7 


23-2 


76-8 


16-8 


83-2 


33-2 


66-8 


1890-96, 






38-4 


61*6 


29-1 


70-9 


30-5 


69-5 


29-4 


70-6 


28-4 


7T6 


307 


69-3 


36-0 


64-0 


Means. 






























1764-1896, 


34-6 


65-4 


31-0 


69-0 


33-5 


66-5 


30-3 


69-7 


29-9 


70-1 


28-4 


71-6 


35-6 


64-4 















































162 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXV. 



Showing the Mean Annual Percentage Frequency of East (N., N.E. y E., S.E.) and 
West Winds (S., S.W., W., N.W.)from 1764 to 1896. 



Year. 


Direction. 


Year. 


Direction. 


Year. 


Direction. 




E. 


W. 




E. 


W. 




E. 


W. 


1764 


37-4 


62-6 


1811 


35-6 


64-4 


1858 


30-7 


69-3 


1765 


37-8 


62-2 


1812 


45-5 


54-5 


1859 


26-8 


73-2 


1766 


36-3 


637 


1813 


38-2 


61-8 


1860 


35-8 


64"2 


1767 


35'9 


64-1 


1814 


38-6 


61-4 








1768 


47*5 


52-5 


1815 


33-2 


66-8 








1769 


34-2 


65-8 


1816 


46-0 


54-0 


1861 


27-8 


72-2 


1770 


34-2 


65-8 


1817 


34-2 


65-8 


1862 


27-7 


72-3 








1818 


40-8 


59-2 


1863 


24-3 


75-7 


1771 


33-2 


66-8 


1819 


32-3 


67-7 


1864 


39-3 


60-7 


1772 


42-0 


58-0 


1820 


37-1 


62-9 


1865 


42-7 


57-3 


1773 


31-3 


687 








1866 


37-0 


63-0 


1774 


35-4 


64-6 


1821 


36-2 


43-8 


1867 


34-8 


65-2 


1775 


30-1 


69-9 


1822 


32-8 


67-2 


1868 


30-6 


69-4 


1776 


34-4 


65-6 


1823 


33-5 


66-5 


1869 


31-5 


68-5 


1777 


31-7 


68-3 


1824 


31-8 


68-2 


1870 


37-0 


63-0 


1778 


31-4 


68-6 


1825 


32-6 


67-4 








1779 


27*5 


72-5 


1826 


28-1 


71-9 








1780 


35-0 


65-0 


1827 


34-6 


65-4 


1871 


40-3 


59-7 








1828 


43-2 


56'8 


1872 


38-6 


61'4 


1781 


40-6 


59-4 


1829 


47-3 


72-7 


1873 


33-2 


66'8 


1782 


42-5 


57'5 


1830 


35-5 


64-5 


1874 


30-0 


70-0 


1783 


34-3 


65-7 








1875 


42-4 


57-6 


1784 


39-1 


00-9 


1831 


34-1 


65-9 


1876 


45-7 


54'3 


1785 


38-1 


61-9 


1832 


31-3 


687 


1877 


33-3 


667 


1786 


42-5 


57'5 


1833 


31-2 


68-8 


1878 


37-8 


62-2 


1787 


38-6 


61-4 


1834 


28-5 


71-5 


1879 


41-7 


58-3 


1788 


38-3 


61-7 


1835 


34-8 


65-2 


1880 


38-4 


61-6 


1789 


41-9 


58-1 


1836 


33-3 


66-7 








1790 


337 


66-3 


1837 


38'0 


62-0 














1838 


42-1 


57-9 


1881 


36-0 


64-0 


1791 


375 


62-5 


1839 


38-4 


61-6 


1882 


27-2 


72-8 


1792 


43-8 


56'2 


1840 


35-1 


64-9 


1883 


30-6 


69'4 


1793 


33-4 


66-6 








1884 


267 


73-3 


1794 


31-0 


69-0 


1841 


36-0 


64-0 


1885 


33-9 


667 


1795 


45-5 


54-5 


1842 


367 


63-3 


1886 


38-7 


61-3 


1796 


27-3 


727 


1843 


34-8 


65-2 


1887 


22-2 


77-8 


1797 


28-5 


71-5 


1844 


39-6 


60-4 


1888 


39-1 


60-9 


1798 


23-8 


76-2 


1845 


36-0 


64'0 


1889 


38-4 


61-6 


1799 


42-2 


57-8 


1846 


36'4 


63-6 


1890 


33-6 


66-4 


1800 


37-8 


62-2 


1847 
1848 


39-5 
33-2 


60-5 
66-8 








1801 


32-9 


67'1 


1849 


37-3 


627 


1891 


35-2 


64-8 


1802 


26-5 


73-5 


1850 


29-6 


70-4 


1892 


34-6 


65-4 


1803 


28-0 


72-0 








1893 


33-7 


66-3 


1804 


43-0 


57-0 


1851 


23'3 


76-7 


1894 


36-6 


63-4 


1805 


36-9 


63-1 


1852 


40-4 


59-6 


1895 


42-9 


57-1 


1806 


357 


64-3 


1853 


38-6 


61-4 


1896 


35-0 


65-0 


1807 


32-6 


67-4 


1854 


20-9 


79-1 








1808 


41-8 


58-2 


1855 


36 8 


63-2 








1809 


48-2 


51-8 


1856 


38-6 


61'4 


Means. 






1810 


37 3 


627 


1857 


357 


64-3 


1764-1896. 


35-6 


64-4 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



163 



Table XXXVI. 



Days with Thunderstorms. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1770, . 












2 






1 








3 


1771, . 




"i 








"i 


1 














3 


1772, . 














2 


2 


2 


i 








7 


1773, . 






i 






















1 


1774, . 














"i 




"i 


"i 








3 


1775, . 














1 


"3 


1 










5 


1776, . 














2 


3 


1 










6 


1777, . 














1 






"2 








3 


1778, . 












"i 


3 


"i 












5 


1779, . 












1 


1 


2 


"2 


"i 


"i 






8 


1780, . 


















... 






i 




1 


1781, 












1 


2 




3 










6 


1782, . 














2 


i 












3 


1783, . 
















4 


"3 


"i 








8 


1784, . 




















1 








1 


1785, 
















3 




1 








4 


1786, 
















1 




1 








2 


1787, 












"i 




3 


"i 


1 








6 


1788, 










2 








1 


1 








4 


1789, 












2 


"i 


6 


1 










10 


1790, 












1 


2 


2 












5 


1791, 










1 




1 














2 


1792, 














2 


"i 


i 










4 


1793, 














1 


2 












3 


1794, 










i 


3 






"i 










5 


1795, 


















3 










3 


1796, 


















1 










1 


1797, 












i 


i 


2 




"i 








5 


1798, 












1 


4 


4 




1 








10 


1799, 














1 


2 








i 




4 


1800, 










i 


i 








"2 






... 


4 


1801, 












1 
















1 


1802, 














i 


i 


i 








... 


3 


1803, 










i 






2 












3 


1804, 














i 


1 


2 










4 


1805, 
















2 


2 










4 


1806, 
















3 


2 










5 


1807, 










"i 






2 


2 










5 


1808, 












4 




5 


1 


i 








11 


1809, 












2 


"i 


1 


5 










9 


1810, 


















3 


i 








4 


1811, 












2 


2 




1 










5 


1812, 














1 




3 










4 


1813, 












1 


1 


4 












6 


1814, 
















2 












2 


1815, 












2 


2 




i 










5 


1816, 






"i 






1 


1 


3 


1 










7 


1817, 






1 






2 


3 


2 


2 










10 


1818, 














2 


2 




2 








7 


1819, 
1820, 












"5 




2 
1 


2 










3 

8 



164 



Mil ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 
Table XXXVI. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1821, . 










2 




2 


2 










6 


1822, . 








"i 


2 


2 


3 


5 














13 


1823, . 












' 1 


2 


1 














4 


1824, . 
















1 


2 


i 










4 


1825, . 




i 






1 




"3 


1 




3 










10 


1826, . 










1 


"i 


1 


2 


"i 












6 


1827, . 




2 








1 




4 














8 


1828, . 












1 




3 


"5 


2 










11 


1829, . 














5 


4 














9 


1830, . 




... 






"i 




2 


1 


"i 






1 




6 


1831, . 












1 


1 


2 


8 










12 


1832, 














4 


1 






"i 








6 


1833, 










"2 


"2 


1 


2 














8 


1834, 














1 
















1 


1835, 














4 


"i 


"3 












8 


1836, 










'2 




1 


2 




"i 










6 


1837, 






"i 






"3 




5 


"3 




i 








13 


1838, 














"i 


3 














4 


1839, 
















2 


"i 


"3 










6 


1840, 












"i 


"i 


1 














3 


1841, 




1 




1 






2 






1 










5 


1842, 












"3 


1 




1 


1 










6 


1843, 








"i 








"3 


1 












5 


1844, 














"2 
















2 


1845, 












"i 


1 


"i 


2 












5 


1846, 












1 


6 


2 


3 












12 


1847, 












1 


1 


2 




"1 










5 


1848, 














3 
















3 


1849, 














2 


4 


"5 












11 


1850, 












1 




1 








1 




3 


1851, 










1 








1 










2 


1852, 




"i 










"7 


3 


2 












14 


1853, 




2 






i 


i 


3 
















7 


1854, 




1 


i 






6 




i 














9 


1855, 














"2 


3 


i 












6 


1856, 












"i 




1 


1 


"i 










4 


1857, 










"i 


1 




2 


2 


1 










7 


1858, 














"4 


1 


1 












6 


1859, 














2 
















2 


1860, 












2 


3 


"i 


... 




"2 








8 


1861, 
















5 






1 








6 


1862, 




"i 








i 








2 










4 


1863, 




... 


"i 




"i 




"i 


i 






"i 








5 


1864, 












"i 


3 
















4 


1865, 
















"2 














2 


1866, 
















2 


"2 












4 


1867, 












"3 


2 


2 


1 


"2 










10 


1868, 






"i 




"i 


2 


2 




3 


2 






1 




12 


1869, 










1 




1 


i 




1 










4 


1870, 














1 


1 


i 












3 


1871, 










1 




3 


4 


1 












9 


1872, 




... 






1 


"4 


2 


4 


3 


"4 


"2 








20 


1873, 




... 




i 






1 


4 


2 


1 


2 








11 


1874, 












"i 


3 


5 


4 












14 


1875, 












2 




2 


1 


"i 










6 


1876, 












1 


2 


2 




1 






1 




7 


1877, 














3 


3 


4 












10 


1878, 












'2 


1 


1 


3 












8 


1879, 














4 


1 


3 


"i 










9 


1880, 




... 


... 


"i 






5 


5 


1 


... 










12 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 
Table XXXVI. — continued. 



165 



Year. 



1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 

1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 

Totals, 
1770-1896, 

Means, 



Jan. 



1 
1 

15 
0-12 



Feb. 



1 
2 

10 
0-08 



Mar. 



11 



0-09 



April. 



1 

1 

31 

0-24 



May. 



103 



0-81 



June. 



170 



1-34 



July. 



233 



1'83 



Aug. 



1 

2 
2 
3 

i 

2 

3 
1 

2 
1 
2 
2 
5 
1 

154 



1-21 



Sept. 



1 

59 

0-46 



Oct. 



18 



0-14 



Nov. 



7 
0-05 



Dec. 



7 
0-05 



Year. 



15 
13 
15 

4 
11 

7 
5 
9 

7 

5 

5 

13 

15 

16 

4 

818 



6-44 



Decennial Means in Days. 



1771-80, 

1781-90, 

1791-1800, 

1801-10, 

1811-20, 

1821-30, 

1831-40, 

1841-50, 

1851-60, 

1861-70, 

1871-80, 

1881-90, 





o-i 


o-i 




0-2 


0-3 
0-5 


1-2 

0-7 


1-1 
2 


0-7 
0-9 


0-5 
0-6 


o-i 


o-i 












0-3 


0-5 


1-0 


11 


0-6 


0-4 




o-i 












0-2 


07 


0-3 


1-7 


1-8 


0-2 










o-i 


0-2 






1-3 


1-2 


1-6 


1-1 


0-2 










0-3 




o-i 


0-5 


0-8 


1-6 


2-4 


l-l 


0-6 




o-i 


0-2 






o-i 




0-4 


07 


1-4 


1-9 


1-5 


0-4 


0-2 




O'I 




o-i 




0-2 




0-7 


1-8 


1-3 


1-2 


0-3 




o-i 






0-4 


O'i 




0-3 


1-1 


2 1 


1-2 


0-8 


0-2 


0-2 




o-i 




o-i 


0-2 




0-3 


0-7 


1-0 


1-4 


0-7 


0-7 


0-2 


o-i 










0-2 


0-2 


1-0 


2-4 


31 


2-2 


0-8 


0*4 


o-i 


0-2 


• 


0-2 




0-5 


0-5 


1-2 


1-3 


26 


1-5 


0-8 


0-6 


o-i 


o-i 



4-2 
4-9 
4-0 
4-9 
57 
77 
67 
57 
6-5 
5-4 
10-6 
9-4 



166 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXVII. 



Diurnal Distribution of Thunderstorms. 









Number in Houk ending. 




A.M. 


P.M. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


I 

7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


Noon. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 
1 

3 

1 
1 
3 

1 


10 


11 


Mid- 
night. 


January, 
February, 
March, . 
April, . 
May, 
June, . 
July, . 
August, 
September, . 
October, 
November, . 
December, 




1 

2. 

i" 


1 


1 
2* 


2 

1 


i" 


1 

1 
1 


1 

1 

1 


1 
1 


2 

2 

1 
1 


2 
3 

1 
2 


1 

i" 

1 

5 

2 

1 


2 

1 
1 

5 
6 
8 
5 
1 
1 

"i 


i" 

6 
3 

7 
1 


3 
2 
8 
9 
14 
6 
5 
1 


3 
4 
7 
7 
11 
6 
3 


1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
11 

6 
1 
1 

1 


i 

2 
1 
4 

4 

8 

1 


1 

1 

3 
5 
3 

1 


1 

3 
3 

5 
2 

i" 


1 
1 
2 

4 

2 
1 

1 


3 

1 

1 


1 


1 

"i 

... 

... 
... 


Year, . 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


2 


6 


8 


11 


31 


18 


48 


41 


29 


21 


14 


15 


12 


10 


5 


1 


5 


Lightning without Thunder. 


January 

Februar. 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

Septemi 

October 

Novemr. 

Decemb 


T, 

ler, 

er, 
er, 












1 


1 


1 










... 


... 


2* 
2 


i" 
1 






1 
1 


2 

1 
2 

1 


1 

1 
1 

i' 


1 

2 

1 

1 
1 

i 


1 

2 

1 

2 
1 
1 


3 
4 
2 

2 

2 




1 

•• 

i 


Year, . 










1 


1 


1 .. 








... 






1 


6 


4 


7 


8 


13 


2 


I 










| 




| 












1 









THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



167 



Table XXXVIII. 



















Day& 


• with Snow. 
























a 


J3 


c3 




c6 







c5 
to 




CD 




a 

e3 





J2 




£ 








cd 

CD 


c3 






P-B 


fe 


5 


<i 


S 


O 


te 


a 


£ 


% 




A 


Sn 


5 


1 


3 





te 


Q 
7 


22 


18 


1770 


5 


2 


ii 


4 


2 






5 


29 


24 


1820 


7 


2 


1771 


7 


1 


8 


3 






"1 




20 


35 


1821 


5 


2 


2 


1 


1 




'4 


3 


18 


20 


1772 


12 


14 


7 


1 










34 


10 


1822 


2 


2 


7 


2 










13 


29 


1773 


3 


3 




2 


2 




"1 


3 


14 


20 


1823 


15 


8 


4 


2 








4 


33 


15 


1774 


10 


4 


2 








4 


4 


24 


22 


1824 




1 


8 


2 




2 


6 


4 


23 


25 


1775 


7 


3 


4 








2 




16 


22 


1825 


2 


3 


5 


2 


"i 




4 


7 


24 


26 


1776 


11 


3 


4 


2 






2 


4 


26 


28 


1826 


6 


4 


2 


3 






3 


1 


19 


22 


1777 


2 


8 


7 


5 






1 


4 


27 


14 


1827 




8 


7 


3 






3 




21 


21 


1778 


2 


5 


2 










1 


10 


9 


1828 


9 


3 


5 


1 






2 




20 


17 


1779 


2 




1 


2 


"3 




"3 


5 


16 


29 


1829 


8 


4 




3 






1 


"5 


21 


31 


1780 


8 


6 


2 


5 






6 


1 


28 


15 


1830 


10 


8 


5 


2 








1 


26 


16 


1781 


5 




2 




"i 


1 


2 


1 


12 


43 


1831 


3 


9 


3 








3 




18 


7 


1782 


11 


6 


15 


3 


4 


3 


3 


2 


47 


33 


1832 


3 




1 










"3 


7 


15 


1783 


7 


6 


10 


1 


1 




1 


6 


32 


27 


1833 


3 


1 


6 


2 






2 


2 


16 


12 


1784 


5 


7 


6 


2 




i 




5 


26 


27 


1834 


1 


3 


3 


1 










8 


9 


1785 


7 


9 


4 




1 






5 


26 


32 


1835 


3 


2 


2 


2 








"i 


10 


14 


1786 


4 


12 


10 


1 








5 


32 


10 


1836 


2 


3 


7 


1 




2 


2 


4 


21 


49 


1787 


4 




1 










8 


13 


18 


1837 


8 


9 


12 


10 


2 






1 


42 


42 


1788 




"V 


2 


1 






1 


6 


17 


28 


1838 


13 


12 


8 


5 


3 


2 


2 


1 


46 


32 


1789 


9 


2 


8 


2 


... 








21 


9 


1839 


7 


6 


10 


2 


2 




1 


2 


30 


17 


1790 


4 


1 




4 






1 


3 


13 


9 


1840 


6 


6 


2 










1 


15 


18 


1791 


5 














5 


10 


18 


1841 


11 


6 










3 


2 


22 


23 


1792 


4 


4 


5 








1 


3 


17 


17 


1842 


11 


4 


3 






2 


3 


2 


25 


25 


1793 


2 


1 


7 


3 










13 


5 


1843 


4 


9 


1 


4 




1 






19 


24 


1794 


5 












1 


4 


10 


36 


1844 


3 


13 


7 








... 


"5 


28 


19 


1795 


10 


14 


6 




i 




4 




35 


7 


1845 


2 


3 


9 










2 


16 


6 


1796 


1 




2 










"5 


8 


9 


1846 




1 


3 








"i 


6 


11 


13 


1797 


1 


"i 


2 








3 


2 


9 


15 


1847 


2 


2 


1 


"i 








1 


7 


7 


1798 


1 


6 


3 










3 


13 


31 


1848 


4 


2 










1 




7 


13 


1799 


3 


13 


8 


4 








5 


33 


27 


1849 


4 


2 


2 


4 






1 


4 


17 


17 


1800 


13 


6 


3 








2 


4 


28 


30 


1850 


8 


1 


2 




1 








12 


2 


1801 


4 


7 


8 


5 






3 


8 


35 


33 


1851 


1 








1 




2 




4 


7 


1802 


4 


7 


4 


2 


"5 




1 


1 


24 


17 


1852 


4 


"1 








"1 






6 


22 


1803 


5 


5 


3 


1 


1 




2 


7 


24 


35 


1853 


3 


9 


"7 




2 






2 


23 


10 


1804 


5 


4 


11 


6 






1 


6 


33 


17 


1854 


6 


2 










"i 


4 


13 


36 


1805 


2 


4 


1 


2 


1 






4 


14 


25 


1855 


5 


14 


"8 


1 


'3 






2 


33 


4 


1806 


10 


5 


3 


3 






1 




22 


21 


1856 


1 


1 












1 


3 


12 


1807 


2 


6 


8 


4 






7 


2 


29 


34 


1857 


5 


3 


"3 












11 


13 


1808 


9 


3 


6 


7 




i 




7 


33 


34 


1858 


1 


2 


9 


1 






i 




14 


14 


1809 


10 


7 


3 


5 


"i 






4 


30 


19 


1859 


2 


2 


2 


7 








4 


17 


20 


1810 


5 


4 


5 




1 




3 


2 


20 


20 


1860 


6 


7 


2 


1 






2 


5 


23 


19 


1811 


8 


4 




3 








5 


20 


35 


1861 


3 


4 


3 




2 




5 


1 


18 


17 


1812 


5 


3 


16 


4 


"2 




"i 


1 


32 


14 


1862 


1 


a 


7 


"i 






4 


1 


16 


11 


1813 


2 


2 


3 


5 


• •■ 




2 


1 


15 


35 


1863 


1 


2 


2 


1 








2 


8 


19 


1814 


10 


9 


13 








4 


9 


45 


30 


1864 


1 


11 


5 










4 


21 


24 


1815 


12 




4 


1 






2 


7 


26 


40 


1865 


9 


10 


1 










1 


21 


8 


1816 


5 


"a 


10 


6 


2 




5 


4 


40 


23 


1866 


1 


2 


3 




"i 






2 


9 


30 


1817 


4 


3 


5 


2 




2 


4 


6 


26 


46 


1867 


11 


4 


13 










3 


31 


13 


1818 


9 


9 


11 


5 








1 


35 


23 


1868 


5 


2 


2 


"i 






"i 




11 


15 


1819 


8 


7 


6 


1 




3 


3 


9 


37 


30 


1869 




3 


11 








1 




15 


20 


VOL. 


XXJS 


:tx. 


PA] 


ST 


L (1 


w. 


6). 
























2 c 







168 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXVIII. — continued. 









U 


c 


>> 1 +; 


>" 


d 


w 


■4-3 








U 


u 


>» 


4-5 


> 




^ 






1-5 




2 


a, 
«1 


C3 | O 

S O 


o 




1* 


a 

£ 






PR 


s 


< 


2 


o 


o 


s 

Q 

4 


14 


37 


1870 


2 


12 


5 








4 


9 


32 


27 


1885 


1 


3 


4 




1871 


4 


3 


3 


4 






2 


1 


17 


12 


1886 


13 


11 


8 


1 








4 


37 


18 


1872 


1 




7 


1 








2 


11 


11 


1887 


7 




5 


2 






1 


4 


19 


27 


1873 


2 


4 


3 






i 




2 


12 


9 


1888 


2 


6 


10 


4 




1 


1 


1 


25 


12 


1874 


3 




2 


i 






2 


13 


21 


26 


1889 




6 


3 










4 


13 


14 


1875 


5 


4 


2 








4 


5 


20 


37 
























1876 


5 


9 


9 


4 


1 




3 


5 


36 


18 


1890 




4 


3 


3 




1 


2 


5 


18 


20 


1877 


4 


2 


3 


1 








3 


13 


14 


1891 






9 


2 


i 






5 


17 


34 


1878 


3 


1 


6 


1 




l 




7 


19 


34 


1892 


6 


8 


10 


5 




i 


i 


2 


33 


16 


1879 


5 


8 


9 


3 


i 




2 


3 


31 


8 


1893 
1894 
1895 


5 

8 
11 


5 
3 

7 


1 
1 

3 


1 


2 


4 


2 


3 
1 

5 


17 
15 
30 


19 
28 
16 


1880 


3 










2 


3 


4 


12 


31 


1896 


1 


1 


5 






1 




2 


10 




1881 


7 


7 


8 








1 


2 


25 


7 


Totals. 






















1882 




1 


3 








2 


8 


14 


32 


1770-1896 


623 


570 


611 


207 


57 


33 


173 


390 


2664 




1883 


3 


3 


14 




2 




5 




27 


15 
























1884 


5 


1 


3 




1 




1 


2 


13 


13 


Means. 


4-9 


4-5 


4-8 


1-6 


•4 


•3 


1-4 


3-1 


21'0 


... 



Decennial Means. 



1770-79 


6-4 


4-7 


5-7 


2-0 


•5 




2-0 


2-2 


21-5 


1830-39 


4-9 


5-1 


5 4 


2 '3 


•7 


•4 


1-0 


1-5 


21-3 


1780-89 


5-6 


5-0 


58 


1-4 


•7 


•5 


•8 


4-1 


23-9 


1840-49 


49 


4-3 


2-8 


•9 


•1 


•3 


•9 


2-2 


16-4 


1790-99 


4-5 


4-5 


3-6 


•7 


•1 




1-1 


3-1 


17-6 


1850-59 


3-4 


41 


3-1 


1-0 


•6 


•1 


•6 


1-8 


147 


1800-09 


56 


5-2 


5-2 


3-5 


•9 


•1 


1-8 


4-1 


26-4 


1860-69 


3-4 


5 2 


5 2 


•3 


•3 




1-5 


2-3 


182 


1810-19 


7-0 


4-7 


7 3 


2-8 


•4 


•5 


2-1 


5-0 


29-8 


1870-79 


3-5 


3-1 


4-4 


1-5 


•2 


•4 


1-6 


4 5 


19-2 


1820-29 


57 


4-3 


4-5 


2-1 


•2 


•2 


2-3 


2-5 


21-8 


1880-89 


3-8 


4-2 


6 1 


1-0 


•5 


•2 


1-3 


3-4 


20-5 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



169 



Table XXXIX. 



Showing Date of First and Last Snow by Winters. 



Year, Winter of. 



1770-71, 
1771-72, 
1772-73, 
1773-74, 
1774-75, 
1775-76, 
1776-77, 
1777-78, 
1778-79, 
1779-80, 
1780-81, 
1781-82, 
1782-83, 
1783-84, 
1784-85, 
1785-86, 
1786-87, 
1787-88, 
1788-89, 
1789-90, 
1790-91, 
1791-92, 
, 1792-93, 
1793-94, 
1794-95, 
1795-96, 
1796-97, 
1797-98, 
1798-99, 
1799-00, 
1800-01, 
1801-02, 
1802-03, 
1803-(»4, 
1804-05, 
1805-06, 
1806-07, 
1807-08, 
1808-09, 
1809-10, 
1810-11, 
1811-12, 
1812-13, 
1813-14, 
1814-15, 
1815-16, 
1816-17, 
1817-18, 
1818-19, 
1819-20, 
1820-21, 
1821-22, 
1822-23, 
1823-24, 
1824-25, 
1825-26, 
1826-27, 
1827-28, 
1828-29, 
1829-30, 
1830-31, 
1831-32, 
1832-33, 
1833-34, 



Earliest Snow. 



December 
November 
January 9, 
November 



December 
November 

October 

November 

October 

December 



November 

January 1, 

November 

December 

November 

January 23 

November 

December 
November 
December 

November 



December 
November 

October 

December 

November 

December 

November 



11 

6 
1773 
22 
24 
12 
17 
27 
30 
17 

6 
30 
20 
13 
30 

1 
17 

7 

26 

1790 

30 

3 

20 

1794 

30 

18 

4 
19 
25 
18 

4 
21 
12 
14 
27 

1 
29 
13 
14 
10 

6 

2 
18 
17 

9 
16 



October 

December 

October 

December 

November 

January 1, 1823 

December 11 

October 

November 



December 
November 
December 
November 



Latest Snow. 



April 

May 
March 

i » 
April 

March 
May 
April 
May 



April 

May 

April 

March 

April 



March 

April 
January 
May 
March 



April 
March 
April 
May 

April 

May 

April 



May 

April 

May 

April 

March 

April 

May 

April 



May- 
April 



March 

» > 
April 



16 
19 

5 

5 

29 

13 

25 

24 

3 

7 

8 

5 

6 

29 

17 

30 

5 

4 

2 

13 

13 

31 

18 

30 

8 

25 

7 

30 

8 

12 

12 

19 

2 

24 

1 

16 

16 

22 

30 

6 

9 

7 

28 

23 

14 

11 

16 

11 

21 

7 

26 

11 

22 

10 

27 

28 

25 

5 

30 

3 

25 

24 

16 

28 



Year, Winter of. 



1834-35, 
1835-36, 
1836-37, 
1837-38, 
1838-39, 
1839-40, 
1840-41, 
1841-42, 
1842-43, 
1843-44, 
1844-45, 
1845-46, 
1846-47, 
1847-48, 
1848-49, 
1849-50, 
1850-51, 
1851-52, 
1852-53, 
1853-54, 
1854-55, 
1855-56, 
1856-57, 
1857-58, 
1858-59, 
1859-60, 
1860-61, 
1861-62, 
1862-63, 
1863-64, 
1864-65, 
1865-66, 
1866-67, 
1867-68, 
1868-69, 
1869-70, 
1870-71, 
1871-72, 
1872-73, 
1873-74, 
1874-75, 
1875-76, 
1876-77, 
1877-78, 
1878-79, 
1879-80, 
1880-81, 
1881-82, 
1882-83, 
1883-84. 
1884-85, 
1885-86, 
1886-87, 
1887-88, 
1888-89, 
1889-90, 
1890-91, 
1891-92, 
1892-93, 
1893-94, 
1894-95, 
1895-96, 
1896-97, 



Earliest Snow. 



January 11, 

December 

October 

December 

October 

November 

December 

November 

October 

December 

November 
December 
November 

January 31 

November 

October 

December 

November 

December 

January31, 
November 
December 
November 



December 



November 



December 

October 

November 



December 

October 

November 

October 

November 



December 

>i 

November 

October 

December 

October 

December 

October 

November 

December 

October 



1835 

6 

27 

6 

12 

28 

15 

13 

26 

17 

9 

3 

28 

29 

8 

6 

1851 

19 

8 

13 

24 

5 

29 

1858 

19 

13 

18 

15 

9 

3 

16 

30 

6 

2 

6 

28 

10 

16 

13 

22 

11 

25 

8 

7 

29 

22 

26 

1 

8 

9 

30 

9 

1 

14 

4 

11 

26 

10 

23 

13 

29 

24 

10 



Latest Snow. 



April 

>> 
May 



16 

2 

10 

17 

14 

March 24 

February 10 

March 26 



April 
March 



12 

24 

17 

21 

April 1 

February 24 

April 18 

May 4 

3 

February 3 

May 10 

January 1 7 

May 10 

February 19 

March 24 

April 3 

21 



May 
April 

March 

May 
March 
April 
March 

i] 

April 

March 

April 

March 

May 

April 



January 
March 



April 



March 
April 
May 
April 

May 
March 

>» 
April 



14 

8 

26 

8 

2 

22 

9 

27 

26 

20 

21 

12 

4 

13 

1 

10 

1 

1 

17 

29 

21 



10 
6 
22 
21 
13 
16 
28 
16 
20 
5 
27 
14 



170 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XXXIX. — continued. 
Decennial Values. 













Earliest Snow. 


Latest Snow. 


Winter. 














Date. 


Difference from 
Mean Days. 


Date. 




Difference from 
Mean Days. 


1770-71 to 1779-80, .... 


November 30 


6 


April 


11 


1 


1780-81 , 


, 1789-90, 








21 


3 




21 


11 


1790-91 , 


, 1799-00, 








December 7 


13 


March 


25 


16 


1800-01 , 


, 1809-10, 








November 17 


7 


April 


30 


20 


1810-11 , 


, 1819-20, 








12 


12 




18 


8 


1820-21 , 


, 1829-30, 








21 


3 




22 


12 


1830-31 , 


, 1839-40, 








28 


4 




17 


7 


1840-41 , 


, 1849-50, 








18 


6 


March 


25 


16 


1850-51 , 


, 1859-60, 








December 11 


17 




28 


13 


1860-61 , 


, 1869-70, 








November 28 


4 


April 


6 


4 


1870-71 , 


, 1879-80, 








16 


8 




1 


9 


1880-81 , 


, 1889-90, 








14 


10 




14 


4 


Mean date, . 








24 




>i 


10 





Note. — Black — days later than average. Italic — days earlier than average. 



Table XL. 
Days with Hail. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1770, . 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 
















6 


1771, . 




1 








• *» 






... 




... 


"i 


... 


2 


1772, . 








2 


"i 


• • . 




"i 












4 


1773, . 






"i 




2 


2 




1 










"i 


7 


1774, . 






1 




3 




i 










"2 


1 


8 


1775, . 




i 


1 


4 


1 


i 
















8 


1776, . 






2 




2 


1 


"2 












... 


7 


1777, 








"i 




2 








"i 








4 


1778, 








• i . 


4 












"i 






5 


1779, 






"i 




2 


"i 


"i 












... 


5 


1780, 






... 


"i 


5 










"i 






... 


7 


1781, 












1 


1 


1 






2 




1 


6 


1782, 






3 




"3 


6 












"i 


1 


14 


1783, 






2 


' 4 










. . . 


"2 


"2 




2 


12 


1784, 




"i 


3 


3 


"4 






"i 


t. . 




2 


2 


7 


23 


1785, 








3 


1 
















3 


7 


1786, 




i 


"i 


2 


1 






"i 




"i 


i 




... 


8 


1787, 










1 


"2 


2 


1 












6 


1788, 










2 
















2 


4 


1789, 




• • . 




"3 


2 


















5 


1790, 




... 


"i 


1 


8 




i 


i 




i 




2 


"2 


17 


1791, 






3 






2 










1 


3 


1 


! ? 


1792, 






l 






5 




... 




"i 








7 


1793, 




"i 


l 


3 


2 


1 


"i 




i 




i 


"i 




12 


1794, 




*• • 


l 


2 


1 


2 








i 








7 


1795, 








2 


3 


4 


i 










"4 




14 


1796, 








3 


1 


1 


1 


"i 


.. . 




'2 


3 


i 


J3 


1797, 




... 








3 








i 








4 


1798, 




... 




i 
















i 




2 


1799, 




.*. 




1 


*2 




i 








2 


1 




7 


1800, 




... 


"i 


2 




i 




"i 




... 


... 




... 


5 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



171 



Table XL. — continued. 



Year. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Year. 



1801, 
1802, 
1803, 
1804, 
1805, 
1806, 
1807, 
1808, 
1809, 
1810, 

1811, 
1812, 
1813, 
1814, 
1815, 
1816, 
1817, 
1818, 
1819, 
1820, 

1821, 
1822, 
1823, 
1824, 
1825, 
1826, 
1827, 
1828, 
1829, 
1830, 

1831, 
1832, 
1833, 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837, 
1838, 
1839, 
1840, 

1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 

1851, 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1859, 
1860, 



14 
14 
19 

9 
15 

9 
18 
14 
15 
15 

11 

15 

8 

6 

10 

15 

10 

8 

19 

11 

26 
19 

18 
32 
15 
20 
11 
12 
20 
7 

2 

3 
14 

9 
14 
15 
15 

4 



11 
9 

15 
2 



4 
11 
7 
9 
3 
2 
4 
1 
6 



172 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XL. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1861, . 




1 




1 


1 




1 








2 




6 


1862, . 




... 


1 




1 




... 


*• t 




... 


"i 




i 


4 


1863, . 






1 


"i 


3 


"i 


... 


1 






1 






8 


1864, . 






1 


1 


2 


■ •• 




1 










"i 


6 


1865, . 




i 


<•• 


1 








• •• 


"i 










3 


1866, . 




l 


1 




2 


"3 




■ ■■ 




"i 


•'■■ 




"i 


9 


1867, . 




l 






1 


• • • 














• •• 


2 


1868, 




l 


*•• 




2 


1 












i 




5 


1869, . 




• * • 


• •• 


"i 




1 




• •• 






*• . 


»•• 


• • . 


2 


1870, 






... 




"i 


... 




... 


"i 




... 






2 


1871, 




l 






1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 






7 


1872, 




Ml 


, 




1 


• ** 




*•• 


1 




1 






3 


1873, 






• • « 




2 


• •• 




1 




i 


1 


"3 


"i 


9 


1874, 




• t • 




*2 


5 


1 


"i 




"i 




1 




2 


13 


1875, 




*>• 


i 




1 




1 


.*. 








"3 


1 


7 


1876, 




• * * 


l 




2 


"2 




• •• 




"2 




2 


3 


12 


1877, 








i 






"i 




"i 


*•* 


"2 


1 




6 


1878, 




"i 




l 


i 


"3 


2 


• •• 


• ■• 




1 




"i 


10 


1879, 




• • t 




2 




2 




• 1* 












4 


1880, 




... 


... 






1 


"2 


... 


"i 


"2 


"3 


1 




10 


1881, 




l 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 




2 




1 


16 


1882, 




l 




3 




3 


1 


2 








i 




11 


1883, 






2 


5 


i 


1 


1 








"3 




"2 


15 


1884, 




• t • 


1 


1 


3 


4 






"i 


"i 






2 


13 


1885, 




2 


1 


1 




5 




... 






"2 




1 


12 


1886, 










"2 


1 






• • • 


"i 


• • • 






4 


1887, 








"i 




1 




"i 


• •• 




... 




"2 


5 


1888, 






i 


2 


"i 












3 


i 


• *. 


8 


1889, 






3 




4 






2 


"2 


"3 


2 






16 


1890, 








"2 


7 


"2 




2 


1 


1 


1 




"i 


17 


1891, 






1 


3 


1 


4 




3 


2 








1 


15 


1892, 




4 


4 


4 


4 




2 




1 


"i 


"i 






21 


1893, 




2 


1 




1 








1 


1 






"i 


7 


1894, 




6 


3 


"i 


1 


"7 


"i 


'2 




• t ■ 


"i 






22 


1895, 




1 




3 


3 


2 


4 


1 






2 


"2 




18 


1896, 








3 


3 








"i 




2 






9 


Totals, . 


72 


98 


209 


274 


176 


50 


36 


30 


39 


71 


85 


86 


1226 


Means, 




























1770-1896, 


0-6 


0'8 


1-6 


2-2 


1-4 


0-4 


0-3 


0-2 


0-3 


0-6 


07 


0-7 


9-7 



Decennial Means. 



1771-80, 


0-2 


0-6 


0'8 


20 


07 


0-4 


0-2 




0-2 


o-i 


0-3 


0-2 


5-7 


1781-90, 


0-2 


1-0 


1-6 


22 


0-9 


0-4 


0-5 




0-4 


07 


0-5 


0'8 


9-2 


1791-00, 


o-i 


0-7 


1-4 


0-9 


1-9 


0-4 


02 


o-i 


0-3 


0-6 


1-3 


0-2 


8i 


1801-10, 


1-3 


0-6 


1-8 


49 


2-2 


0-3 


0-2 


0-3 


0-5 


0-2 


1-1 


0-8 


14-2 


1811-20, 


0-4 


l'l 


2-5 


26 


1-7 


0-4 


o-i 


0-2 


0-3 


0-7 


0-7 


0-6 


11'3 


1821-30, 


1'4 


1-4 


40 


3-7 


2-2 


1-0 


o-i 


0-4 


0-5 


0-4 


1-5 


1-4 


18-0 


1831-40, 


0-6 


0-6 


2-6 


27 


1-1 




0-2 


o-i 


o-i 


0-3 


0-4 


0-5 


9-2 


1841-50, 


0-2 


0-8 


1-3 


1-5 


0-5 


o-i 


o-i 


o-i 




6 


0-4 


0-5 


6-1 


1851-60, 


0-4 


0-2 


0-6 


1-0 


15 


0-2 




o-i 


o-i 


0-4 


0-6 


0-4 


5-5 


1861-70, 


0-4 


0-5 


0-4 


13 


0-7 




0-3 


0-2 


0-1 


0-2 


0-3 


0-3 


47 


1871-80, 


0-2 


0-2 


0-6 


1-3 


1-0 


07 


0-2 


0-5 


0-6 


1-0 


1-0 


0-8 


81 


1881-90, 


0-4 


1-1 


1-7 


19 


1-8 


0-4 


0-9 


0'5 


0-6 


13 


0-2 


0-9 


117 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



173 



Table XLL 



Days ivith Gales. 



Year. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Year. 



1770, 
1771, 
1772, 
1773, 
1774, 
1775, 
1776, 
1777, 
1778, 
1779, 
1780, 

1781, 
1782, 
1783, 
1784, 
1785, 
1786, 
1787, 
1788, 
1789, 
1790, 

1791, 
1792, 
1793, 
1794, 
1795, 
1796, 
1797, 
1798, 
1799, 
1800, 

1801, 
1802, 
1803, 
1804, 
1805, 
1806, 
1807, 
1808, 
1809, 
1810, 

1811, 
1812, 
1813, 
1814, 
1815, 
1816, 
1817, 
1818, 
1819, 
1820, 



11 
1 
7 
1 
3 
3 
6 
1 

2 
5 
2 
5 

4 

7 



1 
3 

13 
1 
1 
6 
1 
6 
5 
7 
2 
5 

5 
3 
1 
2 
7 
5 
1 



7 
5 
6 
1 
5 
6 
7 

14 
10 



5 

11 

11 

10 

1 

2 

5 

3 

2 
1 
3 
3 

3 
3 

4 
4 

2 
4 
4 
3 
2 
1 
3 
7 
4 



4 
5 
4 
1 
9 
5 
12 
16 
3 
2 



2 

10 

5 

3 
2 
2 



1 
2 
7 
5 
1 
10 



1 

4 
3 
1 
4 
2 
4 

*3 
10 



10 
3 
5 
2 
6 
4 
1 
1 
6 
3 
1 

3 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 

"4 
1 

5 
9 
3 
2 
3 
2 
1 

4 
2 

5 
3 
4 
1 
1 
5 
3 
2 



5 
6 
1 
6 
12 
12 
5 
9 
3 
3 



53 
43 
35 
29 
37 
40 
33 
18 
25 
34 
22 

22 
23 
25 
18 
12 
19 
15 
15 
12 
30 

26 
32 
21 
26 
25 
18 
17 
20 
33 
40 

32 
22 
24 
8 
24 
28 
23 
30 
30 
18 

42 
34 
45 
37 
57 
67 
56 
72 
31 
44 



174 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XLI. — continued. 



Year. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Year. 



1821, 
1822, 
1823, 
1824, 
1825, 
1826, 
1827, 
1828, 
1829, 
1830, 

1831, 
1832, 
1833, 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837, 
1838, 
1839, 
1840, 



4 
1 
4 
9 
5 
12 
8 
2 
3 



1 

1 
11 
1 
4 
7 
1 

11 
12 



5 
3 
4 
8 
2 
5 
2 
3 

3 
4 
5 
3 
3 
5 
7 
4 
10 
4 



4 

10 
4 
1 
5 
7 

12 
5 

10 

5 
5 
1 
9 
5 
1 
4 
3 
6 
2 



1 
1 
1 

"i 

2 
1 

"3 
2 

5 
1 
7 
2 
2 

"l 
1 
3 
3 



2 
5 
4 
1 
3 
1 
6 
2 

3 
3 
5 

10 
2 
3 
3 

11 
2 
1 



3 
5 
9 

1 
1 
8 
12 
4 



4 

4 

12 



36 
42 
30 
32 
36 
36 
51 
46 
24 
33 

25 

28 
47 
40 
21 
35 
38 
47 
56 
43 



1841, 
1842, 
1843, 

1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 

1851, 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1859, 
1860, 

1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 

1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 



7 
4 
8 
3 
4 
2 
2 
1 
11 
1 

4 
11 

5 
6 

1 

"2 
2 



3 
5 

11 
2 
1 

2 
6 

4 



2 
9 
4 
2 
1 
5 
1 
6 
9 
9 

4 
4 
1 
3 

2 

1 
2 
2 



10 
12 



53 
47 
35 
17 
36 
13 
34 
23 
36 
23 

34 
23 
20 
25 
17 

5 
16 

7 

19 
10 

22 
22 
30 
23 
12 
3 
26 
36 
23 



16 
27 
20 
17 
19 
16 
35 
21 
30 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



175 











Table XLI. — continued. 












Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1 1881, . 


1 


4 


7 


1 


2 


6 


4 


7 


2 


6 


11 


6 


57 


1882, . 


6 


2 


9 


2 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


8 


43 


1883, . 


8 


8 


4 


5 


5 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


10 


4 


53 


1884, . 


10 


9 


7 




4 


3 


2 




8 


9 


8 


9 


69 


1885, . 


7 


11 


4 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


8 


3 


2 


8 


55 


1886, , 


3 




5 


1 




1 






4 


4 


2 


2 


22 


1887, . 


8 


2 


2 




1 






3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


24 


1888, . 


2 


1 


6 


i 


2 


i 


. 


1 




3 


9 


2 


28 


1889, . 


8 


5 


2 










1 


1 


1 


2 


5 


25 


1890, . 


12 


3 


4 


3 


i 


3 


1 


2 


4 


3 


3 




39 


1891, . 


7 


2 


6 




1 


1 






7 


2 


1 


4 


31 


1892, . 


3 


1 




1 




1 


1 






1 


3 


2 


13 


1893, . 




2 


4 




i 






1 




3 


4 


5 


20 


1894, . 


10 


7 


4 
















1 


3 


25 


1895, . 






1 


2 






1 




1 




3 


3 


11 


1896, . 


1 




2 










2 


1 


1 




1 


8 


Totals, 




























1770-1896, 


578 


471 


414 


233 


152 


131 


107 


163 


251 


356 


394 


499 


3749 


Means, . 


4-5 


3-7 


3 3 


1-8 


1-2 


1-0 


0-8 


1-3 


2-0 


2-8 


3-1 


3-9 


29-4 



Decennial Means. 



1771-80, 


4-2 


49 


3-6 


2 3 


2-4 


1-0 


1-6 


1-2 


1-5 


2-4 


3'3 


3-2 


31-7 


1781-90, 


29 


23 


1-9 


07 


07 


0-5 


1-0 


0-8 


1-8 


2-0 


2-4 


2-1 


19-1 


1791-00, 


47 


3-0 


l'S 


2-9 


0-6 


0-4 


0-6 


1-1 


1-1 


3-2 


3-8 


3-1 


25-8 


1801-10, 


3 6 


3-5 


2'0 


1-7 


1-7 


1-2 


0-5 


0-8 


1-0 


2-3 


2'0 


36 


23-9 


1811-20, 


6 9 


5-4 


6-1 


3 3 


19 


2-3 


1-0 


3-1 


3-9 


4*0 


4-4 


6-2 


48-5 


1821-30, 


5 4 


41 


58 


19 


0-8 


0-7 


0-5 


1-3 


3-0 


3-3 


4-9 


4-9 


36-6 


1831-40, 


49 


4-8 


4'1 


3-0 


15 


1-2 


1-4 


2-5 


2-7 


4-3 


3-5 


41 


36-0 


1841-50, 


43 


4-8 


3-7 


1-8 


9 


1-5 


0-6 


1-1 


1-8 


31 


3-0 


51 


31-7 


1851-60, 


3 9 


19 


1-8 


OS 


0-6 


07 


07 


OS 


0-7 


2-2 


1-1 


3-0 


17-6 


1861-70, 


3-4 


3 5 


1-5 


1'5 


0-6 


0-4 


0-6 


OS 


2-0 


2-2 


1-1 


3 5 


20-6 


1871-80, 


4-5 


2*4 


2-3 


1-5 


11 


0-7 


0-5 


0*9 


1-4 


2-1 


2-9 


3-6 


23-9 


1881-90, 


6 5 


4-5 


5 


1-6 


2-1 


1-9 


1-3 


2-1 


3-1 


3-5 


5-2 


4-7 


41-5 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2D 



176 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XLII. 



Days ivith Mint or Fog. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1770, . 


1 








4 


2 


4 


5 


3 








19 


1771, 








"i 




i 


2 


2 






2 


"i 






9 


1772, 








... 


"2 








2 




4 


5 






13 


1773, 














4 


i 


1 




1 




• . • 


i 


8 


1774, 






"i 


... 


"8 


"3 


5 






"3 


1 




4 




25 


1775, 






i 






3 




6 


i 




3 


i 


3 


*2 


20 


1776, 






i 






1 




2 


2 












6 


1777, 










i 




"i 








"2 




• • . 




4 


1778, 








... 


2 


i 


2 






i 


2 




3 


"i 


12 


1779, 






2 




3 






... 




4 




2 




• •> 


11 


1780, 






2 




2 


i 


"i 




i 


13 


i 


2 


"i 


1 


25 


1781, 












1 




4 


2 


2 








1 


10 ! 


1782, 














"1 










'2 






3 i 


1783, 






3 








1 


"4 


"4 


5 




1 


"i 




19 j 


1784, 






























... 


1785, 






2 








"i 








i 


"3 


"2 


2 


11 


1786, 






4 




i 


3 












7 






15 


1787, 






1 


i 














'2 


1 


i 


"2 


8 ' 


1788, 








1 


i 














1 




... 


3 


1789, 






"i 










6 


"i 




i 


1 






10 


1790, 






... 




















... 






1791, 










1 


3 




3 


1 












8 


1792, 






6 


2 
















"i 






9 


1793, 






1 


1 


"i 












"1 




'4 


3 


31 


1794, 






. . • 


2 


1 


















1 


4 


1795, 












i 


















1 


1796, 












2 














"i 




j 


1797, 






5 










"i 












i 


7 


1798, 
















1 














1 


1799, 














i 




"i 


"i 


4 


4 


4 




15 


1800, 






2 




"5 




3 


2 


2 


3 


5 


1 




"i 


24 


1801, 






1 






2 


















3 


1802, 
















i 


"i 










... 


2 


1803, 
















1 


1 












2 


1804, 










i 




4 














i 


6 


1805, 






' i 


i 






3 


"2 


"i 


"i 




"2 


"i 


1 


13 


1806, 










"3 


i 


7 




4 


1 


"i 






1 


18 


1807, 






2 




2 


1 


4 


9 




6 








6 


30 


1808, 








"5 


4 




2 


8 


6 




i'6 


"i 


"2 




38 


1809, 










6 




2 


2 


8 


2 


1 






"i 


22 


1810, 






2 




3 


i 




3 






5 


2 


i 


3 


20 


1811, 












1 


4 


3 


1 




5 


1 






15 


1812, 






2 


"i 












"2 






"3 


'3 


11 ! 


1813, 










1 


4 


"3 


i 


"i 












10 


1814, 










2 












i 


'2 




... 


5 


1815, 








2 




i 


4 


6 




i 


1 








15 


1816, 












7 


2 
















9 


1817, 
















*5 






"2 


"2 




.. . 


9 


1818, 






'2 




i 


i 


i 


2 








1 






8 


1819, 












1 






4 


i 








* . . 


6 


1820, 






"i 


"2 




1 


"2 


3 


3 




... 




... 


1 


16 











THE 


METEOROLOGY 


OF EDINBURGH. 








177 








Table XLII— 


continued. 












Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1821, . 




2 


1 


2 


2 






2 










9 


1822, . 




... 






1 




3 


"3 


2 


"3 


2 




'V 


21 


1823, . 




2 








"4 






2 


1 


2 


4 


2 


17 


1824, 








... 




3 


"e 




3 


1 


5 




1 


19 


1825, 








*2 


"2 


5 


1 


"3 


■ • • 


4 


... 




3 


20 


1826, 




"2 






2 


2 


2 




• • • 


2 


3 


4 


6 


23 


1827, 




4 






1 


1 


1 


"i 




5 


6 


2 


3 


24 


1828, 






"2 


"l 


4 




2 




"i 


2 


3 


2 




17 


1829, 




"7 


6 


1 




"5 


2 


i 


... 


, 


1 


2 


2 


27 


1830, 






... 




"i 


1 


... 


4 


3 


1 


1 


1 


3 


15 


1831, 




1 




4 


4 


4 




1 












14 


1832, 




2 


"2 


... 


4 


1 


"6 


1 






2 


"i 




19 


1833, 




3 




i 


2 


1 


2 


3 


"i 


3 


3 


1 




20 


1834, 






"i 


2 




1 




5 




3 


... 


1 


"i 


14 


1835, 




3 




1 


1 


1 


"i 


1 


"2 






1 


2 


16 


1836, 




1 


"3 






2 








"i 


"3 






10 


1837, 




1 














'2 








4 


7 


1 1838, 










"2 


i 


3 


i 




i 


"i 






9 


1839, 












2 






"i 




1 


"i 




5 


1840, 




... 


i 




"1 


7 




"i 


1 




3 


... 


... 


14 


1841, 




3 




2 




1 


5 


2 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1 


23 


1842, 




2 


"i 


1 


16 


6 


5 


1 


1 






1 


2 


30 


1843, 








1 


2 


9 


6 




4 


"5 


"i 


2 




30 


1844, 








1 


1 


6 


2 




3 


4 




2 


"i 


20 


1845, 




2 






8 




1 


'3 




2 


"i 


2 




19 


1846, 




1 






2 


"i 


1 


2 


"8 


8 


4 


4 




31 


' 1847, 




1 




"2 




3 


1 


1 




1 


3 


3 


i 


16 


1848, 






"2 




"2 


3 


8 






3 








18 


1849, 








"5 




6 




"4 


"4 


8 




"4 


"i 


32 


1850, 








1 


3 


5 




3 


2 


3 


... 


2 


2 


21 


1851, 










1 






2 


1 




1 


1 


5 


11 


1852, 




"2 




"5 


2 


"3 






2 




1 


1 




16 


1853, 




7 


4 


7 






2 










1 


"2 


23 


1854, 


















"i 


"2 




1 




4 


1855, 




10 


"i 


"2 




"i 


"i 


'3 




3 


"4 


2 




30 


1856, 




2 


1 


1 




2 






"5 


2 


1 


4 




18 


1857, 






3 


4 






"4 




2 


2 


4 


1 


1 


21 


1858, 






2 


2 


"3 




3 






2 


1 


9 


4 


26 


1859, 






1 




2 


3 




"i 




2 


3 


5 


3 


20 


1860, 




"i 


3 








'2 


1 






4 


4 


10 


28 


1861, 




4 


3 


1 


1 




2 


3 






5 


4 


8 


31 


1862, 




2 


1 


3 




"i 


1 






"2 


1 


2 




16 


1863, 




2 


1 


2 


2 








"i 


3 


2 


1 


"i 


15 


1864, 




2 


2 


3 


1 






"2 






4 


2 




16 


1865, 






2 




4 


6 


"2 


1 


"i 


"i 


2 




i 


20 


1866, 










1 


2 


6 




3 


3 


4 




1 


20 


1867, 




*2 








6 




i 


1 




1 






11 


1868, 
















1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


i 


9 


1869, 




2 


i 












1 


4 


2 


1 


4 


15 


1870, 




5 


1 


4 


"2 




"2 


"3 


6 


2 


5 


3 


... 


33 


1871, 




3 


1 


1 


4 




6 




2 


6 


3 


3 


2 


31 


1872, 




6 


1 


1 




2 


5 


"7 


5 


1 


1 


2 


4 


35 


1873, 






2 


4 






1 




5 




3 


2 


2 


19 


1874, 










2 


i 




i 






4 


1 




9 


1875, 




• "3 


'2 


"i 


2 


2 


'4 


1 


3 


"3 




2 


"i 


24 


1876, 




1 


1 


2 


3 


1 




1 


4 


1 


"3 


3 


4 


24 


1877, 




2 




3 


1 


3 


4 


1 


4 




1 




2 


21 


1878, 




1 


"2 




9 


1 




3 


2 






"5 


3 


26 


1879, 




1 


3 


'4 


1 


1 


3 


2 


4 




"3 


1 


1 


24 


1880, 


5 


... 


2 


1 

i 




4 


6 


3 




5 


1 


1 


28 

































178 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XLII. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mav. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1881, . 


3 




1 


2 


2 


1 




2 


1 


2 


3 


1 


18 


1882, 






3 


2 




1 




1 








2 


4 


2 


15 


1883, 






1 


1 


2 


1 




2 


1 




2 


3 


1 


2 


16 


1884, 










1 


3 


1 






i 


2 


2 




1 


11 


1885, 


















2 








2 


3 


7 


1886, 






2 


3 








2 




i 


1 


3 






12 


1887, 






5 


1 


2 


i 


1 


3 


i 


• •* 






i 


1 


16 


1888, 






2 




*>• 






2 


l 


..* 


4 


i 


• •• 




10 


1889, 






1 


• •■ 






i 




2 




1 


2 




2 


9 


1890, 






1 








4 


1 




l 








1 


8 


1891, 














2 


6 


1 








i 




10 


1892, 








3 




1 


1 




1 


l 


*•• 








7 


1893, 










1 


3 




2 


1 












7 


1894, 










3 


3 




1 




• * t 






l 


3 


11 


1895, 






1 


3 


1 


2 


4 


2 


2 


... 


4 


i 


i 


3 


24 


1896, 






2 


... 


... 




1 


5 




... 


4 


... 


2 


... 


14 


Totals, 




























1770-1896, 


168 


90 


140 


155 


205 


221 


145 


157 


184 


176 


154 


155 


1950 


Means, . 


1-3 


07 


11 


1-2 


1-6 


1-7 


11 


1-2 


1-5 


1-4 


1-2 


1-2 


15-2 



Decennial Means. 



1771-80, 


07 


o-i 


1-8 


1-0 


1-5 


11 


07 


2 1 


1-6 


11 


11 


0-5 


13-3 


1781-90, 


11 


0-2 


0-2 


0-4 


0-3 


1-4 


0-7 


0-7 


0-4 


1-6 


0-4 


0-5 


7-9 


1791-00, 


1-4 


5 


0-8 


0'6 


0-4 


0-7 


0-4 


0-4 


1-0 


0-6 


0-9 


0-6 


8-3 


1801-10, 


06 


0-5 


1-9 


0'5 


2-2 


2 6 


21 


1-0 


1-7 


0-5 


0-4 


1-3 


15-4 


1811-20, 


07 


0-5 


0-4 


1-6 


1-6 


2 


0-9 


0-4 


0-9 


0-6 


OS 


0-4 


10-3 


1821-30, 


1-5 


1-0 


OS 


1-3 


2 3 


1-7 


1-2 


1-3 


1-9 


2 3 


1-5 


2-7 


19-2 


1831-40, 


11 


7 


0-8 


1-4 


20 


1-5 


1-3 


07 


0-8 


1-3 


OS 


07 


12'8 


1841-50, 


09 


OS 


1-3 


2-8 


40 


2-9 


1-6 


2-3 


3-9 


1-0 


2-2 


0'8 


24-0 


1851-60, 


2-5 


1-5 


2-1 


0-8 


1-2 


1-2 


0-7 


11 


1-3 


1-9 


29 


2-5 


19'7 


1861-70, 


19 


VI 


1-3 


1-1 


1-8 


1-3 


1-1 


1-4 


1-6 


28 


1-6 


1-6 


18-6 


1871-80, 


2-2 


1-2 


1-8 


2-3 


1-1 


2-7 


2-2 


3 2 


1-1 


2-3 


2'0 


2-0 


241 


1881-90, 


1-8 


0-7 


0-6 


0-8 


0-9 


1-2 


07 


0-5 


11 


1-5 


11 


1-3 


12-2 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 

Table XLIII. 

Showing the number of Auroras observed in Edinburgh J 

and from 1800 to 1896. 

Note.— During the greater part' of the time it is probable that only the brighter display 


179 

rom 1773 to 1781 

s of this meteor were rec6rded. 


Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1773, . 

1774, . 

1775, . 

1776, . 

1777, . 

1778, . 

1779, . 

1780, . 

1781, . 

1800, . 

1801, . 

1802, . 

1803, . 

1804, . 

1805, . 

1806, . 

1807, . 

1808, . 

1809, . 

1810, . 

1811, . 

1812, . 

1813, . 

1814, . 

1815, . 

1816, . 

1817, . 

1818, . 

1819, . 

1820, . 

1821, . 

1822, . 

1823, . 

1824, . 

1825, . 

1826, . 

1827, . 

1828, . 

1829, . 

1830, . 

1831, . 

1832, . 

1833, . 

1834, . 

1835, . 

1836, . 

1837, . 

1838, . 

1839, . 

1840, . 


"i 

"i 

3 

l 
l 

3 
3 


"i 

"i 

4 
1 

i 

3 

1 

"i 
"i 

"i 


2 

i 
i 

2 

i 

i 

"i 
l 

4 

"i 


2 

i 

3 

"i 

"i 

"2 

"i 


— 


... 


1 

i 


i 

1 
i 

"i 

1 


1 

1 
1 

i 

i 
1 

'3 
2 

"i 
1 

"i 
2 


3 

"i 
i 

"1 

"2 

1 

1 

1 

"i 

2 

2 


"2 

3 
1 

2 
*4 

"i 

i 
"2 


i 
"i 

1 

"1 
"1 

"1 


2 
6 
1 
3 

6 

10 
1 
5 

1 

i 
1 

i 

2 
3 
4 
1 

3 

i 

9 
5 
5 
2 

ri 

5 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
9 

6 































180 



MR ROBERT COCKBTJRN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XLIII. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1841, . 


2 




1 


3 
















1 


7 


1842, . 


• *i 


"3 




1 














"i 








5 


1843, . 


... 




"2 


1 












"i 










4 


1844, . 
































1845, . 


"i 


"i 


















"i 






"i 


4 


1846, . 




1 


















2 




"i 




4 


1847, . 






















1 


i 






2 


1848, . 


"i 






















3 


"3 




9 


1849, . 


* • • 


2 


i 






















"i 


4 


1850, . 


... 


1 


... 


... 




.. 






... 


... 




... 


... 




1 


1851, . 
































1852, . 




"2 


























2 


1853, . 
































1854, . 
































1855, . 
































1856, . 
































1857, . 
































1858, . 
































1859, . 




i 


"i 














i 


i 


"i 




"i 


"e 


I860, . 




1 


2 


... 










... 




1 


... 




... 


4 


1861, . 


l 




























1 


1862, . 


























"i 


"i 


2 


1863, . 




"i 


"2 


1 




i 














1 


1 


7 


1864, . 
































1865, . 
































1866, . 


























i 




i 


1867, . 


i 


"i 


















i 


'2 


1 




6 


1868, . 








"i 
















2 






3 


1869, . 










1 












2 




'2 


5 


1870, . 


2 




2 




1 








4 


'5 


4 




1 


19 


1871, . 




1 


6 


4 


1 








2 


4 


2 


1 




21 


1872, . 




1 




1 












2 


3 




i 


8 


1873, . 


' i 


3 




2 














1 


1 


"i 




12 


1874, . 




.2 


i 


1 














1 


3 


2 




10 


1875, . 


2 




















1 


1 






4 


1876, . 
































1877, . 


i 
























i 




"2 


1878, . 






















i 








1 


1879, . 
































1880, . 




... 


"2 




3 


"i 




"3 




i 


2 




1*2 


1881, . 


l 




















1 




2 


1882, . 




'2 




















3 




5 


1883, . 




1 


i 






















2 


1884, . 








"i 


i 










i 








3 


1885, . 




i 


"2 




1 










1 








5 


1886, . 


"i 




1 




1 






i 


i 






"i 




6 


1887, . 






























1888, . 






















i 






"i 


1889, . 






























1890, . 


















• •• 












1891, . 






2 


2 














2 


1 




7 


1892, . 






3 


1 


i 










2 


1 


1 




9 


1893, . -■ . 


... 
















i 






1 




2 


1894, . 




i 


2 




"i 






3 








1 




8 


1895, . 




1 


1 


3 
















1 


"i 


7 


1896, . 
















... 


... 




"i 






1 


Total, . 


32 


42 


47 


33 


12 


1 


6 


21 


43 


47 


41 


17 


342 


Max. and 


4 


4 


6 


4 


3 


1 


8 


4 


5 


4 


4 


2 


21 


Year, 


1873 


1779 


1871 


1871 


1880 


1880 


1894 


1830,1870 


1870 


1870 


1825 


1869 


1871 





Showing 


THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 

Table XLIV. 

the number of Days on which Lightning without Thunder 
observed from 1807 to 1835, and from 1868 to 1896. 


ivas 


181 


Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1807, 
1808, 
1809, 
1810, 
1811, 
1812, 
1813, 
1814, 
1815, 
1816, 
1817, 
1818, 
1819, 
1820, 

1821, 
1822, 
1823, 
1824, 
1825, 
1826, 
1827, 
1828, 
1829, 
1830, 

' 1831, 

1832, 
i 1833, 

1834, 

1835, 

1868, 

1869, 

1870, 

1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 

1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 
! 1885, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 

1891, 

1892, . 

1893, . 

1894, . 

1895, . 

1896, . 




"i 

i 
"i 

i 

i 
"2 
1 

"i 


3 

"i 

"i 


i 
"i 


"i 

"l 
1 

"i 


1 

"i 
i 

"i 
i 

i 
"i 


"i 

1 


1 

"i 

"i 
"2 

'2 

i 

i 

"i 
"2 


i 
1 

"2 
"i 

i 
"i 


"i 
"i 

i 

i 

"i 

1 

"i 
1 

i 
i 
i 

1 

"3 
1 

i 


i 

"1 
2 
1 

"i 
"i 


"i 

2 
1 

"i 


"i 
1 

i 

i 

"i 
"i 

1 
1 

"i 


2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

i 
1 

6 
3 
1 

i 

"2 

1 

3 

2 
1 

2 

5 

i 

4 
4 
4 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 
3 

6 
2 
2 

4 

2 
1 
3 
2 
2 
2 

































182 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table XLV. 

Bright Sunshine for Hour ending Greenwich Time for Six Years ending 

July 1896. 





A.M. 


Noon. 


P.M. 


































5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Hrs. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


His. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


•Hrs. 


His. 


Hrs. 


-Hrs. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


Hrs. 


January, 


• • • 










0-8 


6-4 


77 


8-4 


7-4 


4-7 


0-6 










February, 










1-2 


4-3 


8-9 


9 8 


9-6 


9-8 


9-5 


5-3 


i-6 








March, . 






0-4 


3-7 


9-2 


12-3 


13-8 


14-0 


14-3 


1-3-4 


11-9 


12-1 


8-0 


1-8 






April, . 




1 V 


3-7 


7-2 


10-2 


12-1 


13-1 


149 


14-3 


13-8 


14^1 


13-9 


11-6 


8-5 


1-5 




May, . 


1-1 


6-1 


8-8 


9-6 


10-1 


12-4 


13-4 


14-5 


14-9 


156 


14-6 


14-1 


13-7 


12-9 


9-3 


l' ; 6 


June, . 


3-1 


7-1 


9-2* 


9-9 


10-3 


11-2 


10-4 


12-2 


12-6 


12-3 


12-7 


12-4 


12-4 


11-9 


10 2 


3-7 


July, . 


1-9 


5-3 


6-9 


8-5 


9-2 


9-6 


9-5 


10-7 


11 


11-3 


11-4 


10-5 


10-2 


9-5 


7-0 


1-7 


August, 


o-i 


1-4 


5-3 


8*3 


11-0 


12-3 


12-0 


12-8 


11-9 


132 


127 


11-8 


10-0 


7-9 


3-5 


o-i 


September, . 






1-0 


5-2 


9-6 


11-6 


12-4 


12-8 


13 3 


13-2 


123 


12-5 


10-0 


4-3 


0-4 




October, 


... 






0-8 


5-0 


10-5 


12-0 


13 2 


13-0 


13-1 


10-8 


7-4 


2-3 








November, . 












3-3 


8-4 


97 


9-3 


7-5 


6-1 


1-1 


o-i 








December, . 












0-4 


3-2 


6-0 


7 3 


5-8 


2-3 












Spring, 


1-1 


7-1 


12-9 


20-5 


29-5 


36-8 


40-3 


43-4 


43-5 


42-8 


40-6 


40-1 


33-3 


23-2 


10-8 


1-6 


Summer, 


5-1 


13-8 


21-4 


267 


30-5 


331 


31-9 


35-7 


35-5 


36-8 


36-8 


34-7 


32-6 


29 3 


20-7 


5-5 


Autumn, 






1-0 


6-0 


14-6 


25-4 


32-8 


357 


356 


33-8 


29-2 


21-0 


12-4 


4-3 


0-4 




Winter, 










1-2 


5-5 


18-5 


23-5 


25-3 


23-0 


16-5 


5-9 


1-6 








Year, 


6-2 


20-9 


35-3 


53-2 


74-8 


100-8 


123-5 


138-3 


139-9 


136-4 


123-1 


101-7 


79-9 


56-8 


31-9 


7-1 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



183 



Table XL VI. 



Showing the Number of Sunless and Sunny Days in Edinburgh for the Six 

Years ending July 1896. 

Per cent of possible duration. 



January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 

Total 
Per cent., . 



Month. 


Sunless. 


1-10 


11-20 


21-30 


31-40 


41-50 


51-60 


61-70 


71-80 


+ 80 


Max. 




83 


33 


8 


19 


13 


15 


12 


2 


1 




"/. 
72 




41 


39 


19 


15 


15 


17 


8 


11 


4 


1 


82 




30 


25 


20 


24 


23 


13 


18 


13 


15 


5 


85 




22 


26 


20 


13 


27 


26 


19 


13 


12 


2 


84 




18 


30 


17 


21 


21 


27 


19 


9 


14 


10 


87 




28 


33 


17 


17 


14 


26 


13 


15 


8 


9 


87 




22 


37 


29 


24 


26 


20 


10 


13 


5 




78 




11 


38 


30 


27 


22 


15 


24 


13 


5 


1 


82 




21 


39 


19 


16 


15 


17 


20 


18 


13 


2 


81 




29 


40 


14 


21 


24 


16 


24 


10 


8 




80 




70 


29 


12 


19 


12 


19 


5 


10 


4 




72 




106 


26 


11 


13 


8 


9 


5 


5 


3 




73 




481 


395 


216 


229 


220 


220 


177 


132 


92 


30 






22 


18 


10 


11 


10 


10 


8 


6 


4 


1 





Seasonal Percentages. 



Spring, 
Summer, 
Autumn, 
Winter, 



Sunless. 


1-10 


11-20 


21-30 


31-40 


41-50 


51-60 


61-70 


71-80 


+ 80 


13 


15 


10 


10 


13 


12 


10 


6 


8 


3 


11 


20 


14 


12 


11 


11 


9 


7 


Q 
O 


2 


22 


20 


8 


10 


9 


10 


9 


7 


4 


1 


42 


18 


7 


9 


7 


8 


5 


3 


1 





Departure from Mean of Year. 



Spring, 
Summer, 
Autumn, 
Winter, 



Sunless. 


1-10 


11-20 


21-30 


31-40 


9 


3 




1 


3 


11 


2 


4 


1 


1 




2 


2 


1 


1 


20 




3 


2 


3 



41-50 



51-60 



61-70 



71- 



+ 80 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 
VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 E 



184 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table XLVII. 
Mean Temperature at 9 a.m. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 

45 6 
48-0 
47-5 
46-8 

46*8 


1731, . 

1732, . 

1733, . 

1734, . 

1735, . 

1736, . 

Means, 


34-1 
39-2 
35-6 
36-3 
36-0 

36-2 


42-0 
40-0 
41-8 
38-7 
32-8 

39-1 


o 

41-7 

38-9 
44-8 
39-3 
42-0 

413 


44-0 
47-6 
500 
477 
47-1 

47-2 


49 -2 

528 
497 
50 6 
50-3 

50 4 


54-5 
58-2 
60 9 
58-1 
57*7 

57 9 


59 9 
57-6 
61-0 
618 
59 

59 9 


55-8 
54-4 

55 2 
57-9 
58-0 

56 2 


53-5 
49-5 
50-0 
50-0 
49-8 

50-6 


47-8 
44-7 
43'7 
46-8 
43-9 

45-4 


39-2 
367 
43-5 
36'9 
42-2 

397 


34-4 
35-5 
433 
36-1 
38-2 

37 5 



Table XLVIII. 
Mean Temperature at 9 a.m. Brought to Mean of Max. and Min. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


■ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1731, . 












54 3 


59-9 


560 


53-8 


48-1 


39 6 


34'7 




1732, . 


34-7 


42-8 


42-4 


44-0 


48-8 


58-0 


57-6 


54-6 


49-8 


45-0 


37-1 


35 8 


45-9 


1733, . 


39-8 


40-8 


39-6 


47-6 


52-4 


60-7 


61 


55-4 


50-3 


44-0 


43-9 


43-6 


48-3 


1734, . 


36 2 


426 


45-5 


50-0 


49 3 


57-9 


61-8 


58-1 


50-3 


47-1 


37-3 


36-4 


47-7 


1735, . 


36 9 


39*5 


40 


47-7 


50-2 


57-5 


59 


58 2 


501 


44 2 


426 


385 


47'0 


1736, . 


36-6 


336 


427 


47-1 


49 9 


















Means, 5 




























Years, . 


36-8 


399 


42 


47-2 


50 


577 


59 9 


56-5 


509 


457 


40-1 


37 8 


47-0 



Table XLIX. 
Rainfall. — Inches. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 







o 











o 


O 





o 


o 








o 


1731, . 












2-06 


1-54 


1-86 


2-12 


1-48 


1-42 


3'12 


! 


1732, . 


1-28 


2-41 


0-79 


311 


4-62 


1-20 


3-20 


1-62 


1 


2-52 


42 


3-62 


? 


1733, . 


1 37 


2-52 


2-64 


0-82 


08 


214 


0-64 


268 


1-84 


1 08 


33 


3 63 


19-76 


1734, . 


0-59 


60 


212 


1 01 


3-31 


221 


71 


1-28 


1 27 


132 


1-61 


2'33 


18-27 


1735, . 


3-00 


3-51 


5-38 


1-63 


0-72 



























THE 


METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 








185 












Table L. 


















Mean 


Variability of Temperature at 9 a.m. 










Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 









o 





« 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




1731, . 












3-7 


2-7 


2-9 


3-9 


5-3 


3-6 


4-8 






1732, . 


3-2 


4-5 


3-4 


3-1 


2-8 


2-5 


3-5 


2-7 


3-3 


2-9 


3-8 


3-6 


3-28 




1733, . 


3-1 


3-7 


3-6 


3-0 


3-0 


3-1 


3'6 


3-8 


2-3 


3-6 


4-4 


3-8 


3-42 




1734, . 


3-5 


3-2 


3-9 


3-6 


3-4 


3-5 


3-3 


2-7 


3-0 


3-1 


3-6 


3-9 


3-39 




1735, . 


3-3 


3-0 


2-6 


3-2 


3-1 


3-8 


31 


3'8 


3-4 


3-9 


3-8 


3-7 


3-39 




1736, . 


37 


3-1 


2-8 


4-2 


3-4 




















Means, 


3-4 


3-5 


3-3 


3-4 


3-1 


3-3 


3-2 


3-2 


3-2 


3-8 


3-8 


4-0 


3-4 












Table LI. 
























Meao 


, Humidity. 















Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July 




Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




o 


o 


» 


o 


o 


o 


° 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


1731, . 












2-37 


1-77 


2-35 


1-80 


2-06 




2-41 


2-34 


1 


1732, . 


2-62 


2-37 


1-94 


2-27 


1-77 


1-64 


1-90 


1-82 


1-84 


2-45 




2-49 


2-64 


2-15 


1733, . 


2-14 


2'17 


2-55 


210 


1-66 


1-51 


1-71 


176 


2-00 


1-96 




2-08 


2-15 


1-98 


1734, . 


2-20 


2-02 


1-75 


1-81 


1-60 


1-98 


1-85 


2-02 


1-96 


2-35 




2-24 


2-47 


2-02 


1735, . 


2-38 


2'27 


2-56 


2-45 


1-66 


1-76 


2-00 


1-81 


1-96 


2'40 




2-59 


277 


2-22 


1736, . 


2-54 


2-46 


2-39 


2-11 


1-81 


















i 


Means, 


2-38 


2-26 


2-24 


2-15 


1-70 


1-85 


1-85 


1-95 


1-91 


2-24 




2-36 


2-47 


2-11 








Table LII. 










Therma 


1 Windrose, June 1731 to M( 


ly 1736. 






N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


s.w. 


W. 


N.W. 


Monthly 
Range. 








o 


o 





o 





o 


o 




o 


o 


January, 






32-3 


35'8 


34-8 


34-2 


35-9 


38-5 


35-7 




26-5 


12-0 


February, . 






317 


34-8 


33-9 


35-9 


41-4 


42-4 


39-1 




35-0 


10-7 


March, 






34-2 


37'5 


40-6 


39-4 


44-2 


44-1 


43-6 




38-3 


10'0 


April, 






45-1 


44-5 


44'5 


50-7 


50-8 


50-8 


47-8 




42-5 


8-3 


May, . 






47-4 


49-6 


51'0 


50-2 


547 


54-3 


50-7 




47-8 


7-3 


June, . 






55-5 


54-6 


58-9 


59-0 


65-3 


63-9 


55-8 




54-9 


10-7 


July, . 






59-0 


56-1 


60-0 


62-2 


63-2 


62-1 


59-6 




59-2 


7-1 


August, 






56-3 


54-5 


57'3 


60-3 


53-8 


58-4 


54-9 




54-4 


5-9 


September, . 






44-3 


49-5 


50-5 


50-1 


54-6 


52-2 


50-3 




48-8 


10-3 


October, 






43-4 


45-0 


45-8 


45-4 


45-3 


46-4 


43-0 




39-0 


7-4 


November, . 






377 


39-5 


38-3 


39-9 


43-1 


40-4 


40-5 




32-6 


10-5 


December, . 






33-0 


34-6 


37-4 


35-4 


37-7 


41-5 


36-3 




36-3 


8-5 


Range, 






27-3 


21-5 


26-1 


28-0 


29-4 


25-4 


23-9 




32-7 




Spring, 






43-3 


46-1 


46-3 


44-7 


48-8 


48-8 


47-2 




43-0 


5-8 


Summer, 






57-5 


55-0 


58-0 


60-6 


617 


60-4 


57-9 




57-2 


6-7 


Autumn, 






41-5 


45-0 


46-8 


44-6 


45-6 


46-6 


44-2 




40-3 


5-3 


Winter, 






32-4 


34-9 


35-5 


35-1 


37-0 


40-8 


36-8 




33-8 


8-4 













































18(5 



MR ROBERT COCK BURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table LIII. 
Thermal Windrose, 1770-1776 — 7 Years. 





N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


Calm. 


Mean. 


Range. 


January, 


32-2 


31-8 


32-6 


31-8 


36-5 


376 


34-1 


30-3 


27-1 


33'2 


10-5 


February, . 


33-4 


34 


35-5 


37-0 


36 5 


390 


33-4 


35-4 


31-7 


36-3 


7-3 


March, 


353 


38-6 


36-3 


36-9 


413 


41-2 


38-5 


34-1 


36-0 


38-3 


7-2 


April, 


40-4 


43-3 


42-5 


42-8 


46 6 


45-3 


45-3 


39-4 


45-0 


44-1 


7-2 


May, . 


47'6 


46 6 


50-1 


52-0 


52 8 


51-5 


50'7 


45-3 


48-3 


49-3 


7'5 


June, . 


53-6 


553 


55-9 


58-7 


57-4 


56 3 


55-6 


54-2 




55-7 


5-1 


July, . 


567 


56-2 


58-2 


56-6 


606 


59-6 


58-0 


57-4 


62-0 


58-4 


4-4 


August, 


57-2 


56-8 


57-8 


58-3 


60 


58-2 


57-8 


56-4 


58-0 


57-5 


3-6 


September, . 


517 


52 9 


53-8 


53 9 


53-7 


51-3 


50-8 


51-9 




52-3 


3-1 


October, 


42-1 


48-8 


47-0 


44 7 


491 


48-3 


45-6 


40-5 


43-5 


46-8 


8-6 


November, . 


37-8 


40-9 


40'9 


39-3 


41-4 


40-8 


39 1 


36-5 


44-0 


39-7 


7-5 


December, , 


36-1 


38-1 


377 


38-4 


39 


40 2 


35-7 


37-3 


37-0 


38-5 


4-5 


Range, 


24-5 


25-0 


25-6 


26-9 


24-1 


22-0 


24-6 


27-1 








Spring, 


42-4 


44'1 


43-8 


40-1 


457 


46 4 


44-8 


38-9 


44-1 


43-9 


7-5 


Summer, 


55 -7 


55-8 


57-2 


57-9 


59 4 


58-3 


57'2 


56-1 


60-0 


57-2 


4-3 


Autumn, 


44-3 


498 


487 


45-5 


47-6 


46-2 


44-8 


42-6 


43-7 


46-3 


5-0 


Winter, 


33-4 


35-4 


35-1 


35-0 


37-7 


39 2 


34-4 


33-7 


29-5 


36-0 


9'7 


Year, 


44-0 


481 


46-0 


43-1 


47 -9 


45-9 


46'5 


42-4 


37-9 







Table LIV. 
Mean Humidity with Different Winds, 1731-1736. Scale 0"5 to 5*0. 





N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


January, .... 


2-47 


3-65 


2-53 


2-67 


2-36 


2-27 


2'36 


1-66 


February, .... 


2-53 


2-57 


2 '30 


2-28 


2-12 


2-14 


2-23 


2-11 


March, ..... 


2-40 


278 


2-60 


2-38 


2-19 


2-09 


2-05 


191 


April, 


2-02 


2-41 


2-68 


2-10 


2-10 


1-89 


T97 


1-74 


May, 


1-52 


1-85 


1-96 


1-63 


1-74 


1-61 


1-55 


1-38 


June, ..... 


2-03 


2'39 


1-86 


1-64 


1-51 


T54 


1-57 


1-79 


July, 


1-95 


2-43 


2-07 


1-93 


1-68 


1-70 


1-71 


1-58 


August 


2-68 


2-30 


2-23 


1-92 


1-82 


1-82 


1-88 


1-64 


September, .... 


1-88 


2-45 


2-10 


2-04 


1-76 


T92 


1-89 


1-70 


October 


2-26 


2-91 


2-50 


2-40 


2-14 


2-29 


2-14 


2-05 


November, .... 


2-52 


2-82 


2-30 


2-44 


2-47 


2-25 


2-42 


2-13 


December 


266 


2-40 


2-97 


2-65 


2-51 


2-35 


2-41 


2-39 


Range 


1-14 


1'06 


I'll 


1-04 


1-00 


0-81 


0-87 


1-01 


Spring, .... 


1-89 


2-17 


2-35 


2-18 


2"07 


1-91 


1-88 


1-67 


Summer 


2-12 


2-38 


2-04 


1-85 


1-65 


1-73 


1-74 


1-66 


Autumn, .... 


2-22 


2-73 


2-31 


2-33 


2-18 


2-10 


2-13 


1-96 


Winter, .... 


2-58 


2-69 


2-62 


2-53 


2-39 


2-24 


2-34 


2-11 


Year, .... 


2-19 


2-36 


2-26 


2'26 


2'19 


2-06 


2-02 


1-80 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



187 



Table LV. 

Showing the Departure of Temperature from the Normal, smoothed by 
continuous Five Year Groups. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. April 



1-7 
1-9 
1-9 
2-0 
1-8 

OS 
1-8 
2-1 
3-1 
2-5 
2-6 
l'l 
3-1 
1-7 
0-9 

1-0 
2-1 
0-2 
0-2 

o-i 

0-2 
0-7 
10 
15 
0-5 

0-2 
0-9 

1-0 

o-o 

1-2 
1-4 
1-2 
2-3 
1-3 
06 

o-o 

0-6 
10 
0-2 
01 

o-o 

0-8 
0-9 
11 
1-0 



1-4 

1-6 

o-o 

07 

VO 

1-J+ 
1-3 
1-6 
1-9 

1'4 
0-7 
1-4 
04 
1-2 
11 

0-9 

1-5 
2-0 

2-7 
0-8 
1-2 

o-i 

2 3 
2-7 
20 

2-5 
31 
05 
0-7 
15 
13 
01 
0-8 
0-7 
0-5 

0-7 
0-7 
0-2 
0-8 
1-2 

1-4 
1-2 
1-7 
1-5 
0-8 



1-1 
0-7 
1-6 
1-9 
2-1 

1-6 

2-0 
1-2 

o-o 

04 
0-2 
1-5 
2 4 
29 
2 4 

19 

0-4 

2-5 
4S 
3-4 
3-0 
3-1 
1-3 
4 
0-3 

0-4 
1-5 
0-3 

0-6 
0-9 
0-3 

1-4 

1-2 
0-5 
01 

0-3 
0-4 
1-2 
0-6 

o-o 

0-9 

o-i 

1-3 
OS 
1-0 



03 
06 

o-o 

OS 
1-2 

l'A 

1-8 
0-7 
05 
03 

o-o 

07 

0-4 
0-2 
0-5 

0-3 
0-8 
06 
01 
8 
09 
1-4 
01 
06 
1-8 

o-o 

06 
11 
1-4 
04 
23 
11 
1-5 
09 
1-3 

7 
11 
0-9 

o-o 
0-4 
1'4 

1-9 
2-3 
1-8 
2-6 



Mav. 



June. 



0-3 

o-o 

0-8 

o-i 
o-i 

1-0 
2-0 
1-0 
1-0 
OS 
0-5 
1-6 
1-7 
2-2 
1-4 

0-7 
1-6 
11 
0-7 
1-2 
1-2 
08 
1-2 
1-7 
1-5 

1-3 
0-8 
01 
0-5 
0-2 
10 
05 
09 
1-5 
09 

0-2 
1-4 
0-7 
03 
01 
0-9 
0-5 
0-1 
04 
0-6 



1-5 
1-8 
1-8 
1-8 
1-2 

1-3 

1-4 
1-0 
1-0 
1-5 
0-5 
04 
05 
1-8 
25 

1-6 
0-6 
1-4 
0-9 
0-3 
09 
1-5 
1-2 
10 
10 

0-3 

0-6 
0-5 
OS 
0-7 
07 
03 
0-6 
0-9 
1-2 

0-2 
10 
0-7 
0-5 
0-4 
06 
0-3 
01 
OS 
0-2 



July. 



Aug. 



0-2 
0-2 
0-4 
0-7 
0-4 

OS 
1-5 
0-9 
0:5 
0-6 
04 
21 
20 
24 
2-9 

33 
20 
1-5 
0-7 
0-7 
01 
0-6 
0-7 
1-2 
0-8 

0-8 
0-7 
0-5 
0-3 
0-6 
0-9 
0-4 
1-2 
1-4 
0-5 

09 
11 
07 
0-4 
1-3 
1-3 
0-9 
0-5 
0-9 
01 



0-7 
04 
0-7 
01 

0-4 

0-5 

0-4 

0-6 

0-5 

o-i 
o-o 

1-4 
2-5 
2-9 
2-3 

2-2 
0-7 
1-1 
1-1 
OS 
0-2 
08 
1-6 
1-5 
1-6 

1-4 
03 
06 
0-9 
0-4 
07 
0-6 
0-5 
0-9 
1-3 

1-2 
1-8 
1-7 
1-4 
1-3 
1-6 
1-4 
11 
0-7 
01 



Sept. 



1-6 
1-0 

0-4 
OS 
V2 

1-1 
1-5 
1-8 
1-7 
0-8 
0-8 

o-o 

08 
10 
02 

0-6 
0-4 

OS 
0-6 

o-i 
o-o 

01 

0-2 
05 

o-o 

0-3 
0-9 

o-o 
o-o 

06 
10 
1-5 
11 
1-3 
1-6 

11 

04 
07 
05 

0-9 
0-5 
0-2 
OS 
0-5 
0-6 



Oct. 



Nov. 



0-6 
0-8 
1-3 
1-2 
0-5 

0-7 

o-i 

02 
03 
03 

0-4 
o-4 
0-4 

0-3 
1-2 

0-3 
0-8 
0-8 
V7 
0-9 
0-8 
0-6 

o-o 

0-6 
02 

10 
0-9 
1-3 
09 
6 
01 
0-5 
1-1 
0-2 
08 

06 
1-5 
1-2 
1-2 
1-4 
0-7 
10 
1-4 
1-8 
1-2 



0-6 
0-2 

o-o 

0-2 

0-3 

0-5 
0-7 
0-7 
0-9 
0-8 
0'5 
0-1 

o-o 

05 

1-0 

0-9 
1-2 
0-3 
1-2 
0-7 

0-4 
0-2 
0-8 
0-4 
0-9 

0-6 
0-6 
0-2 

0-2 

1'4 
1-8 
1-9 
1-5 
1-3 
0-7 

0-7 
0-5 

o-i 

05 

1-0 
0-8 
1-1 
1-7 
1-5 
0-4 



Dec. 



Year. 



0-8 
01 
05 
1-3 
1-4 

09 
03 
06 
0-1 
0-3 
11 
0-2 
0-3 
0-9 
01 

1-0 
0-8 
1-5 

2-5 
2-2 
3-2 
1-2 
0-9 
1-6 

1'4 

02 

0-5 
05 
03 
08 

0-2 

1-2 
2-5 
2-1 
2-5 

2-0 
1-7 
1-6 
OS 
1-0 
1-6 
1-6 
1-8 
2-6 
2-6 



0-7 
0-6 
0-6 
0-6 

0-7 

0-8 
1-2 
0-9 
0-8 
0-6 
0-2 
0-7 
0-7 
20 
0-8 

08 
01 

0-3 
0-9 
0-4 
0-4 
01 
05 
09 
0-8 

07 
0-8 
0-3 
0-2 
0-3 
06 
01 
0-3 
0-5 
0-4 

02 
0-6 
06 
04 

o-o 

OS 
0-3 

0-6 
0-5 
OS 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



188 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LV. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April, i 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1811 


11 


00 


0-2 


2-0 


0-4 


OS 


0-6 




0-4 


0-4 


1-3 


0-9 


2-2 


0-4 


1812 


3-0 


07 


0-7 


0-4 


1-2 


0-8 


0-2 


0-5 


0-7 


0-2 


1-0 


2-2 


0-8 


1813 


3-7 


04 


0-3 


0-3 , 


01 


0-7 


o-o 


0'5 


0-3 


o-o 


1-3 


2-6 


0-6 


1814 


3-3 


o-o 


1-2 


0-8 


0-7 


1-1 


0'7 


0-7 


OS 


10 


2-4 


2-7 


12 


1815 


2-9 


02 


0-6 


o-i 


1-4 


1-2 


0'7 


1-4 


0-4 


2-1 


1-4 


2-6 


1-2 


1816 


2-5 


0-6 


1-8 


0-9 


1-2 


0-6 


0-5 


1-6 


0-5 


0-4 


04 


2-3 


1-0 


1817 


OS 


o-j, 


0-9 


1-5 


0-6 


0-2 


OS 


OS 


0-6 


0-2 


01 


2-9 


0-7 


1818 


0-9 


0-7 


1-1 


1-2 


0-9 


0-4 


OS 


0-8 


0-9 


1-0 


0-9 


1-9 


0-7 


1819 


0-2 


0-2 


02 


04 


1-0 


0-5 


o-o 


O'l 


0-4 


o-i 


1-8 


0-5 


01 


1820 


o-i 


02 


10 


0-6 


04 


04 


02 


04 


OS 


10 


1-7 


0-6 


0-5 


1821 


IS 


o-o 


1-7 


0-9 


0-6 


0-7 


0-5 


03 


0-5 


0-5 


1-2 


0-9 


01 


1822 


IS 


0-5 


1-2 


10 


05 


0-2 


0-4 


0-8 


0-3 


0-6 


1-9 


01 


0-2 


1823 


08 


03 


1-3 


0-9 


0-5 


o-o 


o-o 


o-i 


0-6 


0-6 


1-3 


01 


0-6 


1824 


0-7 


0-7 


11 


0-5 


1-4 


1-7 


0-9 


04 


01 


0-5 


0-4 


01 


0-6 


1825 


1'4 


0-7 


0-3 


0-4 


10 


11 


10 


01 


10 


10 


0-2 


1-3 


0-5 


1826 


0-3 


0-5 


0-8 


10 


10 


1-8 


1-3 


0-3 


1-5 


1-7 


0-2 


2-5 


11 


1827 


IS 


0-4 


0-8 


0-3 


1-3 


1-8 


0-6 


0-3 


0-7 


1-5 


o-o 


20 


0-7 


1828 


2-2 


02 


1-4 


0-3 


11 


0-8 


0-2 


1-8 


OS 


1-4 


0-8 


1-3 


03 


1829 


1-6 


0-6 


1-5 


o-i 


0-5 


0-2 


0-7 


2-0 


0-1 


1-9 


11 


1-5 


0-2 


1830 


0-9 


0-5 


18 


01 


01 


01 


0-8 


1-6 


0-3 


1-9 


0-8 


11 


0-3 


1831 


1-8 


0-4 


11 


o-i 


10 


o-i 


0-6 


2-1 


0-6 


20 


0-2 


0-5 


o-o 


1832 


00 


0-7 


1-7 


06 


1-2 


o-o 


o-o 


1-2 


01 


2-5 


0-9 


1-8 


07 


1833 


08 


1-5 


10 


0-2 


10 


0-4 


o-o 


01 


01 


1-9 


0-9 


2-4 


0-9 


1834 


1-4 


1-2 


0-5 


0-3 


1-4 


o-o 


0-7 


1-1 


1-0 


0-4 


0-9 


1-9 


0-4 


1835 


06 


0-8 


0-9 


1-7 


1-3 


o-o 


OS 


1-3 


1-4 


0-3 


0-6 


1-9 


o-o 


1836 


0-2 


1-1 


0-9 


2-3 


0-7 


0-2 


OS 


0-8 


1-3 


o-o 


0-2 


20 


0-5 


1837 


1-4 


1-6 


1-8 


2-6 


1-3 


0-4 


0-4 


1-2 


1-4 


OS 


0-4 


1-2 


0-9 


1838 


i-i 


2-1 


1-8 


1-5 


1-5 


0-2 


0-7 


1-2 


1-6 


o-i 


0-5 


0-7 


0-9 


1839 


2-1 


1'9 


o-4 


1-4 


1-4 


0-7 


0-7 


0-7 


0-7 


0-2 


0-7 


0-7 


0-8 


1840 


2-1 


1-7 


11 


o-o 


0-5 


0-5 


1-3 


0-3 


o-o 


0-9 


0-6 


1-6 


0-3 


1841 


OS 


OS 


1-7 


0-9 


OS 


0-9 


1-4 


0-5 


0-7 


1-4 


0-7 


31 


0-3 


1842 


0-8 


1-1 


24 


21 


OS 


1-1 


1-6 


0-3 


0-7 


1-5 


0-8 


21 


0-3 


1843 


0-3 


1-5 


1-5 


1-5 


0-3 


0-8 


1-9 


0-3 


1-2 


0-9 


1-2 


2-4 


0-2 


1844 


20 


o-i 


0-6 


1-4 


o-i 


0-9 


1-3 


0-2 


2-2 


0-2 


2-4 


1-6 


0-8 


1845 


2-3 


1-0 


0-8 


0-8 


0-3 


0-7 


0-3 


0-4 


1-5 


05 


33 


0-4 


0-7 


1846 


11 


02 


0-6 


0-5 


1-3 


1-2 


0-2 


1-2 


0-8 


0-9 


2-5 


11 


0-6 


1847 


03 


1-4 


0-9 


0-8 


1-8 


0-8 


0-3 


0-9 


0-7 


0-5 


2-2 


OS 


0-6 


1848 


0-8 


2-7 


20 


0-6 


1-8 


11 


0-6 


0-7 


0-4 


0-4 


21 


o-i 


07 


1849 


11 


19 


16 


0-8 


1-3 


0-2 


o-o 


1-4 


1-0 


01 


0-6 


1-2 


0-2 


1850 


0-5 


2-8 


1-2 


0-3 


1-3 


0-4 


04 


0-9 


0-5 


OS 


01 


1-7 


05 


1851 


0-5 


2-3 


0-5 


0-6 


01 


o-o 


04 


o-i 


0-6 


0-2 


0-7 


10 


0-4 


1852 


0-4 


10 


10 


1-3 


01 


10 


10 


0-5 


0-3 


04 


0-7 


1-6 


0-9 


1853 


1-8 


1-2 


o-o 


1-1 


0-3 


0-7 


1-5 


11 


0-7 


09 


0-4 


11 


0-7 


1854 


10 


11 


01 


1-5 


0-8 


1-4 


2-2 


1-5 


0-7 


11 


1-5 


11 


0-9 


1 855 


0-8 


0-9 


02 


0-8 


0-7 


1-6 


1-5 


1-7 


1-3 


21 


21 


1-9 


11 


1856 


11 


05 


0-8 


02 


0-4 


1-7 


0-8 


1-5 


1-5 


14 


1-3 


2-4 


11 


1857 


1-7 


OS 


04 


0-9 


0-6 


11 


0-6 


0-8 


0-7 


09 


0-7 


11 


0-6 


1858 


11 


01 


0-6 


1-8 


02 


0-1 


0-2 


0-2 


01 


0-7 


01 


0-3 


0-2 


1859 


10 


0-4 


0-7 


2-2 


0-6 


0-8 


0-6 


0-2 


0-2 


0-3 


0-8 


OS 


0-2 


1860 


11 


0-5 


o-o 


2-2 


0-5 


1-3 


2-1 


1-1 


0-6 


0-5 


2-6 


1-2 


0-8 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 









THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH 








189 










Table 


LV.- 


-continued. 












Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


Juue. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 







o 





° 


° 


° 


o 


» 


o 


o 











1861 


0-7 


0-5 


0-4 


1-9 


0-2 


1-9 


1-6 


1-2 


1-6 


0-1 


1-7 


0-8 


0-7 


1862 


0-1 


OS 


0-8 


0-7 


0-4 


1-8 


19 


1-7 


1-5 


o-i 


1-2 


0-4 


0-8 


1863 


o-o 


0-9 


1-1 


0-3 


0-4 


0-7 


16 


1'Jf 


0-2 


0-2 


0-6 


2-4 


0-3 


1864 


0-8 


11 


2-0 


01 


o-o 


0-3 


1-3 


1-8 


0-2 


0-2 


0-2 


3-3 


0-2 


1865 


OS 


0-6 


21 


0-3 


OS 


04 


10 


1-1 


01 


0-3 


1-2 


2-9 


01 


1866 


0-4 


OS 


1-9 


0-7 


0-2 


07 


0-2 


0-5 


11 


OS 


0-3 


2-9 


0-2 


1867 


0-6 


1-5 


1-7 


10 


0-9 


0-8 


04 


o-i 


1-4 


o-o 


0-4 


2-4 


0-5 


1868 


0-7 


1-8 


1-2 


1-6 


0-5 


0-9 


08 


04 


0-8 


0-2 


0-2 


0-8 


0-6 


1869 


0-2 


27 


o-o 


1-6 


o-o 


o-o 


0-8 


11 


07 


0-3 


0-6 


o-o 


0-6 


1870 


0-9 


2-2 


0-9 


11 


03 


0-2 


1-4 


0-7 


0-2 


0-6 


0-7 


0-2 


0-6 


1871 


1-4 


0-8 


o-i 


0-9 


1-2 


0-3 


10 


0-3 


0-2 


0-6 


0-1 


o-o 


0-2 


1872 


IS 


01 


1-2 


0-8 


1-0 


o-i 


10 


0-2 


0-4 


0-6 


0-2 


11 


0-2 


' 1873 


24 


0-5 


1-5 


0-4 


1-1 


0-5 


0-2 


0-2 


0-5 


OS 


0-2 


o-i 


03 


1874 


3-4 


OS 


0-6 


0-7 


1-2 


o-o 


0-5 


0-3 


0-5 


01 


0-3 


0-4 


0-4 


1S75 


3-6 


0-2 


o-o 


0-3 


1-2 


0-1 


0-2 


0-6 


0-7 


0-5 


0-7 


0-5 


0-3 


1876 


31 


11 


0-4 


0-4 


0-8 


0-3 


0-4 


0-4 


0-2 


1-2 


0-2 


1-7 


0-4 


1877 


1-2 


0-3 


10 


10 


0-9 


0-4 


0-7 


OS 


0-6 


0-7 


OS 


1-1 


0-3 


1878 


0-5 


1-4 


0-8 


11 


1-4 


0-4 


0-6 


o-o 


0-4 


01 


0-6 


IS 


0-4 


1879 


1-8 


1-2 


0-9 


1>4 


0-9 


0-5 


0-8 


0-5 


0-2 


1-1 


0-5 


1-8 


0-8 


1880 


1-2 


16 


0-3 


0-9 


0-2 


0-9 


0-8 


o-i 


o-i 


0-9 


0-2 


3-1 


OS 


1881 


11 


11 


0-6 


1-0 


0-7 


1-5 


1-7 


0-4 


0-3 


1-2 


05 


1-1 


0-6 


1882 


09 


2-4 


0-4 


0-2 


o-o 


1-0 


1-2 


o-o 


0-3 


0-6 


0-9 


OS 


0-2 


1883 


0-9 


20 


0-2 


0-6 


0-6 


1-2 


0-7 


1-2 


0-3 


0-6 


1-2 


0-2 


o-o 


|18&4 


20 


1-9 


01 


0-7 


1-3 


1-3 


0-7 


0-6 


0-3 


0-6 


0-9 


0-9 


01 


1885 


1-5 


1-2 


1-4 


0-9 


1:5 


0-4 


o-o 


0-4 


o-i 


o-i 


0-9 


0-3 


o-o 


1886 


1-5 


01 


1-4 


1-5 


1-2 


09 


0-2 


0-8 


0-3 


o-o 


12 


0-2 


0-2 


1887 


1-2 


OS 


1-8 


1-8 


0-7 


0-3 


01 


1-0 


0-7 


OS 


17 


01 


0-3 


1888 


21 


1-1 


1-3 


1-6 


02 


0-2 


0-6 


0-5 


04 


0-6 


1-8 


0-6 


o-o 


1889 


2-5 


0-5 


1-3 


1-6 


0-2 


o-i 


0-5 


0-8 


0-9 


01 


11 


0-3 


0-2 


1890 


20 


01 


1-2 


1-A 


0-5 


0-9 


1-6 


1-0 


0-7 • 


0-2 


1-8 


o-i 


o-i 


1891 


17 


0-9 


0-2 


0-4 


13 


0-5 


0-9 


0-2 


10 


o-o 


1-2 


o-o 


0-5 


1892 


13 


1-5 


10 


0-5 


0-3 


o-i 


1-0 


01 


0-8 


01 


1-6 


0-2 


06 


1893 


0-6 


01 


0-6 


08 


0-7 


0-2 


0-8 


06 


0-9 


1-0 


20 


0-7 


0-6 


1894 


0-2 


0-2 


15 


20 


20 


0-5 


0-9 


0-6 


0-3 


1-9 


21 


0-6 


06 






Note 


— The I 


leavy ty 


pe indu 


sates an 


excess, 


and the 


italic ty 


pe a de 


! ect. 







100 



Mil ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LVI. 

Showing the Smoothed Percentage Excess or Defect of West Winds from Average, of 
One Hundred and Thirty-Three Years. The Values have been smoothed by 
continuous Five Year Groups. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




7 

/o 


% 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


7 

/o 


% 


7 

/o 


% 


1766 


6 


9 


ry 
/ 


4 


4 


5 


10 


5 


7 


15 


3 


19 


3-8 


1767 


6 


6 


5 


5 


2 


4 


10 


5 


3 


9 


9 


10 


2-8 


1768 


2 


1 


6 


5 


5 


l 


15 


3 


2 


7 


4 


4 


2-0 


1769 


O 


4 


8 





4 


2 


9 


4 


6 


10 


5 


2 


1-3 


1770 


3 


5 


14 


5 


8 


6 


7 


10 


7 


2 


3 


7 


2-7 


1771 


1 





5 


12 


12 


5 


2 


11 


3 


5 


5 


2 


07 


1772 





3 


4 


14 


15 


7 


3 


12 


7 


9 


1 


2 


0-6 


1773 


8 


2 


6 


21 


3 


2 


7 


12 


G 


9 


2 


1 


11 


1774 


16 


8 





22 


2 


3 


4 


8 


5 


10 


4 





10 


1775 


14 


8 


6 


19 


5 


1 


3 


2 


2 


7 


2 


8 


3-2 


1776 


16 


10 





14 


10 


5 


7 


6 


5 


8 


3 


6 


31 


1777 


11 


11 


5 


20 


17 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 


9 


45 


1778 


16 


6 


6 


10 


17 


7 


5 


7 


5 





6 


1 


3-3 


1779 


11 


2 


4 


3 


13 





4 


.9 


8 


1 


6 


2 


2-2 


1780 


6 


3 


4 


3 


10 


3 


6 


9 


3 


6 


7 


5 


02 


1781 


3 


15 


3 


3 


9 


2 


7 


13 


4 


15 


6 


12 


0-4 


1782 


4 


m 


3 


7 


11 


2 


6 


9 


2 


11 


2 


25 


..>■■-, 


1783 


l 


22 


16 


1 


11 


1 


7 


9 


1 


11 


1 


30 


3-3 


1784 


l 


27 


18 


1 


19 


3 


16 


4 


7 





13 


30 


4-1 


1785 


3 


17 


14 


8 


19 


2 


14 


1 


6 


1 


12 


84 


2-5 


1786 


4 


19 


21 


13 


17 


7 


17 


2 


4 


3 


11 


36 


8-5 


1787 


11 


11 


24 


13 


12 


9 


16 


2 


1 


7 


15 


22 


4-1 


1788 


5 


3 


15 





2 


7 


17 


5 


6 


13 


23 


14 


3-3 


1789 


O 


6 


7 


1 


1 


7 


15 


5 


1 


15 


15 


11 


2-5 


1790 


7 





12 ' 





2 


9 


15 


5 


1 


20 


7 


o 


3-8 


1791 


8 


8 


4 


11 


6 


1 


13 


5 


1 


20 


17 


4 


2-5 


1792 


4 


5 


6 


10 


11 


3 


12 


5 


1 


12 


IS 


2 


OS 


I7:»:; 


6 


9 


1 


4 


17 


7 


6 


4 


5 


11 


IS 


4 


2-7 


1794 


5 


9 


7 


5 


14 


1 


5 


l 


3 


1 


13 


5 


0-6 


17! 5 


1 


1 


9 


2 


14 


2 


5 


14 


2 


9 


13 


7 


24 


1796 


7 


1 


5 


5 


13 


1 


10 


15 


3 


9 


6 


2 


44 


1797 


3 


S 


12 


1 


10 


7 


5 


15 


4 


7 





11 


21 


1798 


3 


3 


12 


4 


8 


12 


12 


12 


4 


12 


7 


15 


38 


1799 


3 


3 


7 


3 


10 


11 


7 


6 


1 


7 


10 


17 


2-4 


1800 


3 


5 


3 


12 


7 


15 


2 


2 


3 


10 


6 


20 


29 


1801 


8 


6 


6 


17 


10 


13 


3 


1 


8 


6 


5 


19 


1-9 


1802 


11 


3 


6 


20 


15 


13 


4 


3 





3 


4 


18 


26 


1803 


7 


6 


14 


13 


11 


9 


8 


9 


4 


7 


7 


11 


25 


1804 


9 


11 


6 


8 


5 


9 


10 


14 


13 


12 


7 


6 


20 


1805 


6 


9 


6 


1 


2 


8 


4 


14 


12 


14 


2 


7 


07 


1 J06 


3 


6 


20 


2 


3 


4 


13 


10 


7 


8 


4 


7 




1807 


5 


6 


21 


3 


8 


2 


10 


2 


3 


9 


1 


1 


3-5 


1808 


: 


7 


27 





4 


4 


10 


1 





1 


10 


2 


3-4 


1809 


4 


8 


21 





4 


2 


5 


1 


8 


1 


9 


2 


3-6 


1810 


4 


5 


19 


6 


2 


2 


8 


11 


9 


2 


13 


4 


6-1 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



191 



Table LVI. — continued. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 


May. 


7 


7c 


8 


6 





12 


4 


11 


7 


8 


1 


6 


7 


9 


11 


4 


5 


6 


2 


8 


2 


11 


8 


4 


9 


8 


6 


H 


9 


16 


8 


7 


9 


17 


6 


13 


8 


9 


2 


8 


6 


10 


1 


5 


1 


2 


4 


! 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Year. 



7. 
4 
3 
3 
2 
3 
4 
9 
9 

10 
8 

5 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
9 
6 
20 
18 

H 
5 
2 
1 
5 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 

10 
11 

10 

11 

4 

1 

4 

10 

7 

4 

3 
1 

1 
3 
8 
7 
1 
3 
8 
12 



7. 

8 

9 

7 

10 

11 

11 

12 

13 

9 

8 

2 

3 
2 
8 
3 
1 
4 


4 
7 

9 

10 

11 

10 

8 

4 

5 

4 
9 
9 

11 

15 

3 

3 

6 

6 

12 

17 

16 

21 

7 
6 
8 
10 
8 
5 
3 
8 
9 
3 



7 

7 

7 

2 

1 

6 

8 

15 

10 

13 

14 

12 

12 
10 
7 
5 
6 
4 
3 
9 
10 


11 
10 
10 

2 
8 



5 

4 
4 

3 

9 

11 

9 

1 
1 
2 
1 

3 


4 
4 
1 
1 
2 
2 
5 
14 
8 



1 
2 
2 
1 

1 
3 


6 
2 

4 
1 

4 

14 
15 

9 
14 

7 

4 
6 
9 
12 
9 
8 
1 
6 
3 



3 
1 

9 

13 

16 

8 

8 

7 
11 
12 
12 
13 

6 

4 
2 
4 
3 

6 
4 

1 
1 
2 
2 
10 

4 
5 

1 



7. 

5 

11 

14 

15 

17 

6 

4 

6 

4 
5 

6 
9 

4 

9 

14 

16 

12 

8 

5 

2 

4 
2 

4 
10 
8 
1 
3 
3 



u 

10 
7 
2 

2 
4 
4 
6 
5 

10 

8 
7 
3 
1 
5 
4 
1 
2 
1 



3 
3 
3 

1 
6 

3 
12 
16 
12 
14 

H 
9 
7 

4 

2 

6 

13 

8 

10 

H 

5 
7 
7 
5 
5 
5 
3 
5 
1 
1 

3 
1 

3 
1 
2 
6 
7 
8 
7 
1 

1 

1 
2 
5 
7 
2 


1 
2 



1 

5 



7 

11 

12 

10 

5 

7 
6 
4 
9 
6 
8 
8 

H 
17 
16 

7 
3 
1 

1 

4 
5 
6 
1 
1 
6 

8 
9 
6 

/ 

1 



5 
9 
6 

8 

10 

9 

11 

6 

5 

4 

2 

7 

12 



7 

10 
9 
8 
6 
6 
6 
1 
3 
8 
6 

12 

7 
6 
1 

4 

* 
3 


4 
2 

5 



5 

2 
12 
13 

5 

3 

5 

4 



11 
12 
11 

4 
3 
6 
9 
7 
10 

9 
2 
5 
1 

3 
4 
7 
16 
19 



7c 

14 

8 

12 

15 

31 

16 

20 

18 

9 

5 

4 

4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
5 
15 

10 

17 

15 

9 

9 

13 

5 

4 

1 

1 

2 



1 

2 

6 
12 
10 
10 

1 

2 

6 
8 
7 
3 
3 
6 
1 
3 

11 



7c 

7 
1 
8 
4 
11 

2 
3 
2 
1 

9 

12 

13 

15 

14 

8 

4 

4 

5 

5 

13 

13 

9 

5 

5 

4 
9 
7 
6 
15 



4 

3 

6 

5 

5 

11 

14 

18 

14 

12 

8 
2 


4 
4 
2 
2 
5 
2 



7 
1 

7 

8 

11 

4 
4 
2 
10 
6 
7 

3 
4 
8 
7 
12 
9 
1 
2 
1 
O 





11 

7 

4 

9 

19 

13 

7 

7 

3 



7c 

5-5 
3-5 
2-7 
4-9 
2-5 
3-1 
1-8 
2-3 
0-2 
01 

1-2 
1-4 
2-4 
39 
35 
1-5 
1-5 
2-1 
3-5 
2-6 



3 


01 


9 


3-6 


14 


3-6 


8 


3-8 


4 


2-4 


4 


0-2 


O 


1-6 


2 


1-6 


3 


2-3 


9 


2-2 


11 


0-7 


4 


0-9 


7 


1-0 


3 


1-0 


2 


1-8 


7 


1-2 


3 


11 


2 


07 


4 


31 


4 


31 



2-2 
51 
4-4 
0-5 
1-6 
04 
1-9 
2-2 
4-5 
5-9 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 
VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 F 



192 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LVI. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Tear. 




7. 


7. 


°/c 


7, 


% 


7c 


7. 


"/o 


7. 


7= 


7. 


8 / 


7. 


1861 


15 


12 


9 


1 


5 


4 


3 


10 


15 


8 


2 


2 


7-2 


1862 


13 


5 


1 


1 


10 


1 


3 


7 


14 


4 


7 


1 


4-6 


1863 


11 


5 


S 


6 


6 


3 


6 





15 


7 


1 


3 


30 


1864 


11 


7 


IS 


3 


6 


5 


1 


7 


4 


11 


4 


5 


1-3 


1865 


3 


2 


11 


6 


3 


2 


11 


2 


3 


9 


4 


7 


o-o 


1866 


3 


1 


5 


3 





5 


H 


6 


'5 


5 


2 


2 


IS 


1867 


7 


6 


4 


5 


6 


1 


12 


1 


5 





7 


6 


02 


1868 


6 


8 


9 


10 


3 


3 


11 





2 


4 


13 


3 


1-4 


1869 


8 


6 


2 


9 


4 


2 


2 


5 


5 


3 


3 





10 


1870 


5 


2 


3 


5 


4 


2 


2 


1 


7 


1 


1 


5 


0-2 


1871 


1 


6 


10 


1 


2 


2 


8 





1 


1 


2 


1 


0-6 


1872 


5 


10 


5 


1 


1 


2 


9 


1 


1 


5 


5 


2 


0-2 


1873 


7 


11 


5 


3 


2 


3 


6 


1 


4 


3 


13 


5 


11 


1874 


8 


11 


8 


2 


1 


4 


5 


5 


3 


2 


13 


2 


2-2 


1875 


8 


6 


4 


5 


3 


3 


11 


7 


5 





7 


1 


1-3 


1876 


10 


1 


8 


5 


5 


3 


3 


17 


4 


4 


7 


2 


4-6 


1877 


2 


6 


1 


13 





6 


2 


19 


6 


6 


7 


5 


4-6 


1878 


6 


3 





U 


4 


12 


2 


23 





3 


2 


4 


8-7 


1879 


4 


3 


1 


19 


2 


12 


1 


22 


1 


4 


10 


14 


1-9 


1880 


7 


4 


4 


16 





12 


2 


13 


5 


9 


7 


10 


04 


1881 


4 


2 


5 


13 


4 


7 


6 





1 


6 


12 


10 


07 


1882 


11 


8 





13 


8 


4 


13 


3 


1 


5 


14 


8 


40 


1883 


5 


6 


7 


12 


12 


1 


22 


2 


1 


7 


9 


8 


50 


1884 


4 


6 


4 


12 


10 





16 


7 


4 


5 


8 


6 


4-2 


1885 


3 


4 


4 


5 


10 


1 


16 


1 


5 


1 


6 


11 


53 


1886 


6 





6 


4 


10 


6 


12 


2 


6 


3 


2 


13 


3-4 


1887 


4 





4 





2 


9 


2 


4 


2 


3 


1 


14 


1-2 


1888 


10 


6 


4 





4 


7 


2 


4 


1 


5 


4 


5 


13 


1889 


13 





6 


1 


6 


11 


1 





5 


12 





8 


20 


1890 


12 


4 





5 


4 


12 


8 


3 


7 


6 





2 


0-3 


1891 


8 


2 


5 


7 


7 


6 


6 





10 


6 


2 


2 


04 


1892 


7 


3 


7 


12 


1 


5 


4 





5 


5 


5 


3 


0-9 


1893 


3 


1 


3 


11 


1 


8 


5 


4 


6 


1 


1 


6 


1-0 


1894 


2 


2 


9 


1 


1 


6 


7 


4 


1 


6 





7 


1-0 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



193 



Table LVIL 

Showiny the Departure of Pressure from the Normal, Smoothed by continuous 

Five Year Groups. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 












Hund 


redths 


of an 


Inch. 










Thousandths 
of an Inch. 


1772 


6 


5 


2 


5 


2 


4 


4 


1 


12 


15 


6 


2 


40 


1773 


11 


11 


1 


1 


6 


2 


1 


6 


11 


12 


1 


5 


29 


1774 


6 


26 


1 


2 


11 


3 





5 


13 


5 


3 


11 


32 


1775 


5 


22 


2 


5 


4 


7 


1 


3 


9 


3 


4 


11 


15 


1776 


4 


25 


5 


5 


2 


6 


5 


2 





4 


2 


12 


18 


1777 


5 


20 


5 


4 


5 


1 


2 


4 


2 


3 


2 


4 


10 


1778 


10 


17 


5 


4 


11 


3 


2 


11 


2 


7 


2 


10 


1 


1779 


11 


8 


1 


8 


10 


1 


1 


11 


2 


10 


3 


8 


12 


1780 


7 


3 


2 


12 


12 


2 


2 


13 


1 


16 





10 


17 


1781 


1 


4 


3 


3 


8 





4 


10 


7 


19 


6 


15 


25 


1782 


3 


6 


4 


4 


2 


6 


1 


6 


5 


23 


7 


19 


22 


1783 


6 


1 


7 


6 


1 


2 


1 


1 


6 


21 


1 


13 


31 


1784 


u 


6 


5 


10 


3 


1 


3 





10 


20 


7 


9 


29 


1785 


4 





6 


13 


2 


1 





2 


10 


12 


4 


5 


21 


1786 


7 


2 


5 


10 


3 


1 


1 


1 


8 


18 


4 


5 


41 


1787 


1 


7 


3 


9 





3 


2 


1 


10 


7 


2 


3 


4 


1788 


4 


8 


2 


4 





1 


4 


2 


8 


6 


4 


9 


8 


1789 


4 


10 


2 





1 


3 


10 


1 





1 


4 


8 


13 


1790 


12 


5 





4 


1 


1 


10 


1 


4 





3 


12 


22 


1791 


13 


6 


2 


5 


1 


5 


10 


O 


2 


6 


3 


17 


33 


1792 


8 


2 


4 


2 


3 


1 


4 








4 


3 


10 


2 


1793 


4 


6 


4 


6 


7 


1 


1 


3 


5 


10 


2 


7 


1 


1794 


2 


6 


1 


O 


5 


O 


1 


4 


2 


9 


3 


1 





1795 


7 


1 


5 





5 


1 


1 





3 


8 


4 





12 


1796 


5 


5 


8 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


3 


9 


4 


5 


5 


1797 


5 


6 


8 


4 


1 


3 


10 


3 


5 


10 


3 


8 


6 


1798 


9 


8 


10 


7 


5 


3 


9 


1 


12 


6 


9 


4 


28 


1799 


3 


6 


2 


9 


3 


7 


6 


2 


12 


7 


12 


5 


36 


1800 


6 


4 


4 


9 


1 


4 


10 


6 


6 


9 


14 


3 


38 


1801 


4 


9 


5 


10 


5 


2 


2 


5 


2 


4 


15 


11 


34 


1802 


11 





O 


9 


6 


2 


4 


10 


8 


5 


9 


13 


H 


1803 


8 


3 





2 


3 


2 


1 


7 


12 


1 


9 


12 


l 


1804 


11 


3 


2 


1 


1 


3 








13 


4 


1 


15 


5 


1805 


12 


3 


5 


2 


4 


8 


2 


1 


9 


7 


6 


10 


4 


.806 


16 


4 


8 


2 


3 


8 


1 


3 


4 


1 


2 


8 


l 


807 


15 


7 


16 


5 


O 


6 


3 


5 


2 


7 


1 


19 


7 


808 


6 


4 


13 


4 


1 


8 





7 





6 


12 


18 


13 


809 


4 


10 


18 


3 


3 


5 


5 


4 


2 


1 


5 


13 


4 


810 

- 


1 


12 


13 


2 


3 


4 


7 


1 


6 


7 


2 


8 


1 






Note 


.—The 


aeavy t; 


rpe indi 


cates an 


excess, 


and th 


i italic t 


ype a d 


efect. 







VM 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN" MOSSMAN ON 



Table LVII. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug 


Sapt. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 












liund 


redths 


of an 


Inch. 










Thousandth 
of au Inch 


1811 


8 


22 


9 





5 


5 


4 


2 


9 


5 


1 


7 


8 ' 


1812 


10 


n 


4 


I 


2 


7 


4 


5 


15 


11 


7 


2 


9 


1813 


7 


17 


1 


1 


4 


4 


9 


5 


13 


18 


2 


2 


6 


1811 


1 


9 


5 


2 


8 


4 


2 


6 


12 


9 


1 


1 


10 


1815 


3 


5 


8 


8 


6 


1 


3 


1 


8 


4 


2 


11 


20 


1816 


12 


4 


19 


7 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


5 


2 


7 


27 


1817 


13 


12 


18 


7 


4 


5 


2 


3 





8 


4 


4 


82 


1818 


12 


4 


11 


6 


6 


4 





2 


2 


5 


3 


2 


19 


1819 


3 


5 


17 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 


1 


4 





5 


7 


1820 


5 


8 


15 


3 


2 


9 


6 


5 


1 


5 


6 


5 


9 


1821 


10 


3 


9 


3 


1 


7 


1 





3 


8 


1 


5 


8 


1822 


15 


8 


10 


2 





10 





8 


2 


10 


8 


8 


6 


1823 


19 


7 


6 


1 


5 


9 


4 


2 





8 


13 


18 


4 


1824 


21 


4 


6 


5 


9 


10 


4 


3 


2 


9 


10 


7 


20 


1825 


15 





1 


4 


2 


5 


8 


2 


2 


6 


1 


16 


13 


1826 


16 


7 


3 


1 


3 


5 


5 


2 


2 





4 


12 


21 


1827 


15 


9 


7 


7 


4 


6 








2 


5 


7 





35 


1828 


14 


1 


5 


13 





3 


7 


1 


6 


11 


9 


3 


15 


1829 


9 


1 


1 


16 


2 


5 


6 


1 


8 


8 


6 


1 


12 


1830 


12 


3 


6 


14 


2 


5 


4 


6 


6 


10 


2 


2 


2 


1831 


19 


10 


8 


15 


5 


8 


3 


3 


7 


5 


1 


5 


7 


1832 


11 


10 


7 


1 


3 


11 


9 


3 





4 


2 


5 


3 


1833 


10 


14 


5 


9 


4 


6 


11 


1 


1 


4 


1 


4 


20 


1834 


9 


6 


4 


10 


10 


8 


9 


2 


1 


1 


1 


5 


19 


1835 


10 


9 


1 


7 


10 


7 


5 


4 


2 


1 


1 


6 


15 


1836 


7 


1 


5 


6 


8 


5 


4 


1 


2 


2 


4 


18 


22 


1837 


12 


5 


11 


2 


8 


4 





3 


12 


6 


8 


7 


3 


1838 


2 


1 


1 


1 


8 


8 


3 


1 


10 


11 


16 


8 


9 


1839 


2 


1 


5 





1 


5 


4 


3 


12 


7 


16 


4 


19 


1840 


2 


2 


1 


6 


3 


3 


4 


2 


12 


9 


15 


4 


16 


1841 


9 


1 


4 


7 


6 


2 


5 





8 


3 


13 


9 


16 


1842 


6 


2 


3 


7 


1 


3 


4 


3 


2 


6 


11 


18 


6 


1843 


2 


2 


4 


3 


1 


4 


2 


5 


6 


9 


10 


7 


18 


1844 


5 


3 


6 


2 


1 


3 


2 


2 


11 


10 


6 


13 


8 


1845 


8 


2 





8 





5 


1 


2 


9 


11 


8 


9 


17 


1846 


1 


9 


7 


7 


3 


8 





5 


4 


8 


1 


1 




1847 


5 


1 


1 


H 


3 


6 


1 


2 


4 


4 


2 


1 


80 


1848 





4 


2 


19 


5 


4 





2 


7 


5 





4 


23 


1849 


2 





3 


16 


2 


6 





1 


12 





1 


10 


2 


1850 


10 


2 


7 


7 


1 


11 


1 


5 


15 


1 


6 


5 


14 


1851 


18 


5 


14 


7 


1 


9 


4 


2 


14 


5 


4 


9 


5 


1852 


20 


4 


15 


1 


5 


12 


8 


2 


14 


6 


8 


2 


/.; 


1853 


17 


8 


4 


6 


5 


11 


4 


1 


13 


11 


5 


1 


10 


1854 


19- 


5 


12 


3 


8 


11 


2 


3 


5 


5 


9 


10 


M 


1855 


13 


5 


4 


1 


6 


3 


4 


4 


2 


5 


19 


2 


4 


1856 


1 


11 


3 





10 


1 


l 


5 


5 


1 


19 


4 


24 


1857 


6 


5 


4 


6 


4 


4 


3 


4 


2 





21 


4 


20 


1858 


7 


7 


4 


5 


4 


2 


6 


2 


4 


5 


18 


5 


2 


1859 


4 


5 


15 


3 





1 





4 


5 


2 


8 


3 


2 


1860 


5 


8 


16 


2 


8 


6 


2 


9 


3 


1 


4 


1 


17 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



Table LVII. — continued. 



195 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 












Hund 


redths 


of an 


Inch. 










Thousandths 
of an Inch. 


1861 


7 


9 


17 


4 





11 


2 


10 


8 


5 


2 


2 


32 


1862 


4 


13 


19 


10 


1 


11 


1 


5 


5 


2 


2 


9 


5 


1863 


3 


12 


13 


14 


2 


O 


1 


1 





1 


1 


16 


23 


1864 


11 


10 


9 


10 


2 


1 


6 





2 


2 


6 


10 


20 


1865 


11 


7 


5 


5 


5 


4 


8 


1 


4 


1 


11 


12 


30 


1866 


8 


1 


5 


5 


3 


8 


6 


1 





5 


13 





24 


1867 


IS 


3 


1 


1 





10 


5 


2 


3 


4 


13 


4 


4 


1868 


7 


3 


2 


1 





7 


7 


2 


7 


5 


10 


5 


7 


1869 


5 


2 


6 


4 


2 


9 


3 


6 





1 


13 


1 


34 


1870 


10 


1 


2 


1 


1 


5 


5 


9 


3 


1 





10 


5 


1871 


12 


5 


4 


6 





3 


2 


10 


3 


2 


1 


5 


10 


1872 


u 


9 


7 


3 


3 


5 


1 


2 


2 


8 





5 


9 


1873 


17 


13 


9 


3 


2 





1 


1 


2 


5 


3 


5 


12 


1874 


9 


10 


2 


4 


4 


1 


6 





6 


6 





5 


4 


1875 


5 


10 


3 


2 


4 


1 


3 


4 


1 


2 


2 


2 


7 


1876 


6 


10 





2 





2 


7 


5 


1 


6 


3 


5 


6 


1377 


12 


3 


2 


2 


1 


6 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


2 


15 


1878 


22 


8 


4 


6 


5 


4 





3 


2 


7 


3 


2 


10 


1879 


17 


5 


3 


3 


2 


5 


3 


5 


7 


10 


1 


6 


20 


1880 


27 


1 


5 


4 


5 


7 


4 


5 


2 


10 


2 


1 


24 


1881 


21 


5 


5 


l 


9 


6 


9 


3 





15 


3 


8 


27 


1882 


16 





2 


1 


6 


1 


5 


1 


2 


12 


5 


2 


23 


1883 


7 


2 


1 





2 


1 


2 


O 


2 


7 


4 


4 


6 


1884 


1 


3 


3 


3 


5 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


3 


6 


1885 


8 


6 


8 


1 


5 


9 


3 


4 


3 


6 


1 


1 


17 


1886 





10 


1 


2 


5 


9 


5 


5 


5 


8 


2 


4 


25 


1887 


5 


11 


3 


4 


6 


10 


1 


1 


6 


2 


2 


1 


26 


1888 


1 


26 


4 


4 


3 


7 


3 


2 


12 


7 


1 


2 


32 


1889 


10 


31 


6 





5 


11 


7 


7 


9 


3 


1 


7 


38 


1890 


8 


23 


6 





7 


6 


9 


9 


8 


3 


4 


11 


21 


1891 


6 


13 


2 


7 


5 


6 


9 


9 





7 


10 


10 


19 


1892 


2 


12 





9 


3 


4 


7 


7 


5 


2 


4 


7 


16 


1893 


1 


10 


1 


10 


3 


7 


7 


8 


5 


2 


5 





16 


1894 


6 


7 


4 


10 


10 


4 


3 


1 


2 


5 


11 


3 


32 






Not 


b.— The 


heavy 


;ype inc 


icates a 


n exces. 


3, and t' 


le italic 


type a 


defect. 







196 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LVIII. 

Showing the Smoothed Percentage Excess or Defect of Rainfall from the Normal. 
The Averages have been Smoothed by continuous Five Year Groups. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




7. 


7. 


7c 


7. 


7 


7. 


7c 


7. 


V. 


7 


7. 


7. 


7. 


1768 


13 


33 


10 


5 


13 


8 


2 


27 


8 


n 


66 


9 


4 


1769 


6 


37 


28 


19 


11 


18 


6 


14 


2 


9 


76 


1 


3 


1770 


7 


26 


S3 


10 


9 


7 


2 


7 


18 


18 


93 


6 


9 


1771 





15 


25 


22 


1 


18 


28 


6 


19 


13 


90 


4 


4 


1772 


7 


19 


S3 


17 


14 


2 


27 


4 


19 


13 


79 


2 


6 


1773 


46 


5 


23 


2 


4 


12 


2 


3 


23 


45 


53 


27 


11 


1774 


69 


19 


11 


9 


4 


6 


11 


3 


31 


15 


44 


17 


14 


1775 


48 


43 


10 


29 


6 


1 


1 


5 


11 


45 


20 


26 


12 


1776 


48 


36 





7 


2 


15 


28 


1 


1 


71 - 


52 


9 


19 


1777 


34 


32 


8 


19 


7 


2 


53 


28 


16 


95 


21 


2 


20 


1778 


5 


5 


11 


55 


11 


5 


21 


41 


22 


75 


2 


1 


12 


1779 


20 


9 


SO 


59 


26 


3 


11 


18 


9 


69 


14 


24 


14 


1780 


36 


2 





46 


64 


4 


9 


4 


41 


36 


2 


33 


20 


1781 


44 


34 


7 


21 


57 


5 


4 


3 


64 


23 


8 


4 


17 


1782 


36 


22 


19 


12 


39 


7 


31 


6 


15 


5 


8 


6 


4 


1783 


43 


39 


9 


27 


16 


15 


21 


15 


63 


8 


22 





12 


1784 


51 


21 


19 


41 


19 


33 


7 


17 


64 


14 


6 


27 


7 


1785 


23 


9 


5 


48 


11 


19 


30 


31 


31 


9 


8 


36 


2 


1786 


Jfi 


10 


5 


27 


4 


20 


22 


42 


27 


23 


15 


37 


7 


1787 


21 


6 


20 


37 


3 


27 


31 


4% 


42 


2 


14 


46 


3 


1788 


16 


13 


13 


9 


19 


10 


27 


30 


22 


5 


2 


58 





1789 


19 





12 


25 


14 


12 


3 


19 


21 


4 


7 


54 


3 


1790 


3 


2 


3 


28 


1 


25 


6 


10 


1 


11 


20 


16 


7 


1791 


2 


3 


15 


21 


1 


19 


17 


1 


21 


19 


29 


27 


8 


1792 


11 


16 


11 


36 


8 


18 


17 


2 


12 


20 


23 


27 


S 


1793 


2 


41 


17 


41 


6 


28 


15 


2 


25 


41 


40 


37 


15 


1794 


8 


31 


13 


18 


10 


14 


5 


19 


18 


21 


23 


37 


8 


1795 


4 


22 


9 


17 


23 


10 


1 


8 


21 


13 


12 


11 


o 


1796 


6 


2 


28 


21 


18 





6 


5 


7 


10 


12 


2 


1 


1797 


1 


5 


85 


21 


4 


2 


8 


23 





2 


10 


22 





1798 


6 


45 


35 


8 


10 


33 


7 


9 


12 


14 


40 


29 


12 ' 


1799 


9 


U 


30 


2 


14 


41 


11 


11 


15 


12 


4% 


19 


10 


1800 


15 


SO 


37 


8 


5 


41 


4 


8 


10 


19 


35 


21 


U 


1801 


25 


18 


47 


13 





51 


5 


15 


7 


20 


33 


24 


19 


1802 


3 


SO 


20 


14 


17 


47 


10 


27 


20 


17 


32 


17 


21 


1803 


23 


17 


SI 


33 


S3 


39 


2 


16 


19 


32 


37 


SO 


25 


1804 


18 


20 


32 


81 


SO 


39 


20 


3 


32 


80 


6 


34 


23 


1805 


15 


36 


23 


12 


21 


54 


41 





16 


20 


5 


SI 


23 


1806 


15 


29 


25 


9 


13 


43 


10 


20 


11 


12 


18 


15 


13 


1807 


25 


1 


56 


9 


7 


27 


7 


32 


7 


21 


23 


4 


9 


1808 


17 


2 


23 


20 


1 


22 


20 


34 


5 


22 


11 


8 


1 


1809 


27 


23 


12 


32 


12 


10 


10 


30 


1 


10 


4 


26 


11 


1810 


19 


60 


12 


20 


16 


26 


11 


36 


25 


17 


18 


22 


11 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 









THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH 








197 










Table LVIII. 


— continued 












Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year . 




7. 


'L 


% 


7, 


°L 


7. 


7. 


7, 


7o 


7 


7. 


°L 


7o 


1811 


18 


61 


4 


8 


30 


15 


8 


8 


35 


10 


24 


6 


4 


1812 


37 


31 


25 


20 


13 





6 


16 


48 


8 


44 


4 


1 


1813 


37 


32 


13 


12 


29 


3 


18 


29 


42 


4 


11 


7 


5 


1814 


32 


6 


9 


6 


13 


13 





28 


32 


7 


13 


18 


11 


1815 


29 


19 


20 


6 


16 


11 


18 


14 


34 


17 


23 


6 


9 


1816 


9 


36 


1 





12 


13 


28 


16 


23 


25 


10 


19 


4 


1817 


18 


22 


11 


3 


31 


20 


20 


18 


23 


6 


21 


18 





1818 


8 


25 


26 


2 


43 


26 


13 


8 


29 


8 


U 


25 





1819 


12 


31 


8 


15 


40 


14 


13 


14 


40 


12 


13 


31 


1 


1820 


22 


19 


27 


31 


33 


19 


8 


35 


36 


5 


8 


12 


4 


1821 


16 


17 


13 


21 


28 


25 


6 


12 


43 


3 


8 


29 


2 


1822 


11 


16 


19 


12 


11 


22 


6 


15 


41 


11 


9 


37 


3 


1823 


3 


10 


10 





1 


34 


15 


21 


27 


7 


29 


33 


3 


1824 


22 


24 


4 


U 


3 


37 


8 


13 


32 


7 


1 


17 


10 


1825 


27 


14 


12 


3 


10 


35 


24 





33 


27 


9 


29 


6 


1826 


32 


21 


19 


1 


15 


36 


22 


3 


29 


10 


15 


10 


9 


1827 


16 


23 


6 


36 


U 


36 


2 


35 


27 


7 


1 


13 


5 


1828 


19 


16 


24 


47 


27 


32 


42 


69 


21 


23 


5 


10 


4 


1829 


18 


10 


32 


49 


33 


21 


45 


84 


17 


17 


11 


9 


11 


1830 


35 


8 


16 


28 


32 


9 


37 


75 


19 


13 


11 


16 


4 


1831 


47 


26 


12 


27 


43 


16 


15 


59 


19 


11 


16 


1 


1 


1832 


39 


18 


15 


11 


46 


10 


6 


19 


3 


21 


26 


1 


6 


1833 


80 


36 


12 


31 


44 


4 


31 


15 


17 


6 


29 


4 


12 


1834 


4 


5 


36 


31 


46 


6 


2 


26 


28 


10 


29 


7 


6 


1835 


3 


13 


36 


26 


44 


6 


23 


22 


34 


37 


20 


1 


3 


1836 


22 


2 


53 


20 


23 


21 


29 


9 


47 


34 





26 


4 


1837 


6 


5 


51 


22 


23 


44 


31 


5 


36 


25 


3 


25 


6 


1838 


33 


6 


27 


29 


4 


60 


46 


5 


12 


26 


1 


36 


6 


1839 


5 


6 


15 


34 


2 


51 


27 


4 


10 


3 


7 


40 


1 


1840 


2 


18 


15 


53 


1 


36 


6 


16 


8 


11 


10 


39 


6 


1841 


5 


16 


7 


52 


3 


7 


14 


27 


17 


9 


17 


43 


12 


1842 


11 


13 


20 


51 


1 


4 


8 


25 


20 


3 


2 


54 


14 


1843 


30 


24 


36 


49 


18 


1 


6 


14 


25 


29 


4 


42 


13 


1844 


16 


25 


41 


26 


17 


18 


4 


4 


19 


22 


8 


53 


9 


1845 


21 


29 


5 


12 


16 


25 


5 


8 


21 


42 


8 


25 


4 


1846 


25 


17 


4 


22 


8 


61 


21 


4 


16 


44 


6 


12 


1 


1847 


9 


8 


U 


6 


7 


58 


20 


2 


22 


51 


10 


2 


2 


1848 


11 


34 


34 





16 


40 


21 


11 


28 


13 


2 


10 


3 


1849 


8 


22 


3 


11 


9 


27 


29 


17 


37 


7 


9 


10 


9 


1850 


19 


37 


3 


21 


19 


37 


25 


8 


29 


18 


5 


4 


3 


1851 


25 


6 


27 


28 


U 


45 


17 


17 


26 


28 


8 


2 


6 


1852 


26 


10 


28 


45 


6 


51 


22 


10 


36 


30 


12 


5 


7 


1853 


17 


29 


16 


49 


19 


64 


6 


15 


47 


19 


22 


5 


7 


1854 


13 


9 


57 


51 


8 


71 


13 


9 


17 


21 


17 


23 


3 


1855 


4 


28 


38 


• 33 


5 


82 


17 


5 


2 


29 


26 


20 


8 


1856 


8 


34 


23 


30 


11 


42 


7 


13 


4 


22 


19 


22 


9 


1857 


16 


25 


3 


1 


12 


32 


3 


17 


11 


7 


22 


17 


5 


1858 


18 


20 


12 


1 


25 


42 


16 


20 


33 


5 


10 


39 


5 


1859 


1 


30 


39 


1 


38 


39 


6 


19 


30 


7 


11 


23 


4 


1860 


24 


25 


73 


12 


17 


29 


4 


9 


9 


25 


8 


32 


11 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



108 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOBSMAN ON 



Table LVIII. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




% 


7. 


7. 


7. 


7 


7, 


7c 


7c 


7 


7 

/ 


7c 


7c 


V 


1861 


44 


22 


62 


6 


18 


37 


20 





14 


10 


11 


37 


12 


1862 


33 


u 


64 


15 


2 


29 


27 


1 


28 


37 


3 


33 


13 


1863 


16 


is 


54 


18 


21 





IS 


7 


7 


46 


7 


22 


6 


1864 


33 


9 


48 


19 


29 


IS 


14 


1 


7 


37 


18 


10 


6 


1865 


51 


21 


2 


2 


29 


13 


7 


7 


11 


22 


28 


23 


4 


1866 


43 


51 


18 


15 


31 


w 


5 


1 


7 


22 


82 


9 


6 


1867 


59 


37 


12 


13 


37 


37 


5 


1 


1 


20 


35 


10 


1 


1868 


53 


84 


10 


14 


13 


20 


16 


16 


11 


37 


42 


1 





1869 


40 


71 


20 


55 


6 


14 


16 


18 


8 


28 


41 


6 





1870 


20 


75 


6 


42 


3 


11 


85 


13 


42 


13 


18 


2 


6 


1871 


17 


67 


2 


3 


9 


5 


17 


11 


51 


6 


9 


17 


6 


1872 


6 


44 


14 


1 


1 


6 


1 


18 


31 


1 


5 


14 


10 


1873 


17 


10 


11 


5 


5 


8 


13 


15 


38 


6 


40 


20 


10 


1874 


12 


2 


38 


10 


8 


2 


2 


23 


49 


5 


46 


26 


17 


1875 


28 





18 


6 


16 


13 


9 


59 


13 


2 


33 


20 


14 


1876 


31 


10 


4 


22 


12 


2 


6 


55 





12 


36 


27 


10 


1877 


28 


3 


12 


39 


11 


31 


12 


38 


1 


23 


26 


20 


14 


1878 


6 


6 


20 


71 


11 


27 


14 


33 


1 


17 


13 


29 


14 


1879 


10 


1 


1 


41 


5 


19 


26 


49 


5 


19 


3 


15 


9 


1880 


28 


5 


7 


35 





28 


21 


1 


1 


18 


10 


17 


4 


1881 


27 


1 


14 


35 


23 


22 


45 


6 


5 


16 


3 


6 


2 


1882 


2 


7 


5 


16 


13 


21 


36 


7 


1 


15 


8 


19 


1 


1883 


10 


4 


4 


1 


1 


32 


17 


7 


4 


80 


u 


2 


6 


1884 


33 


23 


6 


1 


26 


34 


15 


28 


12 


17 


31 


2 


8 


1885 


26 


30 


4 


18 


17 


57 


3 


26 


8 


28 


27 


32 


16 


1886 


19 


26 


24 


20 


17 


51 


13 


36 


6 


35 


3 


S3 


U 


1887 


18 


29 


10 


2 


8 


44 


8 


16 


18 


17 


8 


49 


16 


1888 


6 


39 


8 


13 


2 


22 


18 


10 


20 


8 


18 


40 


9 


1889 


23 


52 


21 


25 


25 


31 


17 


16 


7 


22 


16 


19 


10 


1890 


20 


41 


15 


25 


15 


8 


9 


37 


33 


7 





20 


8 


1891 


32 


30 


22 


22 


9 


14 


14 


44 


26 


7 


n 


9 


11 


1892 


16 


36 


14 


34 


1 





25 


33 


30 


4 


20 


5 


7 


1893 


37 


28 


6 


81 


5 


1 


8 


40 


39 


9 


87 


1 


7 


1894 


37 


36 


12 


22 


16 


25 


2 


22 


i <a 


22 


44 


17 


S 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



Table LIX. 

Showing the Smoothed Departure from the Average of the Non- Instrumental 

Phenomena. 



199 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 
^L. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 6). 







•"O to 












T3 to 










& 


§ a 


( _ ; 


to 






fe 


s a 


• 


to 

0} 






o 


3 I- 






bo 




© 


3 u 






bb 




a 


■4 s 


C3 


"ci 


o 




o 


^3 O 


d 


cs 


o 




OQ 


E"" 1 to 


w 


o 


pq 




02 ' 


H to 


w 


o 


fe 


fear. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Year. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


1772 


3 


8-0 


4-2 


10 





1811 


2 


0-8 


3-2 


5 


1 


1773 


1 


2-6 


3-8 


8 





1812 


5 


2-2 


1-4 


6 


3 


.774 


2 


2-0 


2-8 


6 


1 


1813 


7 


2-0 


04 


14 


4 


.775 





2-8 


2-8 


2 


2 


1814 


11 


1-6 


1-2 


19 


5 


.776 





2-0 


3-2 


2 


2 


1815 


10 


0-4 


0-2 


23 


5 


777 


2 


1-0 


3-8 


1 


4 


1816 


13 


0-2 


0-2 


26 


6 


778 





1-8 


3-8 


3 


3 


1817 


12 


o-o 


2-8 


26 


6 


779 


2 


1-8 


4-0 


5 


3 


1818 


12 


0-6 


3 


24 


6 


780 


2 


1-8 


2-0 


4 


3 


1819 


7 


04 


5-2 


19 


6 














1820 


4 


10 


70 


16 


3 


781 


6 


1-2 


0-8 


4 


1 














782 


8 


2-4 


0-8 


7 


4 
6 


1821 


4 


0-4 


90 


8 


2 


783 


8 


2-0 


2-8 


9 


1822 


1 


0-6 


11-6 


8 


1 


784 


12 


2-8 


3-2 


10 


5 


1823 


1 


10 


12-4 


6 


2 


785 


5 


2-2 


1-6 


11 


4 


1824 


1 


10 


11-2 


6 


5 


786 


2 


3-0 


o-o 


13 


8 


1825 


3 


o-o 


9-6 


8 


6 


787 


1 


1-2 


3-6 


14 


6 


1826 





1-4 


8-4 


11 


6 


788 


2 


1-0 


1-6 


11 


8 


1827 





2-4 


7 


10 


7 


789 


6 


1-0 


1-2 


9 


9 


1828 


1 


1-6 


4-4 


9 


6 


790 


5 


1-4 


1-0 


6 


9 


1829 





2-8 


0-8 


7 


4 














1830 


8 


2-4 


0-8 


2 


3 


791 


6 


1-6 


0-4 


5 


7 


1831 


3 


1-8 


0'4 


2 


4 


792 


8 


2-6 


0-8 


2 


9 


1832 


6 


20 


26 


6 


1 


793 


4 


3-0 


0-2 


3 


8 


1833 


9 


0-6 


1-2 


3 


2 


794 


4 


3-2 


0-8 


5 


9 


1834 


9 


0-6 


1-4 


5 


1 


795 


6 


3-0 


0-4 


8 


10 


1835 


2 


0-8 


3-8 


7 


2 


796 


6 


1-6 


1-6 


8 


12 


1836 


4 


o-o 


1-8 


7 


4 


797 


1 


1'8 


1-6 


6 


10 


1837 


9 


10 


1-8 


10 


6 


798 


3 


1-6 


3-4 


3 


5 


1838 


10 


o-o 


0-4 


15 


6 


799 


3 


1-6 


3-2 


2 


5 


1839 


10 


0-2 


OS 


18 


3 


300 
301 


6 


2-0 


0'8 


1 


6 


1840 


7 


1-6 


1-6 


20 


1 


8 


3-4 


2-2 


1 


6 


1841 


1 


1-4 


06 


18 


5 


502 


8 


3-4 


2-6 


4 


8 


1842 


1 


2-2 


0-8 


10 


8 


103 

:04 


5 


3-4 


4-6 


7 


10 


1843 


1 


1-8 


1-2 


9 


9 


2 


2-6 


3-8 


8 


7 i 


1844 


1 


0-4 


2-8 


1 


11 


105 


3 


2-2 


4-6 


8 


3 


1845 


5 


0-6 


8-4 


2 


8 


106 


5 


0-6 


34 


6 


6 


1846 


7 


1-0 


6-2 


4 


6 


107 


5 


04 


4-6 


2 


9 


1847 


9 


08 


5-4 


3 


8 


108 


6 


0-4 


4-6 


3 


11 


1848 


10 


04 


5-8 


1 


9 


109 


5 


04 


50 





10 


1849 


11 


1-6 


5-6 


5 


5 


110 


6 


0-2 


4-4 


2 


6 


1850 


12 


02 


4-6 


3 


5 



2 G 



200 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LIX. — continued. 





o 

a 


•xi 03 

S a 

-^ .g 

H 03 


"3 


"3 

6 


© 
fa 




o 

a 

GO 


Thunder- 
storms. 


'3 


03 
03 

"3 

& 


o 


Year. 


Days 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Year. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


Days. 


1851 


9 


10 


3-4 


2 


6 


1873 


5 


56 


1-8 


9 


9 


1852 


9 


6 


2-8 


4 





1874 


1 


5-2 


OS 


9 


7 


1853 


5 


1-2 


2-8 


5 


2 


1875 


1 


3-4 


0-2 


8 


4 


1854 


5 


1-6 


3-2 


11 


3 


1876 


1 


2-6 


O'O 


7 


6 


1855 


4 


0-2 


4-6 


12 


4 


1877 


3 


16 


1-8 


5 


9 


1856 


6 


o-o 


5-8 


15 


5 


1878 


1 


2-8 


1-2 


1 


10 


1857 


5 


1-4 


6-4 


16 


8 


1879 


1 


30 


0-4 


7 


8 


1858 


7 


1-0 


5-2 


18 


8 


1880 


1 


40 


06 


9 


7 


1859 


4 


0-6 


4-6 


14 


10 














1860 


3 


1-2 


4'6 


13 


9 


1881 


1 


50 


1-6 


15 


5 














1882 


3 


6 2 


3-4 


23 


3 


1861 


5 


1-4 


3-2 


8 


7 


1883 


2 


56 


3 8 


25 


2 


1862 


4 


1-0 


3-2 


8 


6 


1884 





5-2 


1-4 


19 


8 


1863 


4 


2-2 


4-2 


7 


5 


1885 


1 


36 


0-2 


15 


3 


1864 


6 


2-6 


8-6 


11 


2 


1886 


1 


20 


1-2 


11 


4 


1865 


3 


1-4 


4-0 


10 


1 


1887 


1 


0-8 


0-6 


2 


4 


1866 


2 


o-o 


4-6 


9 





1888 


1 


1-4 


0-4 


1 


4 


1867 


4 


o-o 


5-4 


9 





1889 


3 


0-2 


2-6 





4 


1868 


1 


02 


5-6 


10 


3 


1890 





0-2 


58 


2 


6 


1869 





1-2 


6-0 


7 


5 














1870 


4 


32 


5-8 


7 


10 


1891 


1 


1-4 


5-6 


3 


7 














1892 


1 


2-6 


6-8 


8 


6 


1871 


4 


30 


5-0 


10 


12 


1893 


1 


4-4 


70 


9 


3 


1872 


2 


50 


2-8 


11 


10 


1894 





4-2 


5-8 


14 


2 



Note. — The heavy type indicates an excess, and the italic type a defect. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



201 



Table LX. 

Showing the Number of Times the Shade Minimum fell to or below Freezing Point in 

each Month during 81 Years. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1803, . 


16 


7 


8 
















8 


9 


48 


1804, 




7 


15 


11 


6 














2 


11 


52 


1805, 




14 


8 


3 


2 


' i 






• •• 




"5 


4 


10 


47 


1806, 




17 


7 


10 


6 












2 


2 


4 


48 


1807, 




15 


19 


23 


10 






. . • 


*•* 






21 


17 


105 


1808, 




17 


15 


18 


7 










"i 


"4 


7 


11 


80 


1809, 




22 


8 


4 


12 


"i 












7 


14 


68 


(1810, 




10 


15 


23 


5 


3 










2 


7 


13 


78 


11811, 




18 


11 


10 


5 
















18 


62 


.812, 




16 


7 


17 


5 














"7 


15 


67 


.813, 




16 


3 


3 


3 












"8 


14 


12 


59 


.814, 




29 


20 


18 






2 








2 


10 


18 


99 


[815, 




26 


2 


9 


3 














15 


20 


75 


816, 




21 


18 


16 


10 


3 












16 


22 


106 


817, 




13 


11 


15 


6 


1 








... 


"5 


3 


17 


71 


> 818, 




17 


19 


22 


11 
















5 


74 


819, 




11 


10 


2 




"i 










"5 


13 


21 


63 


820, 




18 


7 


12 














... 


2 


13 


52 


821, 




9 


9 


2 














1 




7 


28 


822, 




10 


5 


5 










• ■ * 






i 


12 


33 


823, 




23 


20 


8 


i 












i 




9 


62 


824, 




9 


10 


16 


12 


6 








"3 


8 


13 


12 


89 


825, 




9 


12 


16 


8 


3 










5 


15 


14 


82 


826, 




21 


4 


10 


7 


4 




... 






3 


14 


9 


72 


827, 




18 


20 


13 


6 


2 










1 


8 


4 


72 


'828, 




10 


13 


12 


6 












4 


3 


2 


50 


829, 




22 


13 


14 


8 












6 


10 


18 


91 


830, 




23 


17 


10 


4 












3 


7 


17 


81 


831, 




17 


12 


10 


1 


4 












11 


5 


60 


840, 




15 


18 


17 


3 


1 










"i 


10 


21 


86 


841, 




21 


14 


2 


2 


1 










4 


15 


10 


69 


842, . 




23 


9 


8 


4 












7 


7 


6 


64 


843, 




19 


15 


11 


5 










"i 


12 


14 


2 


79 


844, 




17 


23 


22 


1 


3 








1 


5 


5 


25 


102 


845, 




19 


22 


21 


8 










1 


2 


6 


19 


98 


846, 




6 


8 


12 


12 


"i 










2 


5 


26 


72 


847, 




20 


19 


9 


9 


1 








"i 




7 


15 


81 


848, 




25 


12 


14 


14 












"5 


11 


11 


92 


849, 




16 


7 


4 


8 












7 


10 


15 


67 


850, 




26 


7 


9 


4 


"5 










1 


5 


4 


61 


351, 




6 


8 


7 


7 


1 


"i 








... 


17 


10 


57 


357, 




16 


5 


6 


4 














4 


... 


35 


358, 




7 


17 


11 


4 












"2 


10 


8 


59 


359, 




10 


9 


4 


14 












9 


12 


18 


76 


360, 




22 


21 


12 


9 










... 


... 


7 


15 


86 


161, 




17 


9 


6 


3 


2 












11 


17 


65 


162, 




8 


5 


12 


4 


1 










"i 


19 


1 


51 


163, 




9 


8 


7 


1 












1 


4 


10 


40 


64, 




18 


20 


15 


3 


"i 










1 


9 


11 


78 


65, 




20 


19 


24 


3 












4 


9 


1 


80 


66, . 




10 


14 


16 


3 


2 










1 


7 


8 


61 


67, 




21 


5 


19 




1 










1 


5 


10 


62 


68, . 




13 


6 


4 


3 


1 










1 


13 


6 


47 


69, , 




11 


7 


23 


5 


5 










6 


12 


15 


84 


: 


70, . 




18 


19 


15 


1 




... 








1 


12 


16 


82 



































202 



MR ROBERT COCKBURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LX. — continued. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1871, . 


19 


4 


4 


3 


2 










5 


19 


19 


75 


1872, 






18 


9 


9 


6 


«•• 














1 


2 


9 


54 


1873, 






8 


12 


3 


















2 


9 


9 


43 


1874, 






10 


16 


4 




• •* 


,. 














6 


21 


57 


1875, 






8 


7 


7 


















i 


7 


9 


39 


1876, 






9 


9 


9 


"5 


















6 


7 


45 


1877, 






5 


3 


16 


9 


5 


,, 












2 


6 


5 


51 


1878, 






14 


5 


14 


4 
















3 


13 


26 


79 


1879, 






28 


19 


16 


9 


2 














5 


11 


18 


108 


1880, 






16 


1 


6 


1 
















3 


11 


16 


54 

1 


1881, 






25 


15 


16 


8 
















4 


1 


14 


83 


1882, 






4 


4 


3 


3 
















2 


8 


18 


42 


1883, 






6 


3 


20 




"i 
















3 


5 


38 


1884, 






8 


4 


7 


*6 
















i 


7 


12 


45 


1885, 






14 


8 


11 


3 


i 












i 


5 


5 


10 


58 


1886, 






19 


19 


19 


2 


2 


















3 


64 


1887, 






11 


10 


15 


9 


2 














2 


5 


17 


71 


1888, 






9 


17 


20 


8 




1 1 














2 


6 


62 


1889, 






6 


13 


9 




















5 


12 


45 


1890, 






6 


15 


4 


"i 


... 














2 


7 


12 


50 


1891, 






18 


6 


16 


4 


1 
















5 


6 


56 


1892, 






15 


11 


21 


7 
















4 


4 


19 


81 


1893, 






11 


7 


6 










... 








2 


7 


5 


38 


1894, 






13 


7 


3 




i 














3 


1 


9 


37 


1895, 






26 


22 


5 


"4 
















3 


4 


8 


72 


1896, 






7 


7 


4 






" 


... 








4 


4 


12 


38 








J 


Decennial Means. 










1811-20, 


185 


108 


12 4 


4 '3 


05 


0-2 








20 


8-0 


161 


72-8 


1821-30, 




15 4 


123 


106 


5 2 


1-5 








0-3 


3 2 


71 


10-4 


66'0 


1841-50, 




19 2 


13 6 


11-2 


67 


11 










0-4 


4-5 


8-5 


13-3 


78-5 i 


1861-70, 




145 


11-2 


14-1 


26 


1 3 












1-7 


101 


95 


65 


1871-80, 




135 


8-5 


8-8 


37 


09 












22 


9-0 


13 9 


60-5 


1881-90, 




108 


108 


124. 


4-3 


06 










o' ; i 


1-6 


4 3 


10-9 


55-8 


Means, 81 




























years, 


151 


113 


11-3 


4 6 


0'9 





00 





O'l 


2 4 


77 


11 9 


65-3 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



203 



Table LXI. 

Showing the Number of Times the Shade Minimum fell to or below 32° in 
each Winter, with Date of First and Last Frost. 





























Days 










Days 










Winter. 


with 


First Frost. 


Last Frost. 


Winter. 


with 


First Frost. 


Last Frost. 




Frost. 










Frost. 










1802-3, . 


43 


November 8 


March 


15 


1857-58, . 


43 


November 


25 


April 


14 


1803-4, . 


56 


13 


April 


22 


1858-59, . 


57 


October 


29 


1 1 


24 


1804-5, . 


41 


23 


May 


1 


1859-60, . 


103 


j j 


21 


> i 


28 


1805-6, . 


59 


October 18 


April 


15 


1860-61, . 


59 


November 


3 


May 


9 


1806-7, . 


75 


22 


it 


21 


1861-62, . 


58 


>j 


1 


»i 


16 


1807-8, . 


95 


November 7 


u 


21 


1862-63, . 


46 


October 


30 


April 


7 


1808-9, . 


70 


September 27 


May 


2 


1863-64, . 


72 


,, 


6 


May 


31 


1809-10, . 


77 


November 1 


,, 


17 


1864-65, . 


87 




i 


21 


April 


30 


1810-11, . 


66 


October 28 


April 


10 


1865-66, . 


59 




i 


23 


May 


3 


1811-12, . 


63 


December 4 


D 


22 


1866-67, . 


62 




t 


26 


ii 


14 


1812-13, , 


47 


November 5 


>) 


3 


1867-68, . 


43 




> 


4 


ii 


6 


1813-14, . 


103 


October 13 


June 


8 


1868-69, . 


71 




i 


20 


ii 


29 


.814-15, . 


70 


8 


April 


24 


1869-70, . 


86 




i 


17 


April 


9 


.815-16, . 


103 


November 2 


May 


11 


1870-71, . 


61 




i 


15 


May 


17 


816-17, . 


84 


., 6 


}j 


18 


1871-72, . 


85 




> 


4 


April 


23 


817-18, . 


94 


October 3 


April 


18 


1872-73, . 


35 






5 


March 


15 


818-19, . 


29 


December 9 


May 


28 


1873-74, . 


50 




> 


9 


ii 


12 


819-20, . 


76 


October 20 


March 


25 


1874-75, . 


47 


November 


1 


ii 


20 


820-21, . 


35 


November 14 




22 


1875-76, . 


49 


October 


12 


April 


23 


821-22, . 


28 


4 




24 


1876-77, . 


51 


November 


9 


May 


8 


822-23, . 


65 


29 


April 


19 


1877-78, . 


50 


October 


17 


April 


6 


823-24, . 


63 


October 29 


May 


22 


1878-79, . 


116 


>i 


29 


May 


10 


824-25, . 


84 


September 27 


ii 


31 


1879-80, . 


58 


!> 


15 


April 


30 


825-26, . 


80 


October 21 


ii 


12 


1880-81, . 


94 


1) 


19 


ii 


10 


826-27, . 


85 


» 6 


ii 


12 


1881-82, . 


33 


II 


16 


ii 


15 


827-28, . 


54 


29 


April 


8 


1882-83, . 


58 


11 


26 


May 


6 


828-29, . 


66 


18 


ii 


30 


1883-84, . 


33 


November 


7 


April 


27 


829-30, . 


88 


7 




4 


1884-85, . 


57 


October 


11 


May 


12 


830-31, . 


71 


17 


May 


14 


1885-86, . 


82 


September 


27 


ii 


27 


840-41, . 


72 


25 


ii 


3 


1886-87, . 


50 


October 


12 


n 


5 


841-42, . 


73 


21 


April 


12 


1887-88, . 


78 


»» 


12 


April 


26 


842-43, . 


70 


13 


ii 


27 


1888-89, . 


36 


November 


27 


March 


27 


843-44, . 


95 


September 29 


May 


19 


1889-90, . 


46 


j» 


17 


April 


20 


844-45, . 


106 


22 


April 


25 


1890-91, . 


66 


October 


27 


May 


17 


845-46, . 


67 


» 23 


May 


15 


1891-92, . 


65 


November 


23 


April 


19 


846-47, . 


91 


October 26 


II 


17 


1892-93, . 


51 


October 


18 


March 


28 


847-48, . 


88 


September 27 


April 


30 


1893-94, . 


38 


ii 


30 


May 


21 


848-49, . 


62 


October 18 


n 


21 


1894-95, . 


70 


ii 


19 


April 


14 


849-50, . 


83 


2 


May 


15 


1895-96, . 


33 


ii 


24 


March 


31 


S50-51, . 


40 


8 


June 


4 


1896-97, . 


51 


ii 


11 


April 


8 



























204 



MR ROBERT COCK BURN MOSSMAN ON 



Table LXII. 

Showing the Number of Times Frost was Registered on each Day 
of the Year during Eighty-one Years. 





a 

1-5 






< 


a 


a5 

a 


a-, 

M 


+3 
o 
O 


> 

o 


c5 

Q 




c 

C3 
1-5 




U 
OS 


< 




Ci 

c 

3 
1-5 


CD 


o 
O 


> 

o 


I 

C 


1, . 


38 


33 


37 


20 


3 








12 


27 


19, . 


30 


34 


26 


16 


3 






8 


27 


29 


2, . 


40 


38 


36 


16 


5 


■ •• 






i 


n 


29 


20, . 


44 


38 


23 


12 


1 






8 


18 


28 


3, . 


41 


32 


31 


17 


2 


•■■ 






l 


9 


29 


21, . 


48 


34 


29 


9 


2 






9 


17 


35 


4, . 


39 


33 


33 


18 


3 


1 






3 


7 


25 


22, . 


46 


29 


34 


8 


1 




l 


6 


20 


40 


5, . 


38 


28 


34 


10 


4 


,,, 






3 


16 


24 


23, . 


46 


30 


32 


8 






l 


6 


25 


40 


6, . 


42 


32 


32 


14 


6 








4 


18 


29 


24, . 


36 


31 


28 


7 








5 


22 


35 


7, . 


45 


33 


29 


11 


2 


1 






4 


19 


23 


25, . 


31 


32 


22 


11 


1 






11 


21 


36 


8, . 


41 


31 


32 


9 


5 


1 






3 


12 


28 


26, . 


42 


36 


25 


3 








15 


25 


39 


9, . 


40 


41 


36 


15 


4 










4 


20 


28 


27, . 


39 


38 


21 


8 


1 




4 


12 


30 


42 


10, . 


39 


31 


37 


16 


3 










3 


22 


30 


28, . 


34 


34 


21 


5 


2 




1 


10 


26 


37 


11, . 


45 


33 


37 


18 


3 










6 


16 


29 


29, . 


39 


(5) 


20 


7 


1 




2 


13 


28 




12, . 


43 


33 


36 


19 


3 










5 


25 


27 


30, . 


35 




20 


6 








11 


26 




13, . 


38 


35 


33 


19 


2 










5 


22 


29 


31, . 


31 




20 




1 






10 






14, . 


40 


26 


30 


19 


4 










2 


22 


30 
























15, . 


41 


30 


31 


19 


2 










7 


24 


?A 





















___ 





16, . 


40 


26 


34 


14 


2 










4 


21 


24 






















1 


17, . 


39 


28 


29 


13 


4 










5 


29 


26 


Totals, . 


1220 91 !, 


917 


373 


72 


3 


9 


194 


624 


966 


18, . 


32 


32 


29 


13 


2 










10 


34 


29 

























THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



205 



Table LXIII. 

flowing the Number of Times the Minimum Temperature in Shade fell to or below 

20° during Eighty-one Years. 







































fear. 


a 


PR 


f-4 

eg 


a, 
< 



O 


> 

si 







Year. 


a 

i-a 
1 


.0 




a, 


-4-3 

O 
O 










1803 


l 














1 


1857 














1 


1804 


l 


"i 


... 


» 




1B 




• • * 


2 


1858 














*•• 




1805 




















1859 


















1806 






• >• 


• ■« 












1860 




"i 










5 


6 


1807 




i 










2 




"3 




















1808 


2 




• •■ 






,, 






2 


1861 


2 








..* 






2 


1809 


4 






... 










4 


1862 






"i 






... 




1 


1810 




"6 










... 




6 


1863 
1864 


"2 


"i 


"i 










4 


1811 


4 




• *• 


f • • 




., 


• •* 




4 


1865 


1 


2 












3 


1812 


1 






. • * 








"3 


4 


1866 


1 














1 


1813 






• •* 


... 




,, 


"2 




2 


1867 


5 










... 




5 


1814 


14 


"i 


• *« 


• • • 




ti 


• •• 


"i 


16 


1868 




... 






... 


• ■• 






1815 


3 












1 


3 


7 


1869 


... 










... 


3 


"3 


1816 


*■• 


"2 


... 


... 




M 


... 


1 


3 


1870 




"2 








.. • 


1 


3 


1817 






... 






M 


... 
























1818 






1 








• •« 




"i 


1871 


... 


... 








• •• 






1819 












if 




"3 


3 


1872 




... 






*• . 


... 






11820 


"5 
















5 


1873 

1874 




"i 










4 


"5 


1821 


1 
















1 


1875 


"i 














1 


1822 




















1876 










... 








1823 




2 


• •• 












2 


1877 


... 












3 


3 


1824 












i 




i 


2 


1878 


1 










... 


2 


3 


1825 














"1 




1 


1879 


3 




"i 






... 




4 


1826 


6 














... 


6 


1880 
















... 


1827 


3 


2 


"i 












6 




















1828 


1 




... 












1 


1881 


13 




1 








5 


19 


1829 


6 






... 










6 


1882 
















, 


1830 


1 


"3 


... 










"3 


7 


1883 
1884 


... 




... 








1 


"i 


1831 


2 


1 




1 










4 


1885 


















1840 


... 




... 








... 






1886 
1887 


"2 


"i 


"i 










"3 
1 


1841 


4 




... 












4 


1888 




1 












1 


1842 


2 












"i 




3 


1889 


















1843 


1 


3 














4 


1890 


















1844 




4 












"2 


6 




















1845 


*3 


5 


... 












8 


1891 


















1846 


••• 




"4 






., 




4 


8 


1892 




"i 










3 


4 


1847 


... 


4 


1 


... 










5 


1893 


"2 














2 


1848 


4 




■ •• 


• •• 








... 


4 


1894 


2 














2 


1849 


4 




• •• 


... 




„ 


... 


... 


4 


1895 


3 


"9 








"i 


... 


13 


850 


5 


... 


... 


... 




•• 


... 


... 


5 


1896 


... 


... 








... 




... 


851 












** 


... 


... 




Totals, 


117 


54 


10 


1 


1 


8 


48 


239 



11-20 
•.21-30 
: 41-50 



27 
18 
23 



Decennial Totals. 



3 

7 

16 



11 

4 



45 
32 
51 



1861-70 I 11 
1871-80 5 
1881-90 15 



5 


2 








4 


1 


1 




..« 


• •• 


9 


2 


2 


... 


... 


... 


6 



22 
16 
25 



( 206 ) 



SUMMARY AND CONTENTS OF PART II. 



General Summary, 
Preliminary, . 
Barometric Pressure, 
Mean Temperature of the Air 
Temperature Variability, 
Rainfall, 

Droughts and Heavy Rains, 
Direction of the Wind, 
Mean Relative Humidity, 
Thunderstorms, 
Snow, 
Had, 
Gales, 

Fog or Mist, 
Auroras, 
Lightning, 

Hourly Sunshine Values, 
Rainband Observations, 
Solar and Terrestrial Radiation, 



Reduction of the Observations taken in 
Edinburgh from June 1731 to May 1736, 
Pressure, 
Temperature, 
Rainfall, 

Variability of Temperature, 
Humidity, . 

Wind Direction, . . 

Gales, 

Fog or Mist, . 
Thermal Windrose, . 
Hygrometric Windrose, 
General Results, 

Does the Weather move in Cycles ? 
Days with Frost, 



PAGE 

63-92 
63 
63 
66 

71 
72 
73 

76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
81 
81 
81 
81 
82 
83 

84-92 
84 
85 
86 
86 
86 
86 
87 
87 
87 



89 
92 



Appendix of Remarkable Atmospheric Pheno 

mena, ..... 93-108 

General Tables. Barometric Pressure, 109-115 

Table I. Mean Barometric Pressure from 

1769-1896, 

„ II. Highest Barometric Pressure in 

each Month Ifrom 1840-1896, . 

„ III. Lowest Barometric Pressure in 

each Month from 1840-1896, . 113 



109 



112 



Barometric Pressure — continued. 

Table IV. Monthly Range of Pressure, 

„ V. Summary of Pressure Ob- 

servations, . 
„ VI. High and Low Pressures, . 



page 

114 

115 
115 



Temperature Observations, . . 116-142 

Table VII. Mean Air Temperature from 

1764-1896, . . 116 

„ VIII. Reduction of the Edinburgh 

Advertiser Observations, . 119 

„ IX. & X. Reduction of the Edin- 
burgh Magazine and Scots 
Magazine Registers, . 120 

„ XI. Reduction of Waterston's 

Register, . . 122 

„ XII. Mean Temperature at Glen- 

doich, . . .123 

„ XIII. Extreme Daily Temperature 
Values in each Year 1770- 
1896, . . 124 

XIV. Highest Mean Daily Tem- 
perature in each Month, 
1857-1896, 

„ XV. Lowest Mean Daily Tem- 

perature in each Month, 
1857-1896, . . 127 

„ XVI. Extreme Range in the Mean 

Daily Temperatures in each 
Month, 1857-1896, . 128 

„ XVII. Greatest Daily Range of 
Temperature in each 
Month, 1857-1896, . 189 

„ XVIII. Synopsis of Thermometric 
Observations from 1840- 
1896, . . .130 

„ XIX. Abstract of Temperature 

Observations, 1764-1896, . 134 

„ XX. Low Day Maxima and 

High Night Minima, 
1840-1896, . ■ 134 

„ XXI. to I Reduction of Adie's Obser- 
XXIV. I vations, 1824-1831, 135-139 

„ XXV. & ) Mean Daily Variability of 

XXVI. ] Temperature, 1840-1896, WO 



THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 



207 



imperature Observations — continued. 

Table XXVII. Comparison of Variability 
of Temperature from 
Observations deduced 
from different data, 
„ XXVIII. Temperature Variability 
at Hawkhill and Kirk- 
caldy, 1776-1777, 



PAGE 



142 



142 



IlNFALL, . . • • . . 143-147 

Table XXIX. Montblyand Annual Rain- 
fall for 120J Years, . 143 

„ XXX. Droughts of more than 14 

Days, . . .146 

„ XXXI. Daily Rainfalls of an inch 

or more, . .147 

^ nd Observations, . . . 148-162 

Table XXXII. Number of Days the Wind 
blew from the Eight 
Principal Directions for 
each Month during 138 
Years, . . .148 

„ XXXIII. Mean Monthly Percent- 
ages, 1764-1896, . 161 
„ XXXIV. Decennial Means, . . 161 
„ XXXV. Mean Annual Percentage 
Frequency of East and 
West Winds, 1764-1896, 



K 



162 

^-Instrumental Phenomena, 1770-1896, 163-181 
Table XXXVI. Days with Thunderstorms, 163 
„ XXXVII. Diurnal Distribution of 

Thunderstorms, . .166 

„ XXXVIII. Days with Snow, . . 167 

„ XXXIX. Date of First and Last 

Snow by Winters, . 169 

„ XL. Days with Hail, . .170 

„ XLI. Days with Gales, . .173 

„ XLII. Days with Mist or Fog, . 176 

XLIII. Auroras, 1773-1781 and 

1800-1896, . . 179 

XLIV. Days with Silent Light- 
ning, . 



OL. XXXIX. PART I. ( NO. 6). 



PAGE 

Sunshine, ..... 182-183 

Table XLV. Hourly Sunshine Values, 182 
„ XLVI. Analysis of Sunless arid 

Sunny Days, . .183 

Reduction of Observations taken from 1731- 

1736, ..... 184-186 

Table XLVII. Mean Temperature at 9 

a.m., . . . 184 

„ XLVIII. Corrected 9 a.m. Tem- 
peratures, . .184 
XLIX. Rainfall, . . .184 
„ L. Mean Variability of Tem- 
perature, . .185 
„ LI. Mean Humidity, . .185 
„ HI. Thermal Windrose, 1731- 

1736, . . . 185 

LIII. Thermal Windrose, 1770- 

1776, . . .186 

,, LIV. Mean Humidity with dif- 

ferent Winds, 1731-1 736, 186 

Smoothed Departures from the Long Aver- 
ages for each Month, . . . 187-200 
Table LV. Temperature, . . 187 
LVI. West Wind, . . 190 
„ LVII. Barometric Pressure, . 193 
LVIII. Rainfall, . . .196 
„ LIX. Annual Non-Instrumental 

Values, . . .199 

Frost in Shade, 81 Years, . . 201-205 

Table LX. Monthly and Annual 

Values, . . .201 

„ LXI. First and last Frost by 

Winters, . . 203 

„ LXII. Daily Values, . . 204 

„ LXIII. Number of Days on which 

the Shade Temperature 
fell to or below 20°, 



181 Summary and Contents, 



205 
206 



2 H 



Edin. 



Vol. XXXIX. 



R. C MOSSMAN ON THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 
Plate I. — Showing the Departure from the Average. 

Note - The RED indicates ah EXCESS and the BLUE A DEFECT. 

PRESSURE. 



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H C Mots™ * n dell 



M'FarUne A. Znkuw. Lith™ Edin' 



NOTE— THE VALUES HAVE BEEN SMOOTHED BY CONTINUOUS FIVE YEAR GROUPS. 



fin. 



Vol. XXXIX 



R. C. MOSSMAN ON THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH. 
Plate II. — Showing the Departure from the Average. 

Note — The RED indicates an EXCESS and the BLUE a DEFECT 



1 i7so 1800 i 


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Edin. 



R. C. MOSSMAN ON THE METEOROLOGY OF EDINBURGH, 
Plate III— Showing the Departure from the Average. 



Vol. XXXIX. 



Note - The RED indicates an EXCESS and the BLUE A DEFECT 



WEST WIND 



ANNUAL VALUES. 






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THUNDER-STORMS BY OECADES. 

RED. London. BLUE, Edinburgh. 

1780 i79o 1800 ibio 1820 isso 1840 i«o I860 1870 1880 laso 




M*Farl»ne It ErsVino Lit*" Ed.a 



NOTE. — THE VALUES HAVE BEEN SMOOTHED BY CONTINUOUS FIVE YEAR GROUPS 



( 2 09 ) 



VII. — The Automorphic Linear Transformation of a Quadric. 
By Thomas Mum, LL.D. 

(Read April 5, 1897.) 

(1) It is well known that Cayley effected the transformation of 

Xl z+xJ+x*+ . . . +^ 2 into &'+&*+&"+ • • • £ 2 
by introducing an intermediary set of variables 

01 > $2 > ^3 » • • • > 0« 

connected with each of the other sets by means of a linear substitution of a peculiar 
type. The substitutions in fact were 



^11^1 + ^12^2 + ^13^3 + 
V*l + *2202 + *2303 + 
^1^1 + ^2 + ^3 + 



• = *!*) 



■■x 2 I 






and 



J 



^lA + ^A + ^31^3+ ■ ' • =fl > | 
^12^1 + ^22^2 + ^32^3+ ■ • ■ = ^2 



^ 



^1 + ^2 + ^3+ • • • =?3 I 
J . 

where the determinant of the first substitution is unit-axial and skew, and the deter- 
minant of the second substitution is got from the preceding determinant by changing 
rows into columns, and where, therefore, the number of arbitrary quantities introduced 
by the two substitutions is only \n{n — 1 ). Cayley did not in any way indicate how 
he was led to the substitutions. It has to be carefully noted, however, that when they 
had been divined or devised, the essential difficulty of the problem had been overcome ; 
all that remained was the simple algebraical process of eliminating B x , 2 , 3 , . . . and 
so finding the expression for each of the x's in terms of the £'s. It is true that this 
process does not take a simple form in the original memoir.* In later days, however, 
he would doubtless have dismissed the matter in a couple of lines. For, writing the 
two sets of substitutions in the form 



Cu 


hi 


hs ■ ■ ■ 


h 


hi 


hs • • • 


hi 


hi 


hi • • • 


(hi 


hi 


hi ■ ■ • 


hi 


hi 


hi • ■ • 


hz 


hs 


l S3 . . . 



)(01> 02' 03' •• •) = (*!> X 1: 



•). 



) (01 » 02 ' 03 ' •••) = (?!' £> ' £s> ■ ■ ■ ) ' 



* Cayley, A., "Surquelques proprietes des determinants gauches," Crelle's Journ., xxxii. pp. 119-123 ; or Collected 
Math. Papers, i. pp. 332-336. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 7). 2 I 



210 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



we have from the second 



(6 l1 6 2 ,6 3 , . . . ) — ( 



and therefore by substituting in the first 



( l n l 12 l n 

hi hi ^23 
^81 ^32 ^33 



)( 'n hi hi • • • ) l (?1 ' ?2 ' 53 > 



hi 22 ^32 
^13 ^23 ^33 



hi hi hi ■ • • 


) V£l > £2 ' fc.3 > 


hi hi hi • • • 




^13 ^23 ^33 




• • • ) = 0*1 , 


^2 » *^3 > * * " ) > 



which is all that was required. Indeed, it may be seriously questioned whether up to 
the present date this be not the best way of formulating the theorem for the construc- 
tion of an orthogonal substitution. For example, in the case of two variables, we have 

(x lt x 2 ) = { 1 X)(l -xr 1 (&,&), 

l-x i||x 1| 



=( 1 

l-x 



x)( i x )(&,&), 

II 1+X 2 1+X 2 
-X 1 



1 + X 2 1+X 2 



= (1-X 2 2X )(£,£>■ 



1+X 2 1+X 2 
-2X 1-X 2 



1 + X 2 1+X 2 

(2) The next step in advance was taken by Hermite,* but he also made use of an 
intermediary set of variables, his mode of defining them being that each one of the set 
was to be the arithmetic mean of the corresponding members of the two given sets — 
that is to say, t was defined by the equation 

0r=K*r + £). 

Strictly speaking there was not much new in this, for it was in entire correspondence 
with Cayley's intermediary equations, and very probably was derived from them. 
Thus, from the first equations of the two sets we have by addition 

2hA + (h2 + l n)0-2 + (hs+hi)0z+ ■ ■ • =*! + £> 
i.e. 2d 1 = x 1 + g 1 . 

His after-procedure, however, was different from Cayley's, and apparently lent itself 
more readily to generalisation, both in his own hands and in Cayley's. 

(3) An entirely new departure was taken by VELTMANN.t He dispensed with inter- 
mediary variables, laying down at once the connecting equations 

* Hermite, Ch., "Sur la th£orie des formes quadratiques temaires indeiinies," CrellJs Joum., xlvii. pp. 307-312. 
Sec also xlvii. pp. 313-342 ; and Gamb. and Dub. Math. Joum., ix. pp. 63-67. 

+ Vei.tmann, W., " Die orthogonale Substitution," Zeitschr. fiir Math, it. Phys., xvi. pp. 523-525. 



AUTOMOKPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 



211 



Vl "+" hl X Z + ^13*3 + • • • = ni&l + ^21i2 "+" hlC 3 "+" 

tj^ + i 22 a; 2 + < 23 a? 3 + . . . = t 12 f 1 + t 22 S2 "J" ^3263 + 

t 3i a?j + tg 2 £ 2 -J- t 33 a? 3 + . . . = ^I3?i + * 23?2 "I" ^33?3 "t" 



and affirming that these implied that x l} x 2 , x 3 , . . . , and ^ , £ 2 , £ 3 , . . . , were ortho- 
gonally related. By way of proof he solved f or x x , x 2 , x 3 , . . . and obtained Cayley's 
expressions for them in terms of & , £ 8 , £ 8 , . . . 

(4) It does not appear to have been remarked — and it is certainly very important 
that attention should be drawn to the fact — that the much more general substitution, 
viz., the substitution for the automorphic transformation of a quadric can be expressed 
in an exactly similar way. 

Denoting any quadric 



ax-j 2 + bx 2 2 + cx s + 

+ 2hx x x 2 + 2gx 1 x. i -f 

+ 2fx 2 x 3 + 

+ 



by 



x l 


x% x s ... 


a 


h g . . . 


h 


b f ... 


9 


/ c ... 



!«i 



— a form which brings into evidence the discriminant of the quadric, and from which 
the terms of the quadric are readily obtained by multiplying every element of the 
square array by the x which stands in the same column with the element, and there- 
after by the x which stands in the same row with it — we may enunciate our theorem 
as follows : — 



The substitution — 

ax x + (h + l n )x 2 +(g + l n )x 3 + 
(h + ya^ + bx 2 + (/+ l 23 )x 3 + 

t# + *3lK + (/+*32K+ ™ 3 + 



«£i + (& + *»)&+ fa + 'si)&+- • 



J 



where, as before, the l's are any ^(n)(n — 1 ) arbitrary quantities and l r 

transforms 

V 1 62 S3 ' • • 



= -/., 



Ou-% CCo 






a h g 
h b f 
9 f e 



into 



a h g ... 


& 


h b f ... 


£ 2 


9 f c ... 


£3 



Using with the given equations the multipliers x u x 2 , x 3 , . . . and adding, we have 



x t 


X 2 


x 3 ... 




a 


h+l 12 


9 + hs ■ ■ ■ 


X, 


h + l n 


b 


f+kz ••• 


x '< 


9 + hi 


/+*« 


c ... 


30f 



Si • f 2 €3 




a h + l n g + l 3l . . . 
h+l n b f+l S2 . . . 
9 + hz /+ ; 23 c ■ ■ ■ 


ii 
£2 

& 



212 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



But the left-hand member of this may be partitioned into 

x i x 2 x a • 



a 


h 


9 


a, 


h 


b 


f ... 


tV( 


9 


f 


c ... 


X. 



and 



ni hz 



hi 

hi hi 



23 



the latter of which evidently vanishes. Consequently if we partition the right-hand 
member in the same way we deduce 



x x 


x 2 x 3 ■ ■ ■ 




a 


h g . .. 


x } 


h 


b f ... 


X, 


9 


/ c ... 


X. 



41 4 2 S3 




a h g ... 
h b f ... 
g f c .. . 





+ 



£ 


£ 


& ■.. 






n2 


^ ... 


x : 


21 




^23 


JCc 


^31 


*32 


■ . . 


X, 



Had we used the multipliers £ x , £ 2 , £ 3 , . . . the same process would clearly have given 
us 

A. £- A. . . . X. fl!_ .7!. . . _ 



41 42 S3 ■ • " 




a A <7 ... 
h b f ... 
9 f e ... 


#i 



#1 


x. 2 x 3 ... 




a 


ft ^ ... 


& 


A 


& / ... 


6 





/ i ... 


e 





hi 


h\ • " 


£ 


hi 


- 


hi • • • 


£ 


hz 


hi 


• 


Is 



We are thus led to two equations whose right-hand members are seen to be equal : 
hence the left-hand members are also equal — which is what was to be proved. 

(5.) Cayley's solution of the problem of automorphic linear transformation of a 
quadric # differs so seriously from this that a thorough investigation of the discrepancy 
between the two seemed imperatively called for. 

Writing the substitution of the preceding paragraph in Cayley's manner we have 



( a h + l n g + l l3 . . .){x 1 ,x i ,x 3 ,. ..) = ( 



^1 + ^21 9 + hl •••)(£n6iAf')i 



•21 



h + l, 

9 + hi fH 



f+h 



23 



32 



h+l 

9+hz f+l 



12 



f+l, 



32 



23 



and consequently 

(x 1 ,x i ,x 3> . . .) = ( a h+l u g + l 13 . ..)" l ( 



h + hi 

9 + hi f+h 



f+l 



23 



32 



h+l 

9+hs f+hi 



12 



^ + ^21 9 + l , 

& f+l 



31 



) (41 > 42 > 43 » • ' • ) ' 



32 



23 



Now if, for shortness' sake, we put this in the form 

(4,4,4 ...)=(A)- 1 (A')(£, &,&>•■•), 
Cayley's corresponding result will be found to be 

(x, , x 2 , x 3 , . . . ) = (D)-X A')(A)-KD)(^ , £ , £ 3 , . . . ) , 

* Grelle's Journ., 1. pp. 288-299 ; or Collected Math. Papers, ii. pp. 192-201. 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 



213 



where D is the matrix corresponding to the discriminant of the quadric. The latter 
result is evidently much the more complicated, but the difference between the two is 
far greater than the outward appearance of the expressions 

(A)- 1 (A') and (D)- 1 (A')(A)" 1 (D) 

might at first suggest. Even in the case of only two variables — the transformation of 
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 — the repeated multiplications implied by (D)" 1 (A / )(A) _1 (D) involve a 
surprising amount of labour. 

It was soon ascertained that considerable simplification of Cayley's coefficients was 
possible, and at last it became apparent that in every case they could be reduced to the 
comparatively simple forms given by the other formula. The consequence, of course, is 
that when D and A have the forms 

) 



(« 


h 


9 ... 


) and ( 


a 


h+l n 


9 + hz • • • 


h 


b 


/ ••• 




h + l 21 


b 


f+hs ••• 


9 


f 


c ... 




9+ hi 


f+h2 


c . . . 



we can assert the curious theorem in matrix multiplication that 

(D)-XA')(Ay\I)) = (A^XA'). 



(6.) On account of the lengthy expressions involved, the proof is not by any means 
easily set down if the calculus of matrices be not utilised.* Confining ourselves to 
matrices of the 3rd order and writing, v , — n , X for l 12 , Z 13 , l 23 , the identity to be 
established is 

( a h g )~\ a h-u g + /j. )( a h + v g-fx )~\ a h g ) 



h b f 
9 f c 



h + v b f-X 
g-/j. f+\ c 



h-v b /+\ 

7+M /-X c 



h b f 
9 f G 



= ( a h + p g-fj. ) \ a h-v g + m ) 



h-v b f+\ 
g+H f-X c 



h+v b f-X 
g-H f+X c 



Now if we denote the complementary minors of a , h , . . . in D by A , - H , . . . , and 
the complementary minors of a, h + v, . . . in A by cof (a) , — cof (h + v) , ... we know 
from Cayley that 

* With the aid of this calculus, however, the proof is very simple, and will be seen to hinge entirely on the fact 
that a+a'=2D . At its fullest extent it stands as follows :— 

D-iA'A-iD = D-i(2D-A)A- 1 D , 
= (2-D- 1 A)A- 1 D, 
= 2A~ 1 D-1 , 
= A" 1 (2D-A), 
= A-!A'. 

Here A' is the matrix got from A by changing rows into columns : but this relationship is not a necessity for the 
existence of the identity, which will hold if a , D , a' be any three matrices whatever fulfilling the condition 
a+a'=2D. 



214 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



and 



( a h g )-» = ( A H G ) 

A b f D D D 

g f e H B F 

D D D 

G F C 

D D D 



( a h + v q — n ) _1 ( cof (a) cof (A — y) coi(g + /x) ) 

A A 



h-v b f+X 
g+H f-X c 



A 
cof (A + v) 



cof (5) cof(/-X) 



AAA 
cot (ff -/jl) cof(/+X ) cof(c) 

AAA 

Consequently the product of the four matrices on the left side of the identity is ;i 
matrix whose (1,1) element is # 



A 
D 


H 
D 


G 
D 


a 


A 


9 


a 


h + v 


9-u. 


cof (a) 

A 


cof (A — v) 

A 


cofto+M) 

A 


h — v 


b 


/+x 


cof (A + j/) 
A 


cof (6) 

A 


cof(/-X) 
A 


9+1* 


/-x 


c 


cof (0-/*) 

A 


cof(/+X) 

A 


cof (c) 
A 



and the product of the two matrices on the right is a matrix whose (1,1) element is 



cof (a) 



cof (A — i/) 



coi(g+fx) 

A 



a , h+v 

or, as Cay ley would have written it, 



</-M 



^cofjo) ) cof(A- y)> cofto+g)^ h+v> y.^y 

We have thus to prove the identity of these two elements, and eight other identities 
like it. 

Multiplying both sides by DA we see that this is the same as to prove that 



H 



G 



a h + v g — fA 
h-v b f+X 
// + M /-X c 



h 



cof (a) cof (A — v) coi(g + fjL) 
coi(h+ v ) b cof(/-X) 

cof to-/*) cof(/+X) c 



= D 



cof(a), cof(A — v), col(g + fi) 



h + > 



g-u 



But the left-hand member of this can be partitioned into 



A 


H 


G 


a 


h 


9 


h 


b 


./' 


!/ 


f 


c 



h 



cof (a) 



+ 



H G 



V -fi 

— V . X 

n —X . 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxxii. pp. 461-482 



cof (a) 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 

and by reason of the identities 



215 



A H G 



a 


h 


9 


A 


H 


G 


h 


b 


/ 


A 


H 


G 



9 f c 



= D, 

= 0, 
= 0, 



the first of these parts 

a , h 



= D. 



9 



cof (a), coi(h — v), coi(g+/u) 
a , h+v , g—fx 



+ D. 



— V 



cof (a), cof (A — v) , cof (g + /ui) "^ ''cof^), cof(h — v), coi(g+/u.)' 

Consequently by removing the expression which is common to both sides we have only 
to prove that 



D- {— j/ cof (h — v)+/jlcoI (g + /u)} + 



Now, as will be seen from a later paragraph, 

cof(a) = A + X 2 ; 
cof(h-u) = R + \fx- 



A 


H 


G 




v - 


-M 


— v 




X 


ft- 


-X 





a h g 

cof a , . . . . 



= 0. 



X » M > v 
9,f, C 



The first part of the vanishing expression is thus 

X fi. V 



= d(-kH + /U G + 



and the second part 

A H G 



a h g I . 
h b / L 



— v 



V -fX 

. X 

M —X 



A 



A+X 2 



H+ * x -;rf-: 6+A+ * £? 



H+V+^-' B + „* 



^ X u 






By reason, however, of the trinomial elements in the second square array this can be 
partitioned into 



216 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



A H G 


a 
A 


h 
H 


9 


V -fJ. 


G 


-i A 


H 


B 


F 


M —A 


G 


F 


C 



A 


H G 


a /(- 


9 


. 


V —fj. 


A 2 fx\ 


vX 


'V 


. A 


X/U. //" 


VfJL 


M 


-A . 


Ay /UJ^ 




V 



+ 
-I 

A H G 



+ 



V — fX 



/u — A 

and taking these three terms in order we have the first 

A H G a h g 





A ix v A 


IX v 




9 f o h 


b f 


A 


H v A 


IX V 


9 


/ c a 


h g 


A 


fX V \ fi V 





h b f a h g 



v — ix A H G 
=(i/H- M G)D; 



+ + 0, 



the second 



A H G 


Xa ixh vg 


v — fX 


AAA 


-v . A 


)X fX IX 


ix —A . 


V V V 



A H G 



Xa 

ixh 



= 0; 



and the third, if o> be used for a\ 2 + bp 1 + cv 2 + 2fixv + 2gA + 2hk(A 

A H 



G 



-w + X 



fj. 



V- 



a h g 



X ix v 
/" — % — ^ — w + M 



■k b f 

X fX V 



a h g 

X a v 

v j 

a h g 



h b f 
X ix v 



— co + v 



\ 


M 


V 

c 


9 


/ 


X 


M 


V 

c 


'9 


/ 


X 


M 


V 

c 


9 


/ 



II 



A ix v 



G- 



= -coD + 



a h g h b f g j 



= -wD + 



1 
1 

1 

H G 



Xa 
ixh 

vg 



a h 


9 


h b 


f 


9 f 


c 



(Xa + ixh + vg), 



= - wD + AD(A« + ixh + v g) , 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 



217 



D 



rx 


M 


V 


i 


h 


9 


I* 


b 


f 


I* 


f 


c 



■MXa + jjih + vg) 



"i 



J, 



= -D 



X 


M 


V 


a 


h 


9 


h 


b 


f 


9 


f 


c 



The sum of the three parts is thus 

d(Vh- m g 



X 


V- 


V 


a 


h 


9 


h 


b 


f 


9 


f 


c 



), 



an expression differing merely in sign from that to which it has to be added. The 
desired vanishing result has thus been reached.* 

(7.) It will be remembered that in the case of an orthogonal substitution, viz., the 
case where f= g = h = . . . = and a = b = c = . . . . = 1, Cayley was enabled to give a 
simple rule for the formation of the coefficients of the substitution, the original wording 
of the rule being t 

" Les co-efficients propres a la transformation de co-ordonnees rectangulaires 
peuvent etre exprimes rationnellement au moyen de quantites arbitraires l rs sournises 
au conditions 

L rg = — t sr \_r ip sj ; l rr = L . 

Pour developper les formules, il faut d'abord former le determinant A de ce systeme, 
puis le systeme inverse L rs , . . . et ecrire 

Aa rs =2L rs [r±s]; Aa rr = 2L rr -A 

ce qui donne le systeme cherche." 

Such a rule was a practical impossibility when the problem for the general quadric 
came to be solved, because of the very complicated character of the results to which 
both he and Hermite were led. It will now be seen that as a consequence of the 
simplification above effected this impossibility disappears. 

Taking once more, for shortness' sake, the quadric with only three variables, viz. 

* Since this was written I have ascertained that the simplification here given of Cayley's solution was known to 
Feobenius, whose paper of the year 1877, "Ueber lineare Substitutionen und bilinear e For men " (Grelle's Joum. 
lxxxiv. pp. 1-63) is a carefully written and methodically arranged exposition of the theory of matrices with applica- 
tions. It would appear not to have received due attention from subsequent writers. 

The simplification is also explicitly referred to in one of a series of valuable papers by Dr Henry Taber in the 
Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (1890-93). 

t GrelUs Joum., xxxii. pp. 119-123 ; or Collected Math. Papers, i. pp. 332-336. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 7). 2 K 



218 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



x y 



a h g x 

h I Ay 

9 f e ! z 
we know that the requisite automorphic substitution in its implicit form is 

ax+(h + v)y + (g-fx)z = a £+(h- v )ti+(g+fA)£< 

(h- v )x+ by + (f+\)z = (h+v)£+ 

cz 



(g + fl ) X + (f-\)y + <^Z (^_ M )^ + (/ + X)^+ cf 



}■ 



A.x = 



Consequently, if we denote the determinant of the coefficients of x, y, z by A, we have 
on solving for x 

a£+{h- v )q + (g + f,)g h+v g-p 

(h+ v )i+ b v + (f-\)£ b f+\ 

(ff-v)£+(f+Vv+ c£ f-\ c 

a£+2hr) + 2gt; h + v g-fx 
(h+ v )£+2b n +2f£ b f+X 
(g- /i )£+2fy+2c£ f-X c 

(2a-a)£+2hri + 2gg h + v g — y. 
(2h-h=v)£+2b n + 2ft b f+X 

c 



(2g-g + ri£+2fy + 2c£ f-X 
£- A£ + 2 



a h + v g — ij. 
h b f+X 
9 /-X c 



a h + v g — i* 
h b f+X 

f /"A c 



+ 2 



h + v 

b 
/-A 



9-H 

/+X 

c 



Now all the determinants here have their last two columns identical with the corre- 
sponding columns of A. It follows, therefore, that if the determinant adjugate to A be 



^12 1^3 



-^21 -^22 "^23 
■^31 "^32 "^33 



the result which we have just reached may be written : — 



Similarly 



and 



A.y 



A.z = 



a h g J* \ h b f 

2 ^12^22^32 )£+ (o 12 22^32 _ ^ )~ 

a h g J \ h b f ) 



2 ^11^21^31 



+ 



\ 9 f C ) 



/n L 13 L 2:) L 33 \ c / 9 L 13 L 23 L 33 \ , /oL^LggL. 

\ a h g r V h b f r^\ g f c 



*. 



We have thus the following rule for the formation of the coefficients a,,, of the linear 
substitution which transforms the quadric 

az 2 + by 2 + cz 2 + + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy + .... 

into itself: — 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 



219 



Denote the discriminant by D, and form the determinant R adjugate to 

a h + v g—v 
h-v b f+\ 
g + fX y_\ c 



or 



then 
and 



A . a n = 2(r th col. ofR)(s ih row o/D) when rd£s , 



A . ttrr = 2(r th col. o/R)(r th row o/D) - A . 

This is manifestly just as simple as Cayley's rule for the formation of an orthogonal 
substitution, into which rule it is seen to pass when a = b = c = . . . = 1 and f=g = h = 
. . . = 0. 

(8) The most elegant proof of the rule in all its generality is got by using the theory 
of matrices as follows : — 

Taking the substitution in its implicit form, and solving for x , y , z , . . . we have 
(x,y,z, . . . ) = ( a h + v g-n . . . ) \ a h- v g + n ...) (i, »?,£,... ). 



h-v b f+\ 

g+v- /-A c 



h + v b f-\ 
g-H f+\ c 



Now the first matrix here is equal to 






( 


hi 
A 


^21 

A 


L 3 i 
A 




^12 

A 


L 22 

A 


L32 

A 




^13 

A 


^23 

A 


^33 
A 



and the second can be expressed as the difference of two, viz., as 

(2a 2h 2g ...)•( 

2h 2b 2/ 
2g 2/ 2c 



a 


h + v 


g-n • • • ) 


h — v 


b 


/+x ... 


g+v- 


/-A 


c ... 



On performing the required multiplication we thus have 



( 2 n 21 -^31 



a h g 
2 12 -^22 ^3 



a h 
o n ^23 L 33 



a h 



2 L ii 


L21 


L 31 . . 


h 

2 L 12 


b 

L 22 


/ • • • 
L 32 . . . 


"h 

2 L 13 


b 

^23 


/ • • • 

L 33 . . . 


u h 


b 


/ • • • 



O^tl 


L 21 


L 31 . . . 


g 

0-^12 


/ 

^22 


c . . . 
L 32 . . . 


g 

Q L 13 


/ 

L 23 


c . . . 
L 33 . . . 


9 


/ 


c . . . 



? ( 1 



and this difference being expressed as one matrix we obtain the matrix of the substitu- 
tion. A glance suffices to show that it is identical with the matrix 



220 



DR THOMAS MUIE ON THE 



( «11 «12 «13 
a 21 #22 a 28 
a 31 a 32 a 33 



us specified in the preceding paragraph.* 

(9) It will have been observed that in the construction of the substitution use is 
made of the peculiar matrix 

( a h + v ff — fx • - • ) 
h-v b f+\ . . 
g + fx f-\ c 



In fact this matrix is the material out of which the substitution is built up, just as the 
matrix of a unit-axial skew determinant is the material for the formation of an 
orthogonal substitution. And as in dealing with the problem of orthogonal substitution 
Cayley was thus led to study the properties of skew determinants, we cannot do better 
than follow his example and examine into the nature of the determinant of the analogous 
matrix employed in the more general problem which we have just been dealing with. 

This more general determinant is seen to be obtainable by the superposition, so to 
speak, of the zero-axial skew determinant 



X 



-X 



upon the axisymmetric determinant 



a h 


9 


h b 


f 


9 f 


c 



And as by changing the signs of all the Greek letters the value of the determinant is 
unaltered, it follows that in the final development of the determinant there can be 
no terms involving the product of an odd number of these letters. Further, as each 
term of the final development of the determinant must be of the n th degree in the letters 
which it contains, it follows that the said terms may be classified as follows : — 

1. terms of the w th degree in Italic letters 1 

and of the th Greek . . . J ' 

2. terms of the (n — 2) th degree in Italic letters | 

and of the 2 nd Greek letters J ' 

or, for shortness' sake, let us say terms of the degree n + 0, n— 2 + 2, n — 4 + 4,... 

* See also the third line of the proof that D -1 a'a~'D = a _1 a' in the footnote to § 6. 



AUTOMOKPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QTJADRIC. 



221 



Bearing this in mind it is not difficult to arrive at the final development in any- 
given case. Thus, for the determinant of the 3rd order, we look first for terms of the 
degree 3 + , and then for terms of the degree 1 + 2 . The aggregate of the former is 
readily seen to be 

h < 

f 



9 



and, each of the latter being composed of an Italic letter with a Greek cofactor, the 
aggregate is almost as easily seen to be 



X 


M 


V 


a 


h 


9 


h 


b 


f 


9 


f 


c 



We have thus 



a h + v g — fi 
h- v b f+\ 
g + /u f-\ c 



= 


a h g 




h b f 




9 f c 



+ 



\ 


M 


V 


a 


h 


9 


h 


b 


f 


9 


f 


c 



X' 



an identity which may also be viewed as giving an expression for the sum of a ternary 
quadric and its discriminant. 

Next taking the determinant of the 4th order we first look for terms of the degree 
4 + , then for terms of the degree 2 + 2 , and lastly for terms of the degree + 4 . 
The aggregate of the first kind lies to hand as readily as before : those of the second 

kind are most easily obtained by seeking for the coefficients of p 2 , pa- , a- 2 } , 

which are seen to be 



a 


h 




a 


9 




a 


9 


h 


b 


i 


h 


f 


t 


9 


c 



and the aggregate of those of the last kind by dropping out all the Italic letters from 
the determinant which thus becomes zero-axial skew with the Pfaffian equivalent 



V —fA T 

X — <r 



or 



| X ft v 

P <* 

T 



When we come to determinants of the 5 th order it is seen that there are still only 
three kinds of terms, the degrees of which are 5 + 0, 3 + 2, 1+4: and in obtaining the 
aggregates no new consideration is necessary. 



222 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



In the first four cases the expansions therefore stand thus : — 

+ * 2 ; 



a 

h — V 



h + v j = 
b 



a h 
h b 





a h + v y — fj. 


= 


a h g 




h-v b f+X 




h b f 




9+fjL f-\ c 




9 f c 


a h + v g — p. r+r 


= 


a h g 


h — v b /+X <[ — <* 




h b f 


9 + fA f-\ c p + p 




9 f c 


r — r 


q+v p — p d 




r q p 



+ 



V 



X 


M 


V 


a 


h 


9 


h 


b 


f 


9 


f 


c 



X' 

v 



+ B + C, 



where 



B = 



and 



a h 
h b 


' 


a g 


a h 1 




9 fy' 





C = I X 



fX V 

p or 

T 



a h + v g — fji r+ 

h — v b f+X q — a- m + x 

g + f* f-\ c p + p 

r — r q + a p — p d 

n + yfs m—% l + (j> k — 



*l — \p- 




a 


h 


9 


r 


n 


i + X 




h 


b 


f 


q 


m 


1 — <P 


= 


9 


f 


c 


p 


I 


h+e 




r 


q 


p 


d 


h 


e 




n 


m 


I 


h 


e 



X 

T 
ft 



+ D + E, 



where 



D = 







+ 



!* 



123 
123 

124 
123 




123 
124 

124 
124 




123 
125 




123 

134 




123 
135 




123 
145 




123 
234 


123 
235 




123 

245 




123 
345 



125 
123 



P 

X 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 



223 



1 123 

Loo being used to denote the minor obtained by deleting the 4th and 5th rows and 

4th and 5th columns of the determinant preceding D , and where 

+ ... 



E = a| X <r x 


2 + 2h\ X a X 


•1 P t y\r 


P <t> 
6 


P <t> 

e 


P 
6 



(10) The law of formation of the bipartites B and D, when properly looked at, is 
very simple. The square array in each case consists of the secondary minors of the 
axisymmetric determinant which immediately precedes it, — in other words, the 
elements of the square array of B are exactly the elements of the second compound of 
the determinant which precedes it, and the corresponding elements of D are the 
elements of the third compound. The bordering elements, of D say, are the elements 
of the quasi-Pfaffian 

\ V fl t y[? 
X a- x 

P <t> 
& 

taken in a backward order, viz., in the order ; <£ , p ; \, <r , \ ; \Ja,t,/k,i>. 

The law of formation of E is equally simple. Each term is the product of three 
factors, the first being an element of the preceding axisymmetric determinant, and the 
two others being primary minors of the quasi-Pfaffian just referred to. The Pfaffian 
factors which are to accompany any element are determined by the position of that 
element in the determinant-array, the law being that when the element belongs to the 
place (r,s) we delete the r tb frame-line of the quasi-Pfaffian to obtain the one factor and 
the s th frame-line to obtain the other. Consequently, if we denote the quasi-Pfaffian by 
^fand the minor of it obtained by deleting the r th frame-line byff {r , we may write each 
term of E in the form 

We are thus further led to see that E also is a bipartite having the beautifully simple 
form 

ff*ff9ff»ff*ff<* 

ff {5 > 

and it is suggested to inquire whether there be not a mode of writing D and E, and 
perhaps even the term preceding D , which will put in evidence the fact that they are 
members of a series advancing according to a definite law. 



a 


h 


9 


r 


n 


h 


b 


f 


1 


m 


9 


f 


c 


P 


I 


r 


1 


P 


d 


k 


n 


m 


I 


k 


e 



224 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



Each term, it will be observed, is constructed from two distinct sources, viz., the 
axisymmetric determinant and the quasi-Pfaffian. From the first source we have 

in the first term the determinant itself, 

in the second term, viz., D the array of its secondary minors, 

in the third term, viz., E the array of its quaternary minors, 

the last of these being merely the elements of the determinant by reason of the fact 
that the order of the determinant is the 5th. Now there is no difficulty in writing all 
these in the same way if we employ the so-called umbral notation throughout. They 
are in fact 



1 
1 


2 3 
2 3 


4 5 

4 5 


, 




12 3 
12 3 


, 


12 3 

12 4 


, (10 2 in number) 


1 
1 


> 


1 
2 







Again, from the second source we have 

in the third term, viz., E the primary minors of the Pfaffian, 

in the second term, viz., D the tertiary minors , 

in the first term nothing, 

the last involving no anomaly because the quasi-Pfaffian we are dealing with has only 
jive frame-lines. Now, if we adopt for this quasi-Pfaffian an umbral notation analogous 
to the preceding, viz., 

'| 1 2 3 4 5 | 

it will be found possible to represent its minors in a fashion closely resembling that for 
the minors of the determinant. In fact, its primary minors will be 



l| 2 3 4 5 | , i| 1 3 4 5 | , 
and its tertiary minors 

1 4 6 I 1 . 'I 3 5 | , '|3 4 
The three terms of our development thus are 



12 3 4 5 
12 3 4 5 



(5 in number) 



(10 in number) 



4 5 



3 5 



3 4 



12 3 

12 3 

12 4 


i 


12 3 
12 4 


1 


12 3 

12 5 




12 3 







4 5 



3 5 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 

2 3 4 5| 
13 4 5 1 



225 



"12 3 4 5 1 


'1 1 


3 4 


5 1 




1 1 
1 J 




1 
2 






2 

1 











where, as evidence of the appropriateness of the notation, it is most important to 
observe that if any element of a square array be taken it will be found to be such that 
its row-numbers taken along with the numbers of the bordering element in the same 
row with it form the full set 12 3 4 5, and its column-numbers taken along with the 
numbers of the bordering element in the same column with it form the set 12 3 4 5 

123 



also. Thus the element 



] 24 



element in the same row with it, and 

2 
column with it ; and 

'12345 1. 



in the square array of D has l| 4 5 | for the bordering 

'| 3 5 | for the bordering element in the same 

in E in like manner has the bordering elements l| 1 3 4 5 | and 



(11) In the verification of the foregoing developments it is very interesting to 
observe the necessity which arises for using a linear relation like Kronecker's between 
co-ordinate minors of an axisymmetric determinant. In the case of the 4th order the 
term B, and in the case of the 5 th order the term D are dependent upon it for certain 
of their details. 

Let us consider the mode in which the details of the term D are ascertained, these 
being the Italic-letter coefficients of 6 2 , 6(f> , . . . in the development of the determinant 

a h+v g— 

h- v b f-\ 

g + p. f-X t 

r—T q + a p- 

n + \}r 7ft — x M 

The case of such a product as 6<p presents no difficulty. We have only got to delete 
the 4th and 5th rows and the 3rd and 5th columns, and from the resulting minor 

a h + v /■ + t 

h — v b q — a 

g + ix f-X p + p 

strike out all the Greek letters. But when we come to the case of 6X , or 0/x , or dv the 
process is not so simple. Fixing the attention on the in the place (4 , 5) we see that 
it can go along with not only the X in the place (2,3) but also with the X in the place 
(3,2). In the former case its Italic-letter cofactor is 



a 


h+v 


g-v- 


t+t 


n — \fs 


h — v 


b 


f+x 


q-a 


m+ x 


ff+H 


f-x 


c 


P + P 


l-<j> 


r — T 


q+a- 


p-p 


cl 


k+d 


7l + \fr 


m- x 


/+</> 


k-6 


e 



a h r 






9 f P 

n m k 


or 


13 5 
12 4 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 7). 



2 L 



226 



DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 



and in the latter 



a y r 






*> f 2 


or — 


12 5 

13 4 


n I k 







But there exists the identity 



135 
124 



125 
134 



145 
123 



= 



(K') 



consequently the cofactor of OX is 



145 
123 



or 



123 

145 



as desired for the sake of symmetry in the square array of D . 

The identity (K') is noteworthy in that the terms of it are third-order minors of an 
axisymmetric determinant of the fifth order, and not of the sixth order as is the case 
in Kronecker's theorem. The best mode of establishing it is to make it dependent 
upon the latter. Thus, taking the axisymmetric determinant of the fourth order 



2345 
2345 



rs = sr 



we have from Kronecker 



23 
45 



24 
35 



+ 



25 
3 4 



= 



(K) 



and this is simply what (K') becomes if 1 be struck out of each term of it. In other 

words (K') is the Extensional # of (K). The idea of applying the Law of Extensible 
Minors to all Kronecker's identities is thus suggested. For example, knowing from 
Kronecker that 



123 

456 



124 
356 



+ 



125 
34 6 



126 
345 



= 



if the terms be minors of the axisymmetric determinant 



12 3 4 5 6 
12 3 4 5 6 



rs = sr 



we can at once vouch for the identity 



12378 
45678 



12478 
3 5 6 7 8 



+ 



12578 
3 4 6 7 8 



12678 
3 4 5 7 8 



= 



in connection with the axisymmetric determinant 



12345678 

12345678 



rs = sr 



* Mum's Theory of Determinants, p. 213, § 179 ; or Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxx. p, 2. 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC 



227 



(12) The procedure followed in § 9 is equally effective in finding the like develop- 
ment of the primary minors of the determinant. For example, let us consider in the 
determinant of the 4th order the cofactor of the element (13), viz. : — 

h — v b q — <r 
y + M f-X p + p 
r—T q + a d 

Here the aggregate of terms of the degree 3 + is 

h 

9 

r 

The aggregate of terms of the degree 2 + 1 



h i 


1 


9 / 


P 


r q 


d 





k 


I -a 


1 


h . 


V i 


— vbq 














9 f p 

I q . 


+ 


g -X p \ + 
r a- d 


M- f P 
—rq d 


J 




= - 


- p 


h r 


- a 


h r 


— X h r | — t 


b q 


~ M 


b q 


— V 


f P 1 






b q 




f P 


9. 


d \ 


f P 




q d 




q d J 



and as the coefficients of the Greek letters here are determinants of the 2nd order 
formable from the 2nd and 4th rows of D, this may be written 



h b f q 

r q p d 

The aggregate of terms of the degree 1 + 2 

-V b 



(p , <r , X, t , m , v). 



— <7 
P 



+ 



-r q 



a 




— v 


• 1 


P 


+ 


P- 


— X p 


, 




— T 


a d 



— a 


— T 


V 


h 


b 


9. 


9 


f 


P 


r 


2 


d 



where the borders p , <r , X and — o- , 



v are got from the Pfafhan 



v — fX 

X 



by deleting the 1st and 3rd frame-lines respectively and changing one sign. 
Lastly, the aggregate of terms of the degree + 3 



-v 
M 

-T 



■A 



— <r 
P 



228 DR THOMAS MUIR ON THE 

which being a bordered zero-axial skew determinant is expressible in the form 



<T I V —/U T 

X -a 



where, be it observed, a- is the Greek letter in the place (4, 2). 
We thus have 

cofactor of (1,3), i.e. g -m , in A 



= G - 


2 nd row of D 


(p,<r,\,T,/u,i / ) 


+ 


— O , — T 


. " 










p 




4 th row of D 






G 












X 


Similarly 








cofactor of (1,4), i.e. r + r , in A 








_ T? i Ond ^/% m *r r» / \ _ .. .A 


.^ 


X JUL V 




— XI T 


U J. \J VV Ul u 


v/-»,o-,/\,t-,^,i// 








3" row of D 






R 


P 












X 





+ 



cr\ v —/j. t 
X -a- 



+ XI 



■V T 

X -a- 



A reference to the original determinant A shows that the cofactor of (3, 1) differs 
from the cofactor of (1, 3) simply in having all the Greek letters of the opposite sign. 
Consequently 

cofactor of (3,1), i.e. g + v , in A 



= G + 



T , V 



2 n " row of D 


(p,ar,\,T,fX,v) 


+ 







4 th row of D 






G 


P 

IT 
X 



— <T\ V 



■ /J. T 

X -a- 



(13) The relation between the cofactor of (r, s) and the cofactor of (s, r) just referred 
to shows that the adjugate of A is a determinant of the same form as A, and therefore has 
a development similar to that of A as given in § 9. But the adjugate of A is equal to 
the 3rd power of A ; consequently we may equate the one development to the 3rd 
power of the other, — a process from which one or two curious identities arise. 

A similar result follows from the verification of the identity 

A - (l,l).cofactor of (1,1) + (l,2).cofactor of (1,2) + ... 

by substituting for A, cofactor of (1,1), cofactor of (1,2), . . . their developments 
obtained in §§ 9, 12. 

Tims, recurring for shortness' sake to the 3rd order, we have the identity 

X Y Z x y z 

X a h (j 

Y h b f 
Z 9 f ,: 



A 


H 


G 


H 


B 


F 


G 


F 


C 



X 


a h g 


V 


h b f 


z 


9 f o 



AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUADRIC. 



229 



if (X , Y , Z) = ( a h g ) (x, y, z), 
h b f 
c 



9 f 

— in other words, we have a condensed expression for the product of a ternary quadric 
and its discriminant. For, on performing the substitution, the left-hand member 



x y 


z 


a h 


9 


h b 


/ 


9 f 


c 



A H G 
H B F 
G F C 



a 


h 


9 


X 


h 


b 


f 


y 


9 


f 


c 


z 



and therefore 



x y 



n 



y 



where Q is the product of the preceding three square arrays in reverse order. But by 
actual multiplication 

n = ( A . . X « h g ) 

. A „ . I i h b f 

• • A , g f c 

«A hA gA 
hA bA /A 

gA /A cA | , 

-which proves the theorem. 
Again, we have the identity 





P 




(7 




X 




T 


V 




V 






a h 




a g 


a r 


h 9 | 


1 h r 




9 r 






h b 




h f\ 


h q 




b f\ 


1 b 9. 




f 1 






a h 




a g 








9 f 




9 c 






j a h 








r q 























a g h r 



9 
b 

f 
2 
VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 7). 



+ 



a g h r \ or 



+ 



a g h r 



2 M 



230 DR MUIH ON AUTOMORPHIC LINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF A QUA DRIO. 



+ 



9 b f 9 I r 



h 

f 
c 

P 



+ 



9 b f 9 I M 



where S is the zero-axial skew array 



. — p —a- —X 

p . — T — fl 

(T T . — I' 



+ 



h f c p | v 
r 

9 
P 
d 



X p. 



and connected with it the identity 



p 


<T 




X 




a h 


a g 




a r 




h b\ , 


h f 


> 


h q 




a /& 1 


a g 




' 9 f > 


9 e 









a 



h 



a h 

r q 



— p —CT —X 

P • ~T -p. 

<T T —V 

X p. V 



9 


<T 


X 


9 


h 


r 


b 


f 


'1 


f 


C 


P 


1 


P 


d 



T 
I 

! M 



and a similar identity got from the two by subtraction. 



( '231 ) 



VIII. — A Contribution to the Comparative Anatomy of the Mammalian Organ of 
Jacobson. By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. Communicated by Sir Wm. Turner. 
(With Two Plates.) 

(Read 7th June 1897.) 

Since the Organ of Jacobson was first described in 1811, a large amount of study has 
been given to its structure, development, and morphology ; and as a result of these 
investigations, we have now a very good idea of the distribution of the organ in the 
animal kingdom, of its relations in many typical forms, and of its minute anatomy in a 
few representative types. With the exception, however, of Seydel's work among the 
Amphibia, very little has been done to the study of the comparative anatomy of the 
organ, and it is hoped that the present contribution will assist towards a clearer under- 
standing of its comparative anatomy in the Mammalia. 

The organ is present in the large majority of mammals, and is generally fairly well 
developed. The most important investigations into the general anatomy of the organ 
and its relations have been those of Gratiolet, Balogh, Klein and Herzfeld. 
Gratiolet has apparently examined the organ and its relations in a considerable 
number of the higher mammals, but, unfortunately, I have been unable to see his paper. 
Balogh has made a very careful study of the relations and minute anatomy of the 
organ in the sheep, and has shown the complicated arrangement of the cartilages in 
connection with the organ and its duct and with the naso-palatine canal. To Klein we 
are indebted for a very careful study of the organ and its relations in the guinea-pig, 
the rabbit and the dog. Though Herzfeld has also added considerably to our know- 
ledge by the examination of some interesting new groups, his most important contri- 
bution to the subject has been in connection with the comparative anatomy of the 
organ. He has apparently been the first to recognise that, according to the various 
relations of the organ and its duct found in different mammals, it was possible to 
arrange the animals examined into a few not altogether unnatural groups. Owing to 
observations having up to that time been made in an insufficient number of forms, he 
has, unfortunately, over-estimated the importance of certain points, and thus to a large 
extent has rendered his grouping unsatisfactory. 

The present communication deals with the results of an extended examination into 
the general relations of the mammalian organ — its distribution, varying degree of 
development, and extent of variation in allied forms. In all the forms I have studied, I 
have made the examination by a series of vertical transverse sections, which seems the 
most satisfactory method, and gives uniformity in the results. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 8). 2 N 



232 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

The following is the list of forms 1 have examined : — 

MONOTBBMATA. 

Omithorhynchus anatinus ; adult. 
Echidna aculeata; adult. 

Mabsupialia. 

Dasyurus viverrinun ; mammary foetal, and § grown. 

Dasyurus maculatus ; adult. 

Phascologale penicillata ; mammary foetal. 

Didelphys murinus ; mammary foetal. 

Didelphys marsupialis ; mammary foetal. 

Perameles nusuta ; mammary foetal, and adult. 

Peiaurus breviceps ; almost adult. 

Petauroides volans ; adult. 

Pseudochirus peregrinus ; mammary foetal, and adult. 

Trichosurus vulpecula ; intra uterine, mammary fatal (3 stages), and adult. 

Phascolarctus cinereus ; § grown, and adult. 

Phascolomys mitchelli ; \ grown. 

Macropus ualabatus ; large mammary foetal. 

Macropus sp. 1 ; early mammary foetal. 

JEpyprymnus rufcsceus ; mammary foetal. 

Edentata. 
Dasypus oillosus ; adult. 

RODENTIA. 

Lepus europcuu* ; young. 
Lepus cuniculus ; foetal (3 stages). 
Mus musculu* ; adult. 
Hydromys chrysogaster ; adult. 

Ungulata. 
Sun scrofa ; foetal. 
Bos taunt* ; foetal (2 stages). 
Equus raballus ; foetal. 

Cetacea. 

Delphinaptera leucas ; foetal. 

Insectivora. 

Erinaceus europceus ; foetal and adult. 
Talpa europwa ; early foetal. 

Carnivoba. 
Felis domestica ; young. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 233 

Chiroptera. 

Miniopterus srJireibersii ; adult. 
Nyctophilus sp. ? ; adult. 
Pteropus poliocephalus ; adult. 

Primates. 
Homo sapiens ; early foetal. 

General Observations. 

In its typical form the mammalian organ of Jacobson is a specialised portion of the 
nasal mucous membrane, situated in the anterior part of the base of the nasal septum, 
and forming a tubular process, blind posteriorly, but opening in front in the region of 
the naso-palatine canal. The inner wall of the tubular organ is lined with highly 
specialised neuro-epithelium, while the outer wall is composed of ciliated columnar 
epithelium, considerably resembling that of the nasal passage. Into the organ there 
open a large number of mucous glands, which are situated chiefly at its posterior 
part. Along the outer wall, which generally bulges into the lumen of the organ, 
there run one or more blood-vessels, frequently forming a sort of plexus. On its inner 
and under sides, at least, the organ is supported by a curved cartilaginous plate — the 
recurrent cartilage — which is itself supported by a curved bony plate, the palatine 
process of the premaxillary. 

While, as a rule, the organ is fairly well developed, in a number of animals it is 
quite absent, and in others only a rudiment is present. It is difficult at present to 
account for the remarkable differences in the degree of development of the organ in 
different mammals, as absolutely nothing is known for certain as to its special 
function ; still, from comparative observations, a few interesting general conclusions 
can be arrived at. In the first place, the organ is, as a rule, better developed in the 
lower forms than in the higher. Thus, in both the Monotremes the organ is exceedingly 
well developed, and in all the Marsupials yet examined it is at least fairly well devel- 
oped, while among the Primates, it is absent, according to Herzfeld, in Cercopithecus 
and Inuus — the only old world monkeys examined — and in man it is quite rudimentary. 
Another conclusion that may be safely arrived at is, that in large animals the organ is, 
relatively, considerably less developed than in the smaller sorts. For example, in the 
two species of Dasyurus, D. maculatus and D. viverrinus, though the former is about 
twice the size of the latter, the organs are absolutely about the same size in 
each ; the cartilaginous capsule of the organ, however, is much larger, and the 
extra space is filled up by a great development of glandular tissue. In all forms in 
which the organ is developed it receives the secretion from numerous mucous glands, 
which lie chiefly towards the posterior part of the organ, and in most small animals, e.g., 
the mouse, where it fills the greater part of cartilaginous capsule, only at that part. 
In the larger animals, e.g., rabbit, dog, etc., where the organ only occupies a small portion 



234 DR R, BROOM ON THE 

of the space enclosed by the cartilage, it receives the ducts of glands throughout 
its whole leutrtli. 

O 

While it will thus be noticed that there may be a very considerable difference in the 
degree of development of the organ in even closely allied forms, I have been led to a 
much more importaut conclusion, viz., that though the degree of development may vary 
greatly, there is throughout large groups a very marked constancy of the type, followed 
by the organ in its general relations and connections. For example, in all the Marsupials 
that have been examined, with one exception, which will be referred to later, the organ 
opens into the upper end of the naso-palatine canal, near the point where the canal 
opens out into the nasal cavity, while there is never more than a rudimentary 
cartilaginous support given off to support the naso-palatine canal either from Jacobson's 
cartilage or from the nasal floor cartilage. While this holds good for practically all 
Marsupials, of no Eutherian that has yet been examined can the same be asserted. The 
two known Monotremes have in their organs a number of features in common, but which 
differ from those of any other animal. And the same can be said of the different 
Rodents which have been examined. Again, in all the higher Eutheria in which 
Jacobson's organ is well developed, there is a very complex development of the nasal 
floor cartilage, giving rise to a cartilaginous support for the naso-palatine canal as well 
as to a posterior nasal floor cartilage, while Jacobson's cartilage is produced downwards 
and forwards to form a support to Jacobson's duct ; and so unvarying is this type, that 
even in forms in which the organ of Jacobson is completely aborted, as in Pteropus, the 
cartilages still retain the same general arrangement. From the small tendency to 
variation in the organ and its cartilages, we have in them a factor of considerable value 
in the classification of the Eutherian orders, probably of more value than either dentition 
or placentation. 

In the following pages the relations of the organ in the principal orders will be 
considered, and the affinities and significance of the various arrangements dwelt upon. 

MONOTREMATA. 

The differences of the organ in the two Monotremes are such that it will be more 
convenient to consider the two separately. 

OrnitJtorhynchus. — The presence of the organ in the Platypus was recognised by Sir 
W. Turner in 1885, but was first described in detail by Symington in 1891. Since 
then further details have been supplied by Wilson, Wilson and Martin, W. N. Parker, 
Elliot Smith, and myself. 

It is unfortunate that in Ornithorhynchus — the most primitive mammal at present 
existing — there is a most remarkable degree of specialisation of the structures in the 
anterior part of the snout, and that this specialisation is in a direction entirely dissimilar 
to that found in any other known vertebrate. This peculiar development in the snout 
to some extent affects the organ of Jacobson and its cartilages, and renders it difficult to 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 235 

say whether certain of the peculiarities presented are due to the specialisation, or are 
retained primitive characters. 

The condition of the cartilages of the snout may be briefly described as follows. In 
the hinder part of the nasal region the nasal septum is a short, thick, simple cartilage, 
which gives off above two well marked alinasals, as in higher mammals. On passing 
forward, when we reach the plane passing through the anterior part of the prevomer or 
dumb-bell shaped bone, the nasal septum becomes divided into a very slender upper part 
supporting the alinasals, and a thick lower part. This lower part is here in close contact 
with the inner parts of the well developed nasal floor cartilages, while a little in front it 
becomes united with these, and forms a well developed flat cartilage, stretching right 
across from the one premaxillary bone to the other. About 3 mm. in front of the plane 
of the anterior nares the large flat plate of cartilage becomes thickened and arrested in 
the middle line, but laterally it passes out to the margins of the beak, and sending de- 
velopments in front and behind forms the support of the beak throughout its whole 
extent. Though in none of the higher vertebrates is there any cartilaginous develop- 
ment similar to the large rostral cartilage of Ornithorhynchus, there is reason to believe 
that it is a very great development of the prenasal element. 

With regard to the nasal floor cartilages, which on passing back are separated off 
from the median or septal part of the main cartilage, there is little or no doubt but they 
are the homologues of the nasal floor cartilages of the higher mammals, though in some 
respects they differ from those of any higher form. In the typical mammalian condition 
we have the inner part of the nasal floor cartilage quite simple and curving up by the 
base of the septum ; in Ornithorhynchus alone among mammals the nasal floor cartilage 
at its inner part is thickened and excavated to receive the anterior part of the organ of 
Jacobson. 

The organ itself differs from that of any other known mammal in being made up of 
an anterior and a posterior part with the opening near the middle, as was shown by 
Symington. In fig. 1, Plate I., we have represented a transverse vertical section through 
the anterior part of the organ. The large organ (J.O.) is seen completely surrounded 
by the nasal floor cartilage, and almost completely divided into an upper and a lower 
part by a large turbinal plate (t.J.c). The inner part of the nasal floor cartilage rests 
on the anterior part of the prevomer or dumb-bell shaped bone (Pvo), and at the outer 
side of the nasal passage the cartilage is seen united with the alinasal (a.n.). In this 
section is also seen the hinder part of the nasal valve (val.). 

On approaching the region of the naso-palatine canal and the opening of the organ, 
the turbinal plate becomes considerably thickened, while the cartilages surrounding the 
two organs become separated by the body of the prevomer. On reaching the plane 
passing through the opening of the organ, as seen in fig. 2, the cartilage is found to be 
open below, and the outer part of the cartilage surrounding the organ is seen to be free 
from the nasal floor cartilage. The organ is here made up of an upper part lying above 
the turbinal plate and an inner part. Inferiorly, the inner part may be said to open 



236 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

directly into the mouth, as the little pocket into which it opens in common with the 
naso-palatine canal is frequently so shallow that the ducts practically open independently 
into the mouth. 

Behind the plane represented by fig. 2 the organ becomes much less expanded 
laterally, while the outer part of the cartilage of the organ becomes united with the 
lower part of the inner portion, forming a complete capsule to the organ ; and the organ 
becomes almost cylindrical instead of flat as in the anterior part. Fig. 3 illustrates a 
section across the posterior part of the organ. The turbinal plate, which in the anterior 
and middle region is moderately flat, here passes upwards and inwards, and then down- 
wards, being to a considerable extent folded on itself. Below the prevomer, which here 
attains its maximum development, is seen a large thin plate of cartilage (o.n.f.c.) 
stretching across from one side to the other, but distinct at the sides from the alinasals. 
This cartilage is a backward continuation of the part of the nasal floor cartilage on the 
outer side of the naso-palatine canal, which, on passing backwards, becomes distinct from 
the alinasal, and sweeping inwards below the prevomer unites with the cartilage of 
the opposite side, and forms the large plate which supports the back part of the 
dumb-bell. 

It is exceedingly difficult, as already remarked, to pick out which characters of the 
organ are inherited from reptilian ancestors and which are specialisations peculiar to the 
genus or order. Unfortunately the order of reptiles, which probably contained the 
ancestors of the Monotremes — the Theromora — is long since extinct, and the only living 
reptilian order in which the organ is known to be well developed — the Squamata — is 
only but distantly related to the Monotremes. Among lizards the organ of Jacobson is 
usually very well developed, but there are great differences in the structure and relations 
of the organ in different groups. In the Varanidae and in snakes a most complex and 
highly specialised arrangement is found ; in the Scincoidse a different mode of 
specialisation is met with ; while in the Agamidse and Geckonidse, on the other hand, 
though the organ is well developed, it is comparatively simple both in structure and its 
relations, and it is in these latter simple Lacertilian types that we recognise some affini- 
ties to the organ of the Monotremes. In the Gecko we find the opening of the organ 
situated inferiorly, almost exactly as in Ornithorhynchus, while we have an even more 
remarkable resemblance in the presence of a large cartilaginous turbinal process in - 
vaginating the organ from the outer side. It would thus seem probable that the mode 
of opening of the organ and the well-marked turbinal in Ornithorhynchus are reptilian 
heirlooms. The anterior extension of the organ would seem at first sight to be also a 
reptilian character, seeing that the organ extends slightly in front of the duct in lizards, 
but it is possible that the specialisation of the beak may be sufficient to account for this 
peculiarity, and until the very early development is known it had better be regarded as 
a doubtful reptilian character. Another reptilian character is to be noticed in the 
prevomer or dumb-bell shaped bone being quite distinct from the premaxillary, and not 
united with it as a palatine process, as is usually the case in mammals. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 237 

Echidna. — In Echidna the organ is considerably simpler than in Ornithorhynchus, 
and it is uncomplicated by any remarkable cartilaginous developments. W. N. Parker 
has studied the structure of the organ and its relations in the young animal, while the 
adult condition has been described by myself. 

The most striking point of difference of the organ in Echidna from that of Ornitho- 
rhynchus is the absence of any anterior development. The nasal floor cartilage is com- 
paratively simple, and, in the adult, but feebly developed, and quite distinct from the 
alinasal. Immediately in front of the region of the naso-palatine canal, the nasal floor 
cartilage is a small cartilaginous plate which abuts against the base of the nasal septum 
by its thickened inner edge, and becomes rapidly thinned away on passing outwards, 
ouly forming a support to the inner third of the nasal floor. On passing a little back- 
wards the thickened inner part becomes divided off from the slender outer part by the 
naso-palatine canal passing upwards (figs. 4 and 5). At first the inner part is irregularly 
square shaped, but a little farther back it becomes hollowed out on the outer side for the 
reception of the duct of Jacobson's organ, as it opens into the naso-palatine canal (fig. 5). 
On passing still farther back this inner cartilage becomes very distinctly " C "-shaped, 
with the anterior end of Jacobson's organ in its concavity. The cartilage is about 
uniform in thickness, but at the outer end of the upper part of the " C" there is a very 
distinct thickening. A very little beyond this plane the lower part of the "C" joins 
with the thickened outer rim, and Jacobson's organ becomes completely enclosed in 
cartilage. The naso-palatine canal receives the duct of Jacobson anterior to its opening 
into the nasal cavity, so that the organ only communicates with the nasal cavity in- 
directly by the upper part of the canal. Fig. 6 represents a section through the 
posterior wall of the naso-palatine canal. To the outer side of the cartilage of Jacobson 
the thickened portion will be observed (rud.t.); this is found, on examining the suc- 
ceeding sections, to be continuous with the turbinal, and is, no doubt, the remnant of a 
turbinal which once extended to the front of the organ as in Ornithorhynchus. The 
organ itself at this plane is found on section to have the ordinary mammalian kidney 
shape. The outer part of the nasal floor cartilage is still seen as a small inconspicuous 
fragment. A short distance behind the plane of fig. 5 the organ is met with in its full 
development, and assumes an appearance which it retains to near its posterior end. On 
section it is found to be nearly circular with the outer wall so completely invaginated 
as to leave very little lumen in the organ. It is completely surrounded by cartilage, 
and the invaginated wall is supported by a flat turbinal plate of cartilage passing in- 
wards from the outer wall of the capsule. The capsules of each side rest on a flat 
cartilaginous plate, which passes right across from the one side to the other, and com- 
pletes what would otherwise be a little gap in the lower wall of the cartilage of Jacobson. 
This cartilaginous plate is exactly comparable with the similar plate in Ornithorhynchus, 
and is developed from the small outer portions of the nasal-floor cartilage, which become 
greatly enlarged, and pass inwards. 

On comparing the structure of the organ and its relations in Echidna with that in 



238 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

Ornithorhynchus, it will be observed that in the posterior parts of the organ there is a 
close agreement between the two forms. In Echidna, the whole organ being posterior to 
the duct, this region is naturally developed to a greater extent than in Ornithorhynchus, 
where the organ extends in front of the duct as well as behind, but otherwise the only 
points of difference at present worthy of note are the absence of the prevomer in 
Echidna, and the different degrees of development of the turbinal plates — in Ornitho- 
rhynchus large and curved ; in Echidna small and flat. The anterior part of the organ 
in Echidna differs remarkably from that in Ornithorhynchus, and yet it is not difficult 
to imagine an intermediate or ancestral form from which both would be derived — the 
Echidna type by simplification and the Ornithorhynchus type by specialisation. In this 
hypothetical ancestral form the organ probably extended little, if at all, in front of the 
duct opening, but had a well-developed turbinal which extended right to the front >f 
the organ. If in Echidna the turbinal were carried forward to the front of the organ, 
and the part of the organ in the neighbourhood of the naso-palatine canal, instead of 
being reduced to a duct, were well developed, there would be as great a resemblance to 
the Ornithorhynchus condition even in this region as is to be seen in the posterior part. 
The well-developed anterior part of the organ in Ornithorhynchus is but a continuation 
forwards of the various structures met with in the region of the duct rendered possible 
by the great development of the nasal floor cartilage in the anterior region. 

Marsupialia. 

The marsupial organ of Jacobson was apparently first described in 1891 by 
Symington, who studied the condition in pouch specimens of the kangaroo and rock 
wallaby. At that time the organ in Echidna was undescribed, and Symington, com- 
paring the Marsupial organ with that in Ornithorhynchus, concluded that its affinities 
were more with the higher Eutherian type than with that of the Monotreme. With the 
exception of a short note by C. Kose on the organ in the wombat and opossum, and a 
few incidental references in one or two of my own papers, nothing further had been 
written on the subject till last year, when I communicated a paper " On the Comparative 
Anatomy of the Organ of Jacobson in Marsupials " to the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales. This paper, which will appear in the Proceedings of the Society, contains a 
description of the organ in representative genera of the principal groups, and of the 
changes met with at different stages of development. From my study of the organ in 
the various marsupials, it was seen that in all the diverse forms the organ conformed 
more or less to one main type. Of this main type, however, there are two minor 
varieties — the simpler one found in the Polyprotodonts, the more complex in the 
Diprotodonts. In the present paper I will take Dasyurus as the typical representative 
of the former group, aud Petaurus of the latter. 

Dasyurus. — In Dasyurus we meet with the simplest form of the marsupial organ. , 
As the structure of the organ and its relations have been described in some detail in the 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN OEGAN OF JACOBSON. 239 

above-mentioned paper, a brief account will here suffice. The nasal floor cartilage is 
well developed and simple in its structure. Fig. 8 represents a transverse section just 
in front of the naso-palatine canal. Here the nasal floor cartilage is seen as a curved 
plate of cartilage resting on the premaxillary bone, and with its inner end curved 
upwards by the side of the base of the septum, and then slightly outwards, forming a 
support to the inferior septal ridge. The naso-palatine canal on passing upwards passes 
slightly backwards, and in fig. 9 it is seen cut across as it lies between the premaxillary 
and its palatine process, and dividing the nasal floor cartilage into an inner and an outer 
part. The inner part, which becomes Jacobson's cartilage, is very irregularly " C "- 
shaped, there being an inner curved portion for the reception of the organ and a well- 
marked little process passing out into the septal ridge. In fig. 10 the canal is found 
first opening into the anterior end of Jacobson's organ, and then communicating with 
the nasal cavity. 

If the three sections of Dasyurus figured be compared with the corresponding figures 
representing the condition in Echidna, the wonderful agreement will be at once evident — 
the simple condition of the nasal floor cartilage, its division into two parts by the naso- 
palatine canal, and the mode of communication of the canal with the anterior end of 
Jacobson's organ and with the nasal cavity. Even the details of structure of Jacobson's 
cartilage are exceedingly instructive. The outer end of the upper part of Jacobson's 
cartilage is in fig. 10 seen detached from the inner plate, forming a bar along the 
concavity of the organ. A very short distance, however, behind the plane of fig. 10 
the lower end of the inner plate of Jacobson's cartilage passes outwards and unites with 
the bar. This interesting little bar of cartilage, which is present in nearly all Marsupials, 
1 have elsewhere called the " outer bar of Jacobson's cartilage." Its chief interest lies in 
the fact that there is not .the slightest doubt but it is exactly homologous with the 
rudimentary turbinal found in the anterior part of the cartilage in Echidna, and that it 
is thus the remnant of an ancestral turbinal. The posterior and main part of the body 
of the organ lies in an open curved plate of cartilage, which only supports the organ on 
its inner and under sides. We thus have in this primitive marsupial type a series of 
structures which are in all details easily traceable to the monotreme condition. In 
Ornithorhynchus the ancestral monotreme type is complicated by excessive cartilaginous 
developments, while in Echidna the primitive condition is obscured by the rudimentary 
condition of the cartilage in the anterior region. In Dasyurus, on the other hand, we 
probably have a nearer approach to the proto-mammalian proportions than in either of 
the existing monotremes, but, unfortunately, the organ has become much more feebly 
developed, and the cartilages are so reduced that at first sight one fails to observe the 
traces of their former grand developments. 

Didelphys agrees very closely with Dasyurus as regards its organ and cartilages ; 
Perameles, on the other hand, while agreeing fairly well with these more normal 
polyprotodonts, shows some slight peculiarities, which have been considered in my above- 
mentioned paper. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 8). 2 



240 DK R. BROOM ON THE 

Petaurus. — Petaurus I have chosen for consideration, as it shows the diprotodont 
marsupial characteristics in their most typical form. The main part of the organ agrees 
very closely with that in Dasyurus, as will be seen by comparing fig. 15 with fig. 11. 
In front, however, there are some remarkable differences. The nasal region, generally 
at its anterior part, is somewhat more expanded laterally than in Dasyurus, and the 
inferior septal ridges are much more developed. It is probably in connection with this 
broadening out of the base of the septum that the inner part of the nasal floor cartilage 
assumes its characteristic development. In front of the naso-palatine canal the nasal 
floor cartilage, as seen in fig. 12, closely resembles the condition in Dasyurus (fig. 8). 
In fig. 13, in the plane just behind the point where the palatine process divides off from 
the premaxillary, the nasal floor cartilage is seen in its characteristic form. Its outer 
part is very much reduced, but the inner part, which becomes Jacobson's cartilage, id 
much better developed than in Dasyurus. By comparing this figure with fig. 9, the 
following points of difference will be noticed. Instead of the cartilage being composed 
of a vertical curved plate, with a short process passing to the inferior septal ridge from the 
upper end, we have here a moderately flat plate passing markedly outwards, and resting 
on the palatine process of the premaxillary, while from near its middle there passes 
upwards and outwards a well-marked process, which passes into and supports the well- 
developed inferior septal ridge. The interpretation of the morphology of the different 
structures here seems at first sight rather difficult, but an examination of the succeeding 
planes gives a satisfactory solution of the problem. In fig. 14 we have represented a 
transverse section through the point where Jacobson's organ opens into the naso- 
palatine canal and into the nasal cavity. It will be observed that there is a much more 
marked connection between the organ and the nasal cavity than in Dasyurus. In the 
ridge we find a portion of cartilage which we have no difficulty in recognising to be the 
outer bar of Jacobson's cartilage, and we are thus driven to the conclusion that the ridge 
support seen in fig. 13 is the homologue of the short plate which passes out to the little 
ridge in Dasyurus. This being so, we see that two of the peculiarities of the Petaurus 
arrangement are (1) a great development of the ridge process, and (2) its arising from 
near the middle of the inner plate instead of from its upper end, which probably means 
that in Petaurus the upper part of the cartilage is developed to a much greater degree 
than in Dasyurus. A third peculiarity, and probably the most important, is that the 
inner plate of the cartilage at its lower end passes down on the outside of the pain tine 
process of the premaxillary, and forms the inner wall of part of the naso-palatine canal. 
In almost all other respects the details of the anatomy in Petaurus agree with those in 
Dasyurus. One feature worthy of note is, that in the diprotodonts the organ almost 
always has a well-marked vascular plexus, while in the polyprotodonts the plexus is 
more or less rudimentary. In my paper above referred to I have pointed out the 
peculiarities of the different diprotodonts, and here need only call attention to one, viz., 
yEpyprymnus. In this rat-kangaroo we have a peculiar arrangement found in no other 
marsupial yet examined, namely, that the organ opens directly into the nasal cavity 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 241 

slightly in front of the point where the naso-palatine canal ends. In every other 
respect the characters agree perfectly with the Marsupial type, and the peculiarity is 
probably due to the lengthening of the front of the snout in connection with the well- 
developed front incisors. It will be noted later that the opening of Jacobson's organ 
into the nasal floor in front of the naso-palatine canal is one of the most noticeable 
characteristics of the rodents, and it is interesting here to notice a parallel development 
in an animal which to a considerable degree approximates to the rodent type of dentition. 

Edentata. 

With the exception of Parker's Monograph on the development of the skull in the 
Edentata, practically nothing has been published on the organ of Jacobson in this order, 
and Parker's figures, though showing the presence of the organ in different forms, do 
not enable us to form any idea of the more delicate relations. Symington, who has 
made sections of the snout of the Peba armadillo, and of a foetal 3-toed sloth, but has 
not yet published his results, kindly informs me that he finds the organ well developed 
in the armadillo, and that in the sloth it is rudimentary, and opens into the nasal cavity. 
Through the kindness of Mr F. E. Beddard, F.R.S., I recently obtained the head of an 
adult hairy armadillo (Dasyjjus villosus), and have since made a study of the organ of 
Jacobson and its relations in that form. In this species the organ is moderately well 
developed, and though it is possible that in such a varied group as the Edentata there 
may be some considerable variations in the relations of the organ, Dasypus villosus may 
provisionally be taken as the type of the order ; and, judging by the structure in this 
form, it seems probable to me that the other genera will not depart very greatly from 
the Dasypus type. 

Dasypus. — In a short paper recently published I described the condition of the 
nasal floor cartilage in its anterior region, and more especially the remarkable little 
nasal floor bone which is associated with it. The cartilage differs in some respects from 
that of any of the lower mammals, and also from the majority of the higher forms. In 
most mammals the nasal floor cartilage arises as two lateral plates from the base of the 
nasal septum : here, in front, they appear to rise by a splitting up of the lower third of 
the nasal septum. In the plane passing through the anterior part of the papilla the 
cartilages are quite below the base of the septum, and do not form any floor to nasal 
cavity, the floor being formed by the little nasal floor bone. 

Fig. 16 represents a transverse section near the middle of the papilla. Here the 
nasal floor cartilage has almost its normal development, for though the outer and inner 
parts appear detached by the posterior part of the nasal floor bone, they are quite united 
round behind the bone. The nasal floor cartilage and bone both rest on the peculiarly 
flattened out premaxillary. The inner part of the nasal floor cartilage is very large, and 
is seen curving upwards and outwards almost exactly as in Dasyurus ; there is here, 
however, practically no inferior septal ridge, the large glandular ridge being apparently 
the homologue of the upper of the two ridges in Echidna, and not of the lower, which 



242 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

corresponds to the inferior septal ridge of marsupials. A very short distance behind 
the plane of fig. 16 the inner part of the nasal floor cartilage, or Jacobson's cartilage, 
becomes much thinner, and the upper part curves outwards and downwards, thereby 
forming a cavity for the reception of Jacobson's duct, which in fig. 17 we find lying in 
the concavity thus formed, and opening into the floor of the nasal cavity. In this latter 
figure we find the outer part of Jacobson's cartilage detached as a little flat plate which, 
though different in shape, is, there is little doubt, the homologue of the outer bar of 
Jacobson's cartilage in marsupials. The duct of the organ is seen to have a plentiful 
supply of vascular tissue, especially on its upper side. A little behind this plane the 
outer bar becomes united with the lower part of the inner plate, and the organ rests in 
a sort of " V "-shaped trough. For a short distance Jacobson's cartilage still retains its 
connection with the outer nasal floor cartilage, then becoming detached, the " V " 
becomes gradually rounded into the normal " C " shape, and the outer nasal floor 
cartilage becomes more and more reduced. Fig. 18 represents a section just beyond 
the point where the naso-palatine canal opens into the nasal cavity, and it will be 
observed that there is no connection whatever between the canal and Jacobson's organ. 
The two cartilages of Jacobson are separated by the vomer, and rest on the palatine 
processes of the premaxillary. The organ has the usual mammalian kidney-shape, and 
in structure does not differ apparently from the marsupial organ. Along the concavity 
of the organ there is a rudimentary plexus composed of one large and three or four 
small blood-vessels. 

From the consideration of the above-mentioned details, it will be seen that there is 
little to distinguish the Edentate organ from that of the Marsupial. The most striking 
difference is the opening of the organ into the nasal cavity much in advance of the naso- 
palatine canal, but this is only an extreme exaggeration of the condition met with in the 
rat-kangaroo, JEpyprymnns. 

RODENTIA. 

In no order of mammals has the organ and its relations been studied so thoroughly 
as in the Rodentia, and yet in no order is the difficulty of interpreting its affinities so 
great. Klein has fully described the details of the anatomy in the rabbit and guinea- 
pig, while Herzfeld has examined the organ in the rat. I have myself examined the 
organ in the hare, at birth, two stages of foetal rabbit, the mouse, and the Australian 
water-rat, Hydromys. 

Though the organ is probably better developed throughout this order than in any 
other of the Eutheria, there are certain peculiarities both in the organ itself and in its 
relations which distinguish it from that of any other mammal. At present I will leave 
out of consideration the minute structure of the organ, the well-developed plexus, and 
the glandular connections, and confine myself to the study of the relations of the organ 
and its cartilages. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 243 

The most striking characteristic of the organ is that it apparently always opens on 
to the floor of the nasal cavity in its anterior part, and well in advance of the naso- 
palatine canal, with which it has no connection. This peculiarity has been found in all 
the rodents yet examined, and from the examination of Dr Beard's sections of the 
embryo rabbit of 13 mm. described in his recent paper " On Certain Problems in Verte- 
brate Embryology " I find that the characteristic peculiarity is already distinctly marked 
even at this early period. 

Lepus. — To illustrate the Rodent type of organ I have taken a foetal rabbit (head 
length 19 mm.), as in adult animals the great development of the premaxillaries to 
some extent mar the cartilaginous arrangements. In front the nasal floor cartilage pre- 
sents no remarkable peculiarity, differing little from the simple marsupial type, except 
in that the development is confined chiefly to the inner part, which curves up close to 
the base of the feeble nasal septum. In fig. 36 we see the much compressed nasal 
cavity passing down and curving into the outer concavity of the nasal floor cartilage, or, 
as it may be here called, Jacobson's cartilage. Almost immediately beyond this 
plane the duct of Jacobson is found passing off from the nasal cavity, and occupying 
the concavity of the cartilage. In fig. 37 we find Jacobson's organ quite sepa- 
rated from the nasal cavity, and almost surrounded by cartilage. It will be noticed 
that there is a rudimentary outer bar, on the one side united above, on the other below, 
resembling more the condition in Dasypus than in Marsupials. On the palate the 
extreme anterior part of the naso-palatine canal is cut across. Fig. 38 represents a 
section near the posterior part of the naso-palatine canal. Jacobson's organ and 
cartilage are found in their normal form, and the cartilages are supported by the pala- 
tine processes of the premaxillary. Below and on the outer side of the naso-palatine 
canal is seen a small cartilaginous element, the explanation of the significance of which 
is the most troublesome problem in the snout of the rodent. The little cartilaginous 
process passes forwards almost to the front of the canal, supporting it on its outer side. 
Behind, it supports chiefly the lower wall of the canal, and when the canal opens into 
the nasal cavity the cartilage forms a true nasal floor cartilage. As it passes still 
further back it curves inwards and upwards, and forms an inner wall to the lower part 
of the nasal cavity. Throughout its whole length it is quite unconnected with either 
Jacobson's cartilage or the alinasal. In the lower mammals the only cartilage with 
which homology can be claimed is the outer nasal floor cartilage of the Monotremes. 
In the higher Eutheria, however, we have a somewhat similar cartilaginous development 
complicated in front by the presence of an anterior process of Jacobson's cartilage, which 
is absent in the rodents. By a comparison with the simple higher Eutherian type, as 
found in Miniopterus, it will be seen that the peculiar process of cartilage is a much 
modified outer nasal floor cartilage. 

From the consideration of the above features it will be noticed that in the rodent we 
have a number of lower mammalian characters together with what would seem to be a 
higher Eutherian feature. The well-developed condition of the organ, with its large 



244 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

vascular plexus and its numerous glands, all point to an affinity with the lower mammals 
— Monotremes and Marsupials, and the structure of Jacobson's cartilage with its rudi- 
mentary outer bar gives strong support to this affinity. The mode of opening of the 
organ is similar to that in Dasypus, and is but an extreme degree of the condition in 
iEpyprymnus. The well-developed naso-palatine canal, and the process of the outer nasal 
floor cartilage passing forward with it, reveals a character which seems to remove the 
rodent from its lower relatives, and suggests an affinity with the higher Eutheria. 
Taking the various points into consideration, one of two conclusions seems to be 
possible — (1) Either the rodents are an aberrant group sprung off from the main 
Eutherian stem somewhat earlier than the development of the common ancestors of the 
higher Eutheria; or (2) they are a modified and specialised branch of the higher 
Eutheria. From the primitive characters of the organ and its cartilage found in the 
rodents and in none of the higher Eutheria, and from the fact that in no known higher 
Eutherian has a condition similar to that of the rodent arisen by secondary development, 
the first of the two conclusions, viz., that the rodents are a specialised offshoot from the 
early ancestors of the higher Eutherians, seems much the more probable. 



Higher Eutheria. 

In a few typical members of the higher Eutheria the organ has been carefully 
studied, but though much has been done in the way of describing the details of the 
anatomy practically no attempt has been made to indicate the significance of the various 
details. Not taking into consideration the Anthropoidea, in which the organ is gene- 
rally rudimentary or absent, I have studied the organ in the following orders : — 
Chiroptera, Insectivora, Carnivora, and Ungulata (Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla). 
Notwithstanding the great differences in the general structure of the members of these 
different orders, the organs of Jacobson are formed on a common plan, and the differences 
are very slight. In the bat, when the organ is developed, we have the same type as in 
the pig, while the organ in the ox scarcely differs in one detail from that in the cat. 

The affinities are such as to lead irresistibly to the conclusion that, in spite of the 
great outward differences in structure and the differences in habits and dentition, we 
have the various groups connected by ties of a common ancestry. And, furthermore, 
not only do the common ties indicate a close relationship, but they distinguish at once 
the higher Eutheria from the lower mammals. The simplest form of the higher 
Eutherian type that I have met with is that found in the Chiroptera ; it will, therefore, 
be convenient to consider first the structure in its simple form as seen in Miniopterus. 

Chiroptera. — Until recently it was believed that there was no organ of Jacobson in 
the Chiroptera, but in 1895 Messrs Duval and Garnault discovered a moderately 
developed organ in Vesperugo pipistrellus, and in the same year I found a very well- 
developed organ in Miniopterus schreibersii. Though the organ is thus seen to he 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 245 

occasionally present, it must be admitted to be more normally absent : it is interesting, 
however, as showing the value of the general anatomical arrangement of parts as a 
factor in classification, that even when the organ is quite absent (Pteropus, Nyctophilus) 
the cartilages still follow the same general arrangement as in Miniopterus where the organ 
is so well developed. 

Though Miniopterus gives us the simplest form of the Eutherian type, and though it 
lias certain affinities with the Marsupial arrangement, it is further removed from the 
Marsupial type than is the Marsupial from the Monotreme. 

If a transverse vertical section be made through the posterior part of the papilla an 

appearance will be presented like that shown in fig. 19. The nasal septum is rather 

slender, and from a little below its base on each side there passes out a thin nasal floor 

cartilage, which is present here as a moderately flat plate, curving slightly upwards at 

its inner end. In the middle line, a considerable distance below the base of the septum 

is a small oval cartilage — a development of the prenasal. By the side of the papilla is 

seen the naso-palatine canal passing upwards and inwards, and at its upper part curving 

first outwards, then inwards. The upper portion is considerably dilated, and represents 

really the anterior prolongation of the lower part of the nasal cavity. Kound this 

dilated portion there is a curved cartilaginous support which surrounds it on its outer, 

upper, and inner sides. On tracing the curved cartilage forwards the inner part becomes 

lost, only a small portion of cartilage remaining on the outer side of the canal at its 

upper end. If we trace the curved cartilage backwards we find a most remarkable 

development. Fig. 20 represents a section a very short distance behind fig. 19, and 

here the naso-palatine canal is found freely opening into the nasal cavity. What in fig. 

19 represented the nasal floor cartilage is here divided into two parts, while the outer 

part of the curved roof of the naso-palatine canal is likewise separated from the inner, 

and, furthermore, the inner part of the nasal floor cartilage is found united with the 

inner part of the curved roof of the canal, forming one piece, which is really Jacobson's 

cartilage. Jacobson's cartilage thus consists of an upper moderately flat portion and a 

lower portion, which is markedly concave, and which has in its concavity the anterior 

continuation of the duct of Jacobson's organ. The outer part of the nasal floor cartilage 

proper becomes lost shortly behind this plane, but the outer part of the cartilage which 

supported the canal (o.n.f.c.) becomes well developed. In fig. 21 we have a section a 

little way behind the naso-palatine canal. Jacobson's duct is seen almost surrounded 

by the well-developed Jacobson's cartilage, while what was the outer canal cartilage 

becomes a very well developed nasal floor cartilage. On the inner side of each cartilage 

of Jacobson is seen the anterior part of the pre vomer. In this region Jacobson's duct is 

a pure duct lined with squamous epithelium. Fig. 22 represents a section through the 

most developed part of the organ. The organ is here almost surrounded by a cartila- 

1 ginous capsule ; while the nasal floor cartilage forms a large flat plate which, to some 

extent, passes below Jacobson's cartilage. The broad posterior part of the prevomer is 

i seen stretching from the one cartilage of Jacobson to the other. 



"24<i DR K. BROOM ON THE 

hi tracing the affinities between this type and that of the Marsupials we have at first 
a slight difficulty. With regard to the main body of the organ and its cartilaginous cap- 
sule the agreement between the two is close, but as we pass to the front the differences 
become more marked. The organ has a fairly long distinct duct, and even after it opens 
into the upper part of the naso-palatine canal it preserves for a short distance its indivi- 
duality as a distinct groove. One of the main characteristics of the Miniopterus type, 
and of the higher Eutherian type generally, is due to this anterior extension of the duct 
of Jacobson being supported by an anterior process from the cartilage of Jacobson. Then, 
again, the outer part of the nasal floor cartilage is much better developed than in the 
Marsupials, and in some respects it has more resemblance to the Monotreme type, espe- 
cially where the posterior part becomes well developed and passes in below the organ 
of Jacobson. The great development, however, of the outer part of the nasal floor carti- 
lage gives rise in front to a special process passing forward on the outer side of the naso- 
palatine canal. The anterior process of Jacobson 's cartilage, and that from the outer 
nasal floor cartilage, unite in front by their upper edges, the united cartilages forming 
the support to the upper part of the naso-palatine canal. Though there is no similar 
development in Marsupials, there is frequently present in Diprotodonts a downward pro- 
cess of Jacobson \s cartilage by the side of the naso-palatine canal, which is apparently a 
rudimentary homologue of the anterior process in Miniopterus and the higher Eutheria. 
Different modifications of this downward development of Jacobson's cartilage are found 
in Perameles, Trichosurus, Phascolarctus, Macropus, and Phascolomys. The posterior 
and anterior developments of the outer nasal floor cartilage are no doubt homologous 
with the outer nasal floor cartilage and its anterior process in the rabbit, but whether the 
rodent condition represents a degeneration from the elaborate arrangement found in the 
higher Eutheria, or a pure parallel development, it is difficult to decide definitely, though 
the latter alternative appears the more likely. 

Lemuridse. — I have not had an opportunity of examining personally any member of 
this group, but fortunately Herzfeld has made an examination of the organ and its carti- 
lages in Lemur, and so far as he has figured his sections the type followed differs in no 
essentials from that of Miniopterus. 

Insectivora. — The organ in members of the Insectivora has been examined by HarvEY 
and Herzfeld, while Parker in his monograph on the development of the skull gives 
numerous figures of sections through the organ. Parker's figures, however, are on too 
small a scale to give more than rough indications of the arrangements. Harvey has 
noted the general features in the hedgehog, and Herzfeld has figured the organ in the 
mole, though this latter animal is a much less satisfactory insectivorous type than the 
former. 

Taking the hedgehog as the insectivorous type, we find in it an organ which differs 
but little from that of the bat, except that in a few points there are indications of a more 
advanced stage of organisation. As in the majority of the higher Eutheria the naso- 
palatine canal is long, and passes very obliquely upwards and backwards, and the great 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 247 

length of the canal is one of the points in which we have an advance on the Chiropterus 
condition. The other main points of difference are due to a less degree of development 
of the organ in the hedgehog, and a greater of the bony tissues. Though the naso- 
palatine canal passes up very obliquely, it is supported by cartilaginous walls almost 
exactly as in Miniopterus, and unquestionably of the same nature. Fig. 23, which repre- 
sents a section of the snout of the hedgehog cut slightly obliquely, shows on the one side 
the naso-palatine canal almost surrounded by cartilage. The upper and inner corner of 
the canal is really the continuation of Jacobson's duct. If this figure be compared with 
fig. 19 the close agreement of the two will be at once manifest. In the hedgehog the 
nasal floor cartilage is represented only by the inner part above, and by the feebly 
developed outer wall of the naso-palatine canal. In the other side of fig. 23 the section 
passes through the point where the naso-palatine canal opens into the nasal cavity, and 
Jacobson's duct is likewise seen opening into the nasal cavity at this point. Jacobson's 
cartilage is here represented in two portions — a lower small concave portion which lodges 
the duct of Jacobson, and a small upper plate which is the continuation of the nasal floor 
cartilage proper. This section may be compared with fig. 20 of Miniopterus. Almost 
immediately beyond this plane the two portions of Jacobson's cartilage unite, and we 
soon get on section an appearance like fig. 24, with the organ well protected by a large 
cartilage. This section may be seen to agree fairly closely with fig. 21 from Miniopterus, 
the outer nasal floor cartilage being unrepresented in the hedgehog. 

Carnivora. — As a result of Klein's work we have a very complete account of the 
organ and its relations in one of the members of this order, the dog. Though the 
arrangement of the cartilages in the dog is quite characteristic of the carnivorous type, 
their development indicates some degree of degeneration, and in the cat we have a much 
better representative of the order, as the cartilages here attain their full development. 

As in the hedgehog we have an advance upon the Miniopterus condition, so in the 
cat we have a further stage in the specialisation of the same type ; and the hedgehog 
condition stands almost intermediate between the primitive bat condition and the more 
specialised condition of the cat. 

In the cat we have a very long naso-palatine canal supported by cartilaginous walls 
as in the hedgehog. The mutual relations of the canal and its cartilaginous walls are 
well shown by Klein in his paper on the organ in the dog, and the condition in the cat 
is essentially similar. In both the bat and hedgehog the organ was seen to open into the 
nasal cavity as well as into the naso-palatine canal ; in the cat the duct of the organ 
opens into the canal well in advance of the posterior end of the canal, and thus only 
communicates with the nasal cavity indirectly by means of the naso-palatine canal. In 
fig. 25 the naso-palatine canal is supported by cartilage almost exactly as in the hedge- 
hog ; the nasal floor cartilage is, however, much better developed. Fig. 26 represents 
lacobson's duct separating off from the canal, and already the inner part of the cartilage 
— the anterior process of Jacobson's cartilage — is seen distinct from the outer portion or 
the process from the outer nasal floor cartilage. In fig. 27 we see the whole four 

VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 8). 2 P 



248 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

elements which are derived from the cornual cartilages all distinct. The section is made 
in a plane a little behind the point where the naso-palatine canal opens into the nasal 
cavity, and the palatine process has just become detached from the premaxillary bone. 
The nasal floor cartilage proper is seen divided into an inner and an outer part, and at 
the outer and lower corner of the naso-palatine canal is the remains of the outer canal 
cartilage. Though in this type this little cartilage which supports the outer wall of the 
canal is quite unconnected with the outer part of the nasal floor cartilage above, a com- 
parison with the condition in Miniopterus, and especially with higher Ungulate types, 
leaves little doubt but that it is morphologically a part of the outer nasal floor cartilage. 
Beyond the plane of fig. 27 the inner part of the nasal floor cartilage proper unites with 
the lower part to form Jacobson's cartilage, which now presents an appearance similar to 
that in the hedgehog. 

Ungulata. — Notwithstanding the numerous points in the anatomy of the Ungulates, 
which would seem to mark them off from the rest of the Eutheria as a well-defined group, 
it is remarkable that in the relations of the organ of Jacobson and its cartilages there is 
the closest agreement even in small points of detail with the condition found in other 
higher Eutherians such as the Carnivora and Insectivora. The agreement is more marked 
than between the Polyprotodont and Diprotodont Marsupials, and one is forced to the 
conclusion that there is a more intimate relationship between the Ungulates and some 
other of the so-called orders of the Eutheria than is at present believed. 

The different groups of Ungulates seem to be related to each other in much the same 
way as are the Chiroptera, Insectivora, and Carnivora ; and in the types which have been 
examined so far we find evidences of a parallel development, the pig representing the 
simpler condition and the cow the more specialised. 

Sus. — The general anatomy of the snout of the pig has been fairly well illustrated 
by Parker, but he has not entered upon the details of the anatomy of the structures 
related to the organ of Jacobson or the naso-palatine canal. I have myself examined 
the snout of a foetal pig (head length 19 mm.), which will be found to illustrate fairly 
well the Ungulate type in its simplest form. On the whole there is a marked agree- 
ment with the condition in Miniopterus, except that the outer nasal floor cartilage and 
the anterior process which it normally gives rise to is likewise undeveloped. In fig. 28 
we have a section through the point of entrance of the naso-palatine canal. By the 
side of the base of the septum is the inner part of the nasal floor cartilage. Above the 
upper part of the naso-palatine canal, and towards its inner side, is the well marked 
anterior process of Jacobson's cartilage, and between this and the nasal floor cartilage 
and a little internally is situated the palatine process of the premaxillary. The close 
agreement with Miniopterus will be evident on comparing this figure with fig. 19. In 
fig. 29 we have the condition of parts a little further back. Here Jacobson's cartilage 
is complete, the anterior process being in contact with the upper part or nasal floor 
cartilage exactly as is seen in Miniopterus (fig. 20). On the one side the duct of 
Jacobson has just become separated off from the naso-palatine canal, and on the other 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 249 

side the canal is opening into the nasal cavity. From this section it will thus be seen 
that Jacobson's duct opens into the naso-palatine canal just as the canal is opening into 
the nasal cavity. In this it agrees with Miniopterus and the hedgehog, and also with 
most Marsupials. In fig. 30 we have a section through the body of the organ, and 
showing the normal relations of the organ, the cartilage, and the palatine process. 

Bos. — In the Ruminants the condition has long ago been carefully studied, and the 
structure and relations of the cartilages, etc., were fully described by Balogh in 1860, 
though his illustrations unfortunately are exceedingly diagrammatic. Of the ruminant 
type I have examined two stages of foetal calf and a young goat, but the peculiarities of 
the arrangements are perhaps best shown in the larger of the foetal calves — one about 
six inches in length. As in the pig, the condition of parts closely agrees with that in 
Miniopterus, so in the Ruminants we have an arrangement as closely corresponding with 
that of the Carnivora. In the cat we have a long naso-palatine canal, and the duct of 
Jacobson opening into the canal much in front of the union of the canal and the nasal 
cavity. In the Ruminant a precisely similar condition is found ; but the agreement of 
the cartilaginous structures is even more remarkable. Fig. 33 represents a section 
through the anterior part of the naso-palatine canal, and even in this plane the duct of 
Jacobson is already seen to be split off from the canal. The nasal floor cartilage is very 
well developed, and still attached to the nasal septum. Around the naso-palatine canal 
and Jacobson's duct is a curved plate of cartilage in which there is no difficulty in recog- 
nising the two elements — the inner, which embraces Jacobson's duct, being the anterior 
process of Jacobson's cartilage, the outer, the anterior process of the outer nasal floor 
cartilage. Between these anterior cartilaginous processes and the nasal floor cartilage 
lies the delicate palatine process of the premaxillary. In fig. 34 we find the nasal floor 
cartilage almost united with the anterior process of Jacobson's cartilage, and farther out 
the outer nasal floor cartilage separated from the inner is seen united with its anterior 
process. Fig. 35 shows the appearances just anterior to the opening of the naso-palatine 
canal into the nasal cavity. Jacobson's cartilage has now attained its normal form, and 
has as its support on the inner side the premaxillary palatine process. The lower part 
of the outer nasal floor cartilage again forms a sort of nasal floor, as is found in 
Miniopterus, and in the rabbit. The close agreement between the condition of parts in 
the calf with those in the cat will be well seen by comparing figures 33 and 35 with 25 
and 27 respectively. 

Equus. — In the horse we have an aberrant modification of the Ungulate type brought 
about probably by the great development of the premaxillaries. As I have elsewhere 
described the peculiarity in detail, I will only here briefly mention the main features. 

In the horse the naso-palatine canal does not open into the mouth, but ends blindly 
after passing forward for a short distance. The organ of Jacobson, which is normally 
formed, opens into the canal which carries the secretion back into the nasal cavity. 
In connection with the rudimentary canal and the well-developed premaxillaries, the 
cartilages are modified considerably anteriorly. The nasal floor cartilage is much com- 



•250 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

pressed laterally, and instead of an inner and an outer process being sent forward to 
support the ducts, we have these processes rudimentary, and retaining their attachment 
to the nasal floor cartilage throughout their whole extent. Fig. 31 shows Jacobson's 
duct and the naso-palatinc canal distinct, while the cartilaginous supports are seen as 
outgrowths from the laterally compressed nasal floor cartilage. In fig. 38 the structures 
are all seen in their usual relations. 

Cetacea. 

Through the kindness of Professor D'Arcy Thompson, I have been enabled to make 
an examination of the snout of a young foetal Beluga. It has long been known that 
the organ of Jacobson is absent in the whale tribe, but I was anxious to see if the 
arrangement of the cartilages would give any evidence of the affinities of the group. 
My work for the most part confirms Kukenthal's recent researches. Before conclusive 
results can be obtained, however, younger embryos than any yet studied will have to he 
examined. 

The peculiarities of the Cetacean are due to the nasal openings being shifted from their 
normal situation in the anterior part of the snout to the upper region of the head. The 
palatal region does not depart much from the normal type, there being even a small 
papilla in the anterior part ; there is, however, no trace of a naso-palatine canal by the 
side of the papilla. Fig. 39 represents a curved section cut so as to approximate to the 
transverse in both the region of the nasal cavities and the snout. Above are seen the 
two nasal cavities separated by the cartilaginous nasal septum, which passes right down 
to near the palatal region where it rests on the vomer. On each side of the nasal 
septum is seen a peculiarly developed cartilaginous plate. At its upper part it forms a 
floor to the nasal cavity, but its chief part is closely placed against the nasal septum 
which it supports down almost to its lower end. This cartilage is, with little doubt, the 
true nasal floor cartilage, and its peculiar development is evidently the result of the 
shifting of the anterior nares. It passes well forward in advance of the region of the 
nasal cavities still resting by the side of the nasal septum, and ends about midway 
between the nasal passage and the papilla. 

The only mammal in which I have met with a nasal floor cartilage at all comparable 
with that in the whale is the horse, where, owing to a sort of rostrum being formed by 
the well-developed premaxillaries, the nasal floor cartilage becomes laterally compressed 
somewhat as in the Cetacean. Though the evidence afforded by the condition of the 
cartilages is too slight to lead to any conclusions, so far as it goes it suggests affinities 
with the higher Eutheria. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 251 



Conclusion. 

From the careful examination of the relations of the organ in the various groups of 
mammals it will be observed that not only is there a close agreement in the details of 
the anatomy in allied forms, but that the anatomical details of the structures related to 
the organ are so little affected by variations in the habits of the animals that, even in 
allied orders, evidences of affinity are here manifested when lost in most of the other 
characters. It will also be seen that in the organ and its cartilages we have a steady 
evolution which has apparently been only but slightly influenced by the great changes 
in external structure. 

In the Prototheria we have an organ in a highly-developed condition, well supplied 
with glandular tissue, and having a large vascular plexus along its outer side. In the 
Marsupialia, though there are numerous little modifications — specialisations and degenera- 
tions — when these are examined it is found that they all point back to the Prototherian 
type, and leave little doubt but that in the Marsupial organ we have only a degenerate 
and slightly specialised variety of the type found in the Monotremes. In the Edentata, 
so far as known, the organ might be regarded as a more degenerate and slightly aberrant 
variety of that seen in Marsupials. In Jacobson's organ and its relations we thus have 
a feature which reveals an affinity between the Monotremes, the Marsupials, and this 
the lowest order of the Eutheria, notwithstanding the great differences manifested in 
their modes of development. In the Rodentia we have a well developed organ whose 
cartilage bears some resemblance to that both in the Marsupials and in the Edentata, 
with the additional feature which has not been observed in either of these groups — a 
posterior nasal floor cartilage which is continued forwards as a supporting cartilage to 
the naso-palatine canal. As this cartilage is found in the higher Eutheria, e.g., Miniop- 
terus, we see a certain affinity with this higher group. On the whole, however, the 
agreement is more with the lower than with the higher forms. 

The examination of the organ in the higher Eutheria also reveals some striking 
relationships. As a rule, the organ itself is more or less rudimentary, the plexus absent, 
and the glandular tissue much reduced. In the cartilages, however, it has been seen 
that there is almost invariably a peculiar and characteristic development by which any 
higher Eutherian in which the organ is developed, and the majority of those even in 
which it is absent, can be at once distinguished from any of the lower mammals. In the 
complex development of the nasal floor cartilage we have, apparently, a thoroughly 
reliable character by which the higher Eutheria can be divided off from the lower into a 
distinct group by themselves. For this group I would propose the name Ccenorhinata, 
while for those Eutheria which have the primitive arrangement of the cartilages of the 
nasal floor the distinguishing name Archceorhinata might be given. In the former- 
group would be included the following orders : — Primates, Carnivora, Insectivora, 



*252 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

Chiroptera, and Ungulata ; in the latter, the Edentata, and probably the Rodentia. 
There should be no difficulty in placing the Sirenia in its proper group, as in it there is 
known to be a well-developed organ of Jacobson. The position of the Cetacea will have 
to be decided by other characters. 

In the Marsupialia or Metatheria there is no doubt we have a most satisfactory 
sub-class, but there seems reason from the present investigation to divide it into two 
sub-orders, the Polyprotodontia and the Diprotodontia. The position of the Bandicoots 
has frequently been a matter of doubt, and there are unquestionably some Eutherian 
characters to be met with in the group, as the presence of an allantoic placenta, as dis- 
covered by J. P. Hill, the ossified patella, and a character which I have observed in no 
other marsupial, the intercommunication of the two nasal cavities behind the region of 
Jacobson's organ. Notwithstanding these advanced characters, there is little doubt but 
that the Peramelidse are rightly placed with the other Polyprotodonts, as has been done 
by Thomas. 

The Rodents, as has already been shown, have the organ so specialised that it is a 
little difficult to decide whether we have an advancement of the early condition, or a 
specialisation of the later ; the evidence, however, mostly points to the former conclusion, 
and at present we may tentatively regard the Rodentia as belonging to the Archaso- 
rhinata. This being so, we may classify the Mammalia thus : — 
Class — Mammalia. 

Sub-class I. Protheria. Order Monotremata. 

Sub-class II. Metatheria. Order Marsupialia. S. 0. Polyprodontia. 

S. 0. Diprotodontia. 
Sub-class III. Eutheria. Group 1. Archseorhinata. Order Edentata. 

Order Rodentia (?). 
Group 2. Csenorhinata. Order Chiroptera. 

Order Insectivora. 
Order Carnivora. 
Order Primates. 
Order Ungulata. 
Order Sirenia. 
Order Cetacea. 
A further subdivision of the orders in the group Csenorhinata might be made, the 
Chiroptera, Insectivora, Carnivora and Primates being apparently more nearly allied to 
each other than to the Ungulata. 

In conclusion, I must express my thanks to the following gentlemen for their kind- 
ness in assisting me with specimens and in other ways : — Sir William Turner, 
Sir William Flower, Mr F. E. Beddard, Dr Elliot Smith, Mr A. G. Hamilton, 
Professor Wilson, Professor D'Arcy Thompson, and Dr Beard. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 253 



REFERENCES TO LITERATURE. 

Anton W., "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Jacobson'schen Organs der Erwachsenen," Z. F. Heilh, B. 16, H. 4. 
Anton, W., "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Jacobson'schen Organs bis Erwachsenen," Vhdlgn. d. Deutsch., 

otolog. Ges. 4 Vers., Jena. 
Balogh, C, "Das Jacobson'sche Organ des Schafes," Sitzimgsb. d. K. Alcad. d. W. Math, naturw., 1860. 
Bawden, H. H., "The Nose and Jacobson's Organ, with special reference to the Amphibia," Jour. Comp. 

Neurol., vol. iv., 1894. 
Beakd, J, "The Nose and Jacobson's Organ," Zool. Jahrb. Anat. u. Ontog., Bd. hi., 1889. 
Beraneck, E., " Sur le de>eloppement des nerfs craniens chez les Lezards," Recueil. Zool. Suisse, vol. i. (1884), 

p. 519. 
Born, G., " Ueber die Nasenhohlen und der Thranennasengang der Amphibien," Morph. Jahrb., Bd. ii., 

1877. 
Born, G., "Die Nasenhohlen und der Thranennasengang der Amnioten," Theil I., Morph. Jahrb., Bd. v. 
Born, G., Ibid., Theil II., Morph. Jahrb., Bd. vi. 
Born, G., Ibid., Theil III., Morph. Jahrb., Bd. viii. 
Broom, R., "On the Homology of the Palatine Process in the Mammalian Premaxillary, " Proc. Linn. Soc 

N.S.W., 2nd ser., vol. x., 1895. 
Broom, R., " On the Organ of Jacobson in the Monotremata," Jour. Anat. and Phys., vol. xxx. p. 70, 1895. 
Broom, R., " On the Organ of Jacobson in an Australian Bat. (Miniopterus)," Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 2nd 

ser., vol. x., 1895. 
Broom, R., " Observations on the Relations of the Organ of Jacobson in the Horse," Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

1896. 
Broom, R., " On the Comparative Anatomy of the Marsupial Organs of Jacobson," Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

1896. 
Brunn, Av., "Die Endigung der Olfactorius Fasern und Jacobson'schen Organe des Schafes," Arch. f. mikr. 

Anat., Bd. xxxix. 
Dursy, E., "Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Kopfes des Menschen und der hoheren Wirbelthiere," 

Tubingen, 1869. 
Duval, M., and Garnault, P., "L'Organe de Jacobson des Chiropteres," Compt. Rend. Hebd. des Seances 

de la Societe de Biologie, 10th ser., 28th June 1895. 
Fish, P., "The Cerebral Nervous System of Desmognathus fusca," Journ. of Morph., pt. i., 1895. 
Fleischer, E., "Beitrage zu der Entwickelungsgeschichte des Jacobson'schen Organs," etc., Sitzungsberichte 

Phys. Med. Soc. Erlangen, 1878. 
Gegenbaur, C, "Ueber das Rudiment einer septalen Nasendriise beim Menschen," Morph. Jahrb., Bd. xi., 

1885. 
Golgi, C, "Nervous System," Merkel & Bonnet's Ergebnisse, Bd. ii., 1892 (pub. 1893). 
Gotte, A., "Die Entwickelungsgeschichte der Unke," 1875. 
Gratiolet, "Recherches sur l'Organe de Jacobson," Paris, 1845. 
Harvey, R., "Note on the Organ of Jacobson," Q. J. M. S., 1882. 

Herrick, C. L., "Topography and Histology of the Reptilian Brain," Journ. of Comp. Neurol., vol. iii. 
Herzfeld, P., "Ueber das Jacobson'sche Organ des Menschen und der Saugethiere," Zool. Jahrb. Abth., f. 

Anat. u. Ontog., Bd. iii., 1889. 
Hill, J. P., " Preliminary Note on the occurrence of a Placental connection in Perameles obesula, and on the 

foetal membranes of certain Macropods," Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., vol. x., 2nd series, Nov. 27, 1895. 
Hoffman, C. K., (On Jacobson's organ in Reptilia). Bronn's Thierreich, Bd. vi., Abth. iii. 
Howes, G. B., " On the probable existence of a Jacobson's Organ among the Crocodilia," etc., Proc. Zool. Soc, 

1891. 
Jacobson, "Rapport de M. Cuvier sur un memoire de M. Jacobson," in Annales Museum d'Hist. Naturelle, 

torn, xvhi., 1811. 
Klein, E., "Contributions to the Minute Anatomy of the Nasal Mucous Membrane," Quart. Jour. Micr. 

Sci, vol. xxi., 1881. 



•254 DR R. BROOM ON THE 

Klein, E., "A further Contribution to the Minute Anatomy of the Organ of Jacobson in the Guinea-pig," 

Ibid., 1891, vol. xxi. 
Klein, E , " The Organ of Jacobson in the Rabbit," Ibid., 1881, vol. xxi. 
Klein, E., "The Organ of Jacobson in the Dog," Ibid., 1882, vol. xxii. 
Kolliker, A. v., " Ueber das Jacobson'schc Organ des Menschen," Graf, Schr. des Wiirz. Medic. Facidtat. 

fiir Rinecker, Leipzig, 1877. 
Leboucq, H., " Lc Canal naso-palatin chez l'homme," Arch, de Biologie, vol. ii., 18S1. 
Legal, E., "Die Nasenhbhlen und der Thriinennasengang der Amnioten Wirbelthiere," Morph. Jahrb., Bd. 

viii., 1883. 
Lexiiossek, M. v., "Die Nervenursprunge u. Endig. im Jacobson'schen Organ des Kaninchens," Anat. Am.. 

1892. 
Leydig, F. v., "Die in Deutschland lebenden arten der Saurier," 1872. 

Leydig, F. v., " Zut Kenntniss der Sinnesorgane der Schlangen," Arch. fur. mikroslt. Anatomie, Bd. viii., 1872. 
Macallum, A. B., "Tlie Nasal Region in Entaenia," Proc. Canad. Inst. Toronto, 1883. 
Marshall, A. M., " The Morphology of the Vertebrate Olfactory Organ," Q. J. M. S., 1879. 
Meek, A., " On Jacobson's Organ in Crocodillns porosus." 
Merkel, F. v., " Das Jacobson'sche Organ und Papilla palatina beim Menschen," Anat. Hefte., Bd. Abth. i„ 

i., Heft, iii., 1892. 
Parker, W. K., "On the Structure and Development of the Skull in Lacertilia," Phil. Trans., part ii., 1879. 
Parker, W. K., " On the Structure and Development of the Skull in the Common Snake," Phil. Trans., 

part ii., 1878. 
Parker, W. K., "On the Structure and Development of the Skull in the Pig," Phil. Trans., 1874. 
Parker, W. K., " On the Structure and Development of the Skull in the Mammalia," partii., Edentata; part 

iii., Insectivora {Phil. Trans., part i., 1885). 
Parker, W. N., " On some Points on the Structure of the Young of Echidna aculeata," Proc. Zool. Soc, 

1894. 
Piana, G. P., " Contribuzione alia Conoscenza della Struttura e della Funzione dell' Organo del Jacobson," 

Bologna, 1880. 
Ramon y Cayal, S,, " Neue Darstellung von Histologischen Bau des Centralnervensystems," Archiv. f. Anat. 

und Phys., Anat. Abth., Heft vi., 1893. 
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Rose, C, " Ueber das Jacobson'sche Organ von "Wombat und Opossum," Anat. Anz., 1893. 
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Sarasin, P. und F.,"Zur Entwickelung Gesch. und Anat. der Ceylon Blindwuhle," "Wiesbaden, 1890. 
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p. 44. 
Seydel, 0., " Ueber die Nasenhohle und das Jacobson'sche Organ der Amphibien," Morph. Jahrb., Bd. 

xxiii., p. 453. 
Sluiter, C. Ph., "Das Jacobson'sche Organ von Crocodilus porosus," Anat. Anz., 1892. 
Smith, G. Elliot, "Jacobson's Organ and the Olfactory Bulb in Ornithorhynchus," Anat. Anz., 1895. 
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Proc. Zool. Soc, 1891. 
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Symington, J., "On the Homology of the Dumb-bell shaped Bone in Ornithorhynchus," Journ. Anat. and 

Phys., vol. xxx., 1896. 




COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE MAMMALIAN ORGAN OF JACOBSON. 255 

Turner, AY., " The Dumb-bell shaped Bone in the palate of Ornithorhynchus compared with the Prenasal Bone 
of the Pig," Journ. of Anat. and Phys., vol. xix., p. 214, 1885. 

Wiedersheim, R., " Die Stammesentwickelung des Jacobson'schen Organes," Tagbl. Versamml. deutscher 
Naturforsch v. Aertze in Salzburg, 1881. 

Wiedersheim, R., " Die Anatomie der Gymnophionen," 1879. 

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Wright, R. R., "On the Organ of Jacobson in Ophidia," Zool. Anz., No. 144, 1883. 

Zuckerkandl, E., Das periphere Geruchsorgan der Saugethiere, eine Vergleichend. Anat. Studie, 
Stuttgart. 



REFERENCES TO PLATES. 

General. — a. J.c, anterior process of Jacobson's cartilage; a.n.f.c, anterior process of the nasal floor 
cartilage; g., glands; i.t., inferior turbinal bone ; J.c, Jacobson's cartilage; J.c?., Jacobson's duct; J.o., 
Jacobson's organ; Id., lachrymal duct; mx., maxillary bone; n.f.b., nasal floor bone; n./.c, nasal floor 
cartilage; n.p.c, naso-palatine canal; n.s., nasal septum; o.b.J.c, outer bar of Jacobson's cartilage; o.n.f.c, 
outer part of the nasal floor cartilage ; p.c, papillary cartilage ; p.n., prenasal cartilage ; Pmx., premaxillary 
bone; p.Pmx., palatine process of the premaxillary; Pvo., pre vomer; rud.t., rudimentary turbinal cartilage; 
u.c.c, united canal cartilages ; i.e., anterior processes of Jacobson's cartilage and of the outer nasal floor 
cartilage; t.p., turbinal plate; v., blood-vessel; vol., nasal valve; vo., vomer; v.s., vascular space. 

The parts shaded in lines are bones ; whilst the dotted structures are cartilages. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1-3. Transverse sections of the organ of Jacobson in Ornithorhynchus anatinus, x 5. 
Fig. 4-7. „ ,, „ Echidna aculeata, x 20. 

Fig. 8-11. ,, „ ,, Dasyurus viverrinus (mammary foetal speci- 

men), x 20. 
Fig. 12-15. ,, ,, „ Petaurus breviceps, x 20. 

Fig. 16-18. „ ,, „ Dasypus villosus, x 5. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 19-22. Transverse sections of the organ of Jacobson in Miniopterus schreibersii, x 25. 
Fig. 23-24. ,, „ „ Erinaceus europosus, x 10. 



Fig. 25-27. 
Fig. 28-30. 
Fig. 31-32. 
Fig. 33-35. 
Fig. 36-38. 



Felis domestica (Young), x 10. 
Sus scrofa (foetal), x 20. 
Equus caballus (foetal), x 7. 
Bos taurus (foetal), x 10. 
Lepus cuniculus (foetal), x 20. 



Fig. 39 Transverse section of snout of Delphinaptera leucas (foetal), x \\ 



VOL. XXXIX. PART I. (NO. 8). 



6 AUG. 1898 




2 Q 



Trans Roy. Soc. Edin r , Vol XXXIX 
D R R. Broom on Mammalian Organ of Jacob son — Plate I. 




Ili 18. 



M«F*ria.ne & ErGltine GmKH Edin r 



ORMTHORHYNCHUS, ECHIDNA, DASYURUS, 

PETAURUS, DASYPUS. 



Trans. Roy Soc. Edm r Vol. XXXIX. 
D R R. Broom on Mammalian Organ of jagobson.- Plate II. 




Fig 30 



Fig- 37 



Fig 38. 



Fig. 39. 

M'Fa.rlnne » Erskioe, Lilt'; EJm" r 



MINIOPTERUS, EHINACEUS, FELIS, .SUS, 

LEPUS, DELPHINAPTERA. 



EQUUS, BOS, 



Trans Roy Soc. Eairf, Vol. XXXIX. 
D R R. Broom on Mammalian Organ of jaoobson.- Plate II. 



•I ' c. 




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Fig. 39. 



MINIOPTERUS, ERINACEUS, FELIS, .SUS. 

LEPUS, DELPHINAPTERA. 



EQUUS, BOS, 




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VOL. XXXIX. PART IL— FOR THE SESSION 1897-98. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
IX. On the Definite Integral -^— / e~ s dt, with Extended Tables of Values. By Jas. 

Burgess, C.I.E., LL.D., F.R.S.E., . . . . . .257 

(Issued separately, 25th March 1898.) 

X. The Relations between the Coaxial Minors of a Determinant of the Fourth Order. By 

Thomas Muib, LL.D., ........ 323 

(Issued separately, 5th October 1898.) 

XL Cliapters on the Mineralogy of Scotland. Chapter VIII.— Silicates. By M. Foster 
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Professor of Chemistry in the University of St Andrews, .... 341 
(Issued separately, 15th October 1898.) 

XII. The Absolute Thermal Conductivity of Nickel. By T. C. Baillie, M.A., B.Sc, Assistant 

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(With a Plate), .361 

(Issued separately, 22nd October 1898.) 

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(Issued separately, Zrd November 1898.) 

XIV. On Torsional Oscillations of Wires. By Dr W. Peddie. (With Two Plates), . . 425 

(Issued separately, 6th December 1898.) 

XV. The Strains produced in Iron, Steel, Nickel and Cobalt Tubes in the Magnetic Field. 

Part II. By Professor C. G. Knott, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. (Plates I. and IL), . 457 

(Issued separately, 21st November 1898.) 

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(257) 



_2 ft _ 2 
IX. — On the Definite Integral J-w I e dt, with Extended Tables of Values. 

By Jas. Burgess, CLE., LL.D. 

(Read July 15, 1895.) 

1. The integral Je~ t2 dt occurs so frequently in various branches of research that, as 

far back as 1783, Laplace suggested that it would be useful to tabulate its values for 
successive ranges of integration.* It is employed in investigations on the theories of 
refraction, conduction of heat, of errors of observation, of probabilities, etc. These are 
familiar to physicists and need not be dwelt upon, t 

The Integral. — Previous Tables. 

2. The important formula or result — 



€-*dt = iJir. ( 1) 

i 

appears to have been discovered about 1730 by Euler, J who expressed it in the form — 

J ( l0g6 x) ' dx =-J 7r >§ 

2 / 1\ ~" ' 

for, putting x = e~'~, we have (log e -J dx= —2e~ t dt. 

3. Since e - fi dt=\ e - fi dt + e -"dt, (2) 



* Histoire de VAcad. Roy. des Sciences, 1783, p. 434 ; conf. Todhunter, Hist, of the Theory of Probabilities, p. 486. 

t Conf. Glaishee, in Phil. May., vol. xlii, (1871), pp. 429-31. 

% Gauss ascribed this integration to Laplace : Oriani (in Zach's Monatliche Corresp. for March 1810, Bd. xxi, 
S. 280 f.) pointed out Euler's prior claim, but Gauss did not correct his statement, Theoria Motus Corp. Ccel., art. 177, 
p. 212, and Werke, Bd. vii, Ss. 233, 280, 289 ; Davis's transl. of Theor. Mot, pp. 258, 259. Legendre (Exercices de 
Calcid Integral (1811), torn, i, p. 301) asserts Euler's discovery, and refers to his paper, "Evolutio formulae integralis 

J r - l dx(\.x)n," in Novi Commentarii Acad. Scient. Imp. Petropol., torn, xvi, (for 1771) p. 111. Conf. ib., p. 101 ; and 
Comment. Acad. Scient. Petrop., torn, v, (ior 1730-1731) p. 44 ; also Euler's letter to Goldbach of 8th Jan. 1720, in 
Fuss, Correpond. Math, et Phys., torn, i, p. 13. 

§ This is the form used by Legendre in his "Traite des Integrales Euleriennes" in Fonctions Elliptiques, etc. 
torn, ii, pp. 365, 517-524. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART IT. (NO. 9). 2 R 



258 DR JAS. BURGESS ON 

the integral may be taken as separated into two parts — 

(1) J e~ r 'dt, which Mr J. W. L. Glaisher calls the Error-function complement, and 
indicates by ' Erfc' And — 

/■oo 

(2) I e-r-dt, which Mr Glaisher proposes to call the Error-function, denoting it 

by ' Erf.'* Mr R. Pendlebury accepts Mr Glaisher's name for the second, and writes 
the first as ' erf,' — which might lead to mistakes. t For convenience of reference, we 
ma}^ indicate the second by G. 

And we shall put for the multiple of the first function here dealt with — 

H = -2-|e-'VB. (3) 

Whence, from (2)— H = l-_ ^-G; and G = ^J£ (1-H). (4) 

N /7T 2 

And since hjir= 0-886 226 925 452 758 013 649 083 741 670 , 

and its reciprocal— -L = 1-128 379 167 095 512 573 896 158 903 120 , 
also log * -=0-052 455 059 316 914 268 038104 750 579, 

"V7T 

it is comparatively easy to derive the value of G from that of H, or the converse. 

4. In 1789, M. Kramp, in his Analyse des Refractions, was the first to tabulate G 
from Z = 0*00 to t = 3'00, for every hundredth of a unit, together with the logarithmic 
values and differences. To these he added a third table of the logarithmic values of 
e< G = e' I e~'~dt, which is useful in connection with the theory of refraction. Kjkamp 

apparently computed the earlier part of his table by the usual formula (8) given below; 
but it converges so slowly for values of £>1, that Kramp employed a difference formula 
— to be referred to later — in order to fill up and complete his table. For the lower 
values of t his results are carried to eight places, and are generally quite accurate ; 
from t = 2 to t = 3 the values are carried to eleven places, and for the last he gives 
G= -00001957729 in the table and '00001957669 in the text,J— the true value being 
•00001957719 3236779. 

Bessel, in discussing the theory of refraction in his Fundamenta Astronomise (1818), 

/■oo 

pp. 36, 37, next gave two tables,§ the first of log. e'j e~ l "dt from t = to ^ = 100, 

J t 

* Philos. Mag., vol. xlii., 4th ser. (1871), pp. 296, 297, 421. 

t Ibid., p. 437. If either is to be called " Error-function," it would seem to apply rather to H than to G. 
X Twice, pp. 134, 135. 

§ In March 18KJ appeared Gauss' Bestimmung der Genauigkeit der Ikobachtungen, in which he employs several 
of the constants dependent on values of II. — WerJce, Bd. iv, Ss. 110, 111,1 10. 



THE VALUES OF -%- (' e - '* dt . 259 

agreeing in the main with Kramp's third table, but differing occasionally in the last, or 
7th, figure. This may have been due to some recomputation in places where the third 
differences were irregular. His second table is a continuation of the first, employing as 
arguments log w x, from to 1 at intervals of '01, with first and second differences. This 
is equivalent to a short table of log 10 (e ( G) from t = 1 to t = 10, arranged at intervals in a 
geometrical proportion of which the ratio is — 

t x log-'Ol = t x 1-023 292 992 281. 

It is not explained how this table was computed. 

The next table of the kind appeared in Legendre's " Integrales Euleriennes" (1826), # 
giving 130 values of 2G, computed to ten decimal places, and arranged in two parts. 
The first contains the values from t = 0'00 to £ = 0'50, computed by the usual series, 
and by halving the values of the integrals we can readily verify or correct the 
early part of Kramp's first Table. The second part is adapted to Euler's form of 
the integral, viz. — 

j(log.I) 'dx: «=(log.i)\ 

and is arranged with x as argument, from a? = 0'80 (that is, t = 0'472 380 727 077) 
to ic = 0'00 or t=oo. But, though when x = 0, t is infinite, — in the previous entry, 
x = 0'01 makes t= Vlog 6 100 = 2*145 966 026 289, — so that this table does not really 
cover the extent of Kramp's. It was computed by quadratures, and the process is labor- 
ious and effected by means of logarithmic tables extended to twelve decimal places.t 

In his "Theory of Probabilities"! (1837), De Morgan reproduced Kramp's table of 
this integral (G) without revision. Mr Glaisher, in the Philosophical Magazine for 
December 1871, § has further extended it from £ = 3'0 to £ = 4'5 at intervals of 0'01, to 
eleven places for the first fifty values, thirteen for the next, and fourteen for the last fifty. 
It would be easy enough to compute it in the way indicated below for any higher values 
of the argument (§ 25). 

5. But it is with the other integral that this paper is concerned, viz. — 

2 r , 2 r . 

^J J") t 

A table of this was first published by Encke, in a paper on the Method of Least 
Squares, in the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch for 1834, || giving the values of the 
integral, for the arguments t = to t = 2 '00 at intervals of 0'01, computed to seven deci- 
mal places, with first and second differences. This table, the author says, was derived 

* In his Traite'des Fonctions Elliptiques et dcs Integrales Euleriennes, torn, ii, pp. 520, 521. 

t Op. cit., torn, ii, pp. 517-524. The method explained below (§ 12) is different. 

X In Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, vol. ii, pp. 359-458. He also gave a short abstract of it in his Differential and 
Integral Calculus (1842), p. 657. 

§ Vol. xlii, 4th ser., p. 436. 

I| The paper is continued through the vols, for 1834 (Ss. 249-312), 1835 (253-320), and 1836 (253-308). The 
Table is in the Jahrbuch for 1834, Ss. 305-308. 



260 DR JAS. BURGESS ON 

immediately from the table for the integral fe~ tl dt in Bessel's Fundamenta Astronomies* 

There seems to be a mistake here, for the table could be derived directly only from 
Kjramp's Table I. 

De Morgan reproduced this table also in his " Theory of Probabilities" (Encyclop. 
Metroj)., 1837), and again in his Essay on Probabilities (1838), but there he extended 
it to £ = 3*00 from Kramp's data. Again, Galloway, in his " Treatise on Probability" 
(1839), prepared for the 7th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, printed Encke's 
Table, also continued to the same point. 

6. Further, and in dependence upon this integral, Encke gave a table t of the values of 

2 C 9 ' 

'"■dt = K, (5) 



7^1 £ ' 

J 

p being the numerical value of t when H = J, giving 0'5 for the value of the integral K 
when the argument is T ( = pi) = 1. His table gives the values of K to five decimal places 
only with the argument T, at intervals of 0-01 from T = to T = 3*40 and at intervals of 
1 from T = 3*4 to T = 5. It was computed from the previous table by direct inter- 
polation, and was also reprinted by De Morgan both in his Theory and his Essay. 

Here it may be noted that this second table is so readily derived from a table of the 
values of H, when these are determined with precision, that there seems little reason for 
computing it. For if we multiply the arguments in such a table by l/p = 2*096 716 165, 

or approximately by ^ or oaq, we have at once a table of the values of K, only with 

arguments at intervals that are inconvenient on account of the fractions. But since the 
arguments required in practical applications nearly always lie between two consecutive 
tabular arguments, and interpolation has to be made at any rate, we may as well perform 
the operation on the values in a table of H as in one of K. This is done by multiplying 

the argument (T) for K by p = 0*476 936, or, approximately by -^ 5 , and taking the corre- 
sponding value from the table for H. Thus, if for the argument for K we have T = 372, 
then 372 xp- 17742 = t, for which our table gives H = 0*987 8960 : and Encke's table, 
by interpolation, for arg. 3*72, gives K = 0*98790. 

But, we might also compute the first part of Encke's table from the formula — 

K = 0-538 164 958 101 235T--040 805 140 181 145T 3 +*002 784 561 677 8354T 5 
-•000 150 809 348 77027T 7 + -000 006 670 286 943 3025T 9 -*000 000 248 189 408T" 
+ -000 000 007 964 597 724T 13 - -000 000 000 224 304 823T 15 + -000 000 000 005 627 456T 7 
-•000 000 000 000 127 2874T l9 + etc. (6) 

This will give values correct to fourteen decimal places, as far as T=l, and seven 

* Berl. Astronom. Jahrbuch fur 1834, S. 269. Mr J. W. L. Glaisher (Phil. Mag. (1871), vol. xlii, p. 434) remarks 
that, if Encke's table were derived from Bessel's, it must have been "by interpolation from his second tabli 
But he overlooks the fact that Bessel's Table II. is only a continuation of Table I., giving the logarithmic values ol 
the multiple of the integral by e ( from t — 1 to <=10, with logarithms of t for argument. 

t Berl. Astron. Jahrb., 1834, Ss. 309-312. 



THE VALUES OF -^fV'V//, 261 

terms outy will give correct results up to that point to nine places ; but at T = 2 
(K= '822 656 449) the whole ten terms will be required to give eight figures correctly. 
When T 2 consists of only two figures, the computation is easy, if we begin with the term 
having the highest power of T. For the larger values of T, however, if not for all, it 
is easier to derive the values of K by interpolation from those of H. 

7. It was a suspicion of some errors in the last figures of a few of the values in 
these two tables in De Morgan's Essay, and in some values in Airy's Theory of 
Errors of Observations (1861),* that led me to recompute the table of H. It was begun 
during a holiday in the hot season of 1862 at an Indian hill sanatorium, where I had 
very few books, and rather as an amusement to occupy the middle hours of the day, than 
with any idea of publication. 

Commencing on a more extensive scale than Encke's table, in fact computing for 
intervals of O'OOl, the values were worked out to about twelve places, but only nine 
were preserved, together with first and second differences. To this I added the values t 

of -T^e" ( , partly as a check on the working, with differences. The work was at that 
time advanced from t = to t = 1 '250, after which it was entirely laid aside for more than 
thirty years. The computation of the portion carrying the argument to t= 3 is exceed- 
ingly laborious, even with the intervals doubled after t = 1'5. But the values have been 
given to fifteen decimal places from computations generally made to three or four figures 
more, and might have been depended on as accurate even beyond the sixteenth place. 

This table, then, as recomputed, besides enabling us to construct Encke's second 
table of K to seven or more decimal places, affords also the means of reconstructing or 
verifying and extending Kramp's Table I. (for G) by means of the expression (4). 
Several important constants also have been computed to a degree of accuracy perhaps 
beyond any practical requirement. | 

The Formulae. 

8. The formulae available for computation, as pointed out by Laplace,§ are primarily 
three, — (8), (10) and (11), with the continued fraction (13), which he supplied to facilitate 
calculation where the series become very slowly convergent. 

(l) In the integral je~ t2 dt, if we develope e~ t2 , we get — 

r i fit 6 \ t 3 1 t 5 1 t 1 

/*(l-«'+ -p3+ etc.) =*- _ + .g--3- !T + etc., (7) 

* Op. cit., pp. 16, 20, 22-24. 

t I began by using the value of -?- given in Shortrede's Logarithmic Tables (1858), p. 602, viz., 1-283 791 670 946 99 

which is correct only to the tenth place, and therefore could not affect any of the results up to the eleventh place. 
This was examined later, and the true value of the constant found to be 1-283 791670 955126. Shortrede's 

logarithm of j^ is correct. His value of sin 1° is also in error after the tenth decimal. 

X In the small table given by Airy, Theory of Errors, p. 24, six of the constants dependent on p are in error in 
the 5th and 6th places, three of them in the 4th. 

§ Ttuorie Analytique des Probabilite's, 2e. ed. (1814), p. 103, and Me'canique Celeste, liv. x, c. i, sec. 5. 



(8) 
(9) 



262 DR JAS. BURGESS ON 

and taking the integral from t = to t = t, we have 

f* ft ft f ft 

2 f 9 / ft ft f t 9 t 11 \ 

That is- -^J ^ — ^_- + __ — + ^-_+etcJ = H. 

(2) Integration by parts shows at once that — 

[t n dte- fl = ,.t n + l € - ''" + r Ip+'dte-* . 

J n+1 n+U 

And putting successively n = 0, n = 2, n = 4, n = 6, etc., we get by repeated substi- 
tutions — 

fdte-'"- = te-*+2JtZdte-* = e - t - 2 (t + ^+'^jt i dte-'"- = e-' 2 (t+^ + |^) +^jtHte^\ etc., 

which vanishes when t = 0, and when £ = t, we have — 

(3) By a process similar to the last we find that — 

jt- n dU-''= -U- n - l e~^ -\(n+l)\t- n --dte- t - , etc.. , 

Hence fdte-- = C-'"Ul-±+ M. - L3 ^+ etc\ 

J afe ^ 2^V 2* 2 + (2* 2 ) 2 (2* 2 ) 3 ^ / 

Putting £ = t, the constant quantity is eliminated by making the integral vanish, and 
we have — 

C T u ., e-'V. 1 1.3 1.3.5 , \ e-* 2 /, 1 , 1.3 , \ 

J t dte = ^t{ 1 -w + wf"wf + etc J- 2t( 1 -2^ + (2^) 2 - etc r 

Then putting t = co , we have the series — 

and r^-.= =i7 T - e ^(i_i_ + J^ 2 _iL5 +etc y = JV7rH (12) 

•/ o 

The series (8) and (10) are convergent, but when t exceeds 2, the convergence becomes 
very slow. The first (8) and third (11) are alternately greater and less than the integral, 
so that if we add to any number of their terms the half of the following term, the error 

* Conf. Hymers' Integ. Gale, pp. 123, 151. 




THE VALUES OF 4- [' e' 1 " dt . 263 



_2 



will be less than that half. But the third series (11) is not convergent, the numerators 
of the successive fractions soon exceeding any value of 2t 2 that is likely to be used. 
To meet this case, we have Laplace's continued fraction,* into which the series is con- 
verted, and which becomes more convergent the higher the value of t. And this can 
be used for either G or H. 

Laplace's Continued Fraction. 

9. When t >1'5 it becomes very laborious to compute values of H, and Laplace gave 

f° a e~ t2 f 1 13135 1 

the series for] ( dt.e' 1 ' = — \ 1 — —^ + -^ — ^g- 4- etc. > , the form of a continuedfraction, 

putting 2=2^— 

O or Ce-^4— 1 (13) 

1+ 



2q 

1 + 



Sq 
1+ 



4q 
1 + 



1 + etc, 



and this gives a series of common fractions alternately greater and less than the integral. 
Mr Glaisher has used this in computing his table of the values of the other function, G, 
from t = S to t = 4:'5. And for higher values of t the approximation of the successive 
fractions is increasingly rapid. But at any stage the degree of approximation can be 
estimated only by reducing two consecutive fractions to decimals. To attain a nearly 
correct value too, with values of t under 3, the computation of a long series of fractions 
of the form — 



1 1 l + 2q l + 5q l + 9q + 8q 2 l + 14g + 33 g 2 



etc. 



1' 1+q l + 3q l + 6q + 3 q *' l + i0q+15q 2 ' l + 15q + 45q 2 +15q 3 ' 

becomes tedious. This is obviated to a considerable extent, by determining once for 
all the coefficients a\ b', c', etc., and a, b, c, etc., in the following expressions for the 
numerator and denominator of the fraction when it involves high powers of a. Thus 
we get two consecutive fractions of the form — (when n is even) — 

l+a'q+b'q 2 + c'q 3 + . ■ . .+ l'q hn ' 1 
^- 1== l+aq + lq 2 + cq>+ . . ,+lq^ 1 

l + (a' + n)q + . . . + 1"^-' 

and L, = : ; : n 

^ l + (a + n)q + . . . + mq* 

md the numerator and denominator for L„ +1 are found by multiplying those of L„_ I 
)y nq and adding those of L„. 

* See Laplace's M4c. CJl., ut sup., and Theor. Anal, des Probab., p. 104 ; De Morgan, "Theory of Probabilities, 
63 ; and Biff, and Meg. Gale, p. 591. 



264 DR JAS. BURGESS ON 

Thus, putting L,= T \ L„ +1 = '" It> " ( 15 ) 

When >i is an even number the fraction L„ is less than the true value, and when 
odd, it is in excess by a quantity c <^(L,~L„ +1 ). 

The larger t is, the more rapidly the fraction approaches its limit, and consequently 
a lower value of n in L„ will give a sufficiently close approximation. 

The following values of the coefficients of q in L„ can be made to serve in nearly all 
cases when £>1*5 : — 

L _ l + 77g + 20702 s + 23814g 3 + 114 765^+187 425g 5 + 46080g 6 

13 1 + 78g + 21452 2 + 257402 s + 135 135? 4 + 270 270? 5 + 135 135? 6 " 

r 1 + 90g + 2915? 2 + 42300? 3 + 278 01 V + 729 330? 5 + 509 985g 6 

14 ~ 1 + 91? + 3003? 2 + 45045? 3 + 315 315? 4 + 945 945?° + 945 945? B + 135 135? 7 + 

t 1 + 104? + 3993? s + 71280? 3 + 611 415? 4 + 2336 040^ + 3133 935? c + 645 120? 7 
5 ~ 1 + 1052 + 4095? 2 + 75075? 3 +675 675? 4 + 2837 835? 5 + 4729 725? 6 + 2027 025? 7 " 

t _ 1 + 135? + 70072 s + 178 893g 3 + 2386 395? 4 + 16288 965?° + 51450 525? 6 + 58437 855y 7 + 10321 920? 8 _ 
17 " 1 + 136? + 71402- + 185 640? 3 + 2552 550? 4 + 18378 360? 5 + 64324 260? 6 + 91891 800? 7 + 34459 425? 8 



L<ifi=- 



1 + 152? + 9030? 2 + 269 724? 3 + 4341 480? 4 + 37469 520? 5 + 162 058 050? 6 + 297 693 900? 7 + 151 335 135? 8 



8= "l + 153? + 9180? 2 + 278 460? 3 + 4594 590? 4 + 41351 310? 5 + 192 972 780?° + 413 513 100? 7 + 310 134 825? 8 + 34459 425?' x 

1 + 189? + 14348? 2 + 567 420? 3 + 12686 310? 4 + 162 912 750? 5 + 1167 180 300? 6 + 4302 906 300? 7 + 6859 400 625? 8 J 

j +3061 162 125?" i 

-" = 1+T90? + 14535? 2 + 581 400? 3 + 13226 850? 4 + 174 594 420? 5 + 1309 458 150? 6 + 5237 832 600? 7 + 9820 936 125? 8 ) 

+ 6547 290 750? 9 + 654 729 075? 1 " ( 

1 + 209? + 17748? 2 + 796 620? 3 + 20603 310? 4 + 314 143 830? 5 + 2775 672 900? 6 + 13408 094 700? 7 + 31335 467 625? 8 \ 

r +27125492625 g 9 + 37158912007 1Q J 

21 = 1 + 2102 + 17955? 2 + 813 960? 4 + 21366 450? 4 + 333 316 620? 5 + 3055 402 350? 6 + 15713 497 800? 7 + 41247 931 725? 8 \ ~ 

+ 45831 035 2502 9 + 13749 310 575? 10 f 

1 + 252? + 263152 s + 1488 384? 3 + 50044 7702 4 + 1033 829 160? 5 + 13108 004 910? 6 + 98983 684 8OO2 7 + 416 674 583 325? 8 \ 

T = + 860 553 193 500? 9 + 664 761133 575? 10 +81749 606 400 ?" J. 

2! 1 + 253? + 265652 s + 1514 205? 3 + 51482 970? 4 + 1081142 370? s + 14054 850 810?" + llu 430 970 650? 7 + 496 939 367 925g 8 I 

+ 1159 525 191 825?' + 1159 525 191 8252 10 + 316 234 143 225?" I 

1 + 275? + 316052 2 + 1987 8752 3 + 75297 1142 4 + 1781 769 150?s + 26460 800 7302 6 + 241 511 019 7502 7 + 1288 808 846 325r/ 1 

r + 3659 572 691 775? 9 4 4601 737 965 825? 10 + 1645 75 6 410 375?" / 

- 1 = 1+ 2762 + 318782 2 + 2018 9402 3 + 77224 455? 4 + 1853 386 9202 5 + 28109 701 6202 B + 265 034 329 560? 7 + 1490 818 10:3 77;Yl" 

+ 4638 100 767 3002 9 + 6957 151 150 9502 10 + 3794 809 718 7002 n + 316 234 143225?" I 

The multiplier q being always a proper fraction, we begin by dividing the last 
coefficient by 2t 2 , add the next preceding and divide again, and so on to the 
first coefficient of q, adding unity to the last quotient. If, for example, we take 
t=l'75, 9 — ^=^ + 42' — which is easily manipulated — and we find, on dividing down 

the coefficients in the terms for L 23 — 

1 007439-089305 
1139733-366404 



L^ = ™„£* n ™l A " A = 0-883 925 239 886, 



. T 2535470688789 n , Mq9 „„ u ,, 

and L * = 2868422-115642 = ° 883 ™ 233 655 ' 

These agree to the eighth decimal place, the first being too large and the second too 
small but nearer the true value, — which is 0883 925 236 007 66. 

For t=V75, the value of e^ is 0052 774 995 930 150 374 66, and since (4)— 



THE VALUES OF -f- [e'^dt. 265 

~iyo 



_2_ 
s/tt\ 



2 
H = l-- f - : W-L = l-- 



Jir 2t tjic' (16) 

with L 23 we have H = 0-986 671 671 161 + 

and with L 2i we have H = 0-986 671 671 255 - 

the true value being, H = 0-986 671 671 219. 

Hence this degree of approximation, being to the tenth place in decimals, would be 
practically sufficient for all purposes. And for higher values of t, the results are still 
more close, and even a lower order of the fraction L would suffice. For t = 3, L 23 comes 
out -951 813 839 1839 + , which is correct to the last — the 13th — figure. 

10. When the values of L„_ x and L n are not sufficiently accordant, either from t 
being small or n not sufficiently high, we may readily compute L„ +1 . Then if L n ^ 1 -L n 
= a, and L n -L n+1 = 6, we may find a correction ^ , ^, or -— (regard being had to 
the signs of a and b, one of which is always negative), and — 



a 2 T ab r b 2 



L n -i + 7, or L„ + - — t> or L n+1 +- — ,, — which will be equal or very nearly so, — 

will give a closer approximation to the value of L than before. It will be greater or 
less than the true value, according as ~L n . x and L, l+1 are both greater or both less than L, r * 

11. By means of equation (9) we may compute any values of H up to a certain 
point with considerable facility, but with t > 1 it becomes rapidly more difficult. We 
may, however, use it for such values of t as 2, 2*5, and even 3, though the work is 
lengthy ; and for purposes of verification this has been done in the following table. 
For extreme accuracy the continued fraction is scarcely less laborious, till we reach 
( = 3. Up to £=1"25 the values were determined for moderate and equal intervals by 
means of (9), and the intermediate values inserted by interpolation, using the highest 
order of differences that could by any chance affect the results. 

12. We might, however, make use of the method of quadratures. For H may be 

o 

regarded as the area of a curve of which the equation is y = T7^. e • Hence the value of 

^-e"' 2 represents the rate of increment of that area at t ; and the area between any two 

ordinates is the difference of the values of H between the two corresponding values of t. 
A.nd if the intervals between the ordinates are so small as to enable us to find the area 
with sufficient accuracy, we may compute values of H, — or rather of the differences of 
H between two values of t, — with great precision. If, for example, we take the ordi- 
lates, given in the first part of the table, from t= 1-160 to t= 1*170 inclusive, the area 
s found by Simpson's rulet to be '002 904 196 086 + , and adding this to the value of 
1 for t= T160 (from the second part of the table), the sum is the value of H when 
= 1-170, viz., 0*902 000 398 966, — which is correct to the last figure. 

Or, generally, if V , V l5 V 2 , . . . V„, be the values of the successive ordinates whose 

* In the example above of t = 1-75, L 25 will be 0-883 925 237 509, and a= -6231, 6= +3854, whence the correc- 
onB are, -3850, +2381, and -1473, respectively, each giving -883925 236 036. 

+ T. Simpson's Mathematical Dissertations (1743), pp. 109 f. This rule gives a very close approximation. Conf. 
[ymers' Int. Calc., p. 181 ; Hutton's Mensuration, p. 374. 

VOL. XXXIX. PART II. W 9). 2 S 



2(50 DR JAS. BURGESS ON 

distance apart is = ty- t Q} \ = V, - V , A£ = V n - V B _x , and A 2 , A^, the first and last 
of the second differences, and so on ; then between V n and V„ the area is — 

e{(gV„ + v, + v, + . . + jv.) - 1(a; - aj - ^ a; + a 2 ) - ^ a; - a 3 ) - Ija; + a 4 ) 

863 .., . . 275 /A/ A , 33 953 /A , . . 8183 , A , A x 
" 6T480 ( A * " A ') - 24l9 2 ( A « + A «) " 362T806( A ^ " ^ " 103080()( A * + A °) 



3250 433 
479 001 600" 



(A 9 -A 9 )...}* . (17. 



of which expression the first three terms will generally be sufficient. Taking the same 
example, we have — 

A,= -681145 A 2 = +994 £V + V, + ..+ V a + iV 10 = '290 419 6916 

A;= - 672 183 A' 2 = +997 - T L(A,-A,) = -747- 

A;-A i= +8962 A; + A 2 =+1991 -^(A; + A 2 )= - 8 3- 

Sum, . . -290 419 6086 + 

and 0= -01 ; hence the area is '002 904 196 086 + , as before. 

For a single interval, as between V and V x , by putting A° for the second difference, 
derived from Y_ l and V x , and A 2 the next in succession, derived from V and V 2 ; A° the 
fourth difference, in line -with V , and A i5 for the next below, etc., we have the area 
expressed by — 

O(V. + V0-^(AS + A0-^(AJ+A0- I ^ o (AS + A.)- y ^ 5 (A« + A a ). . . { i«) 

Taking the values of Vat 1*130, 1-140,.. . and 1 "180, we find for ri60, A° = +99 373. 
and A 2 = +99 759, also A°= +70 and A 4 = +66. Then — 

£(•293 811 239 + -287 044 575) = 290 427 907 

-5^(99 373 + 99 759)= -8297 + 

-T^o(70 + 66)= - 1 _ 

Sum, as before, nearly . . -290 419 609 — . 

Interpolation. 

13. The method of interpolation employed is familiar, but the process may be 
explained by which the transference is made from the differences found from the 
computed values, to the differences required for those to be interpolated. t I have not 
met with it in any text book at my command, and I think the formation of these 
differences indicates that too much stress may be laid on the common warning that most 
reliance is to be placed on results which lie nearest the middle of the series of values 

* Conf. Db Morgan's Diff. and Integ. Calc., pp. 262, 313-318 ; Woolhouse, Assurance Mag., vol. xi (1864), p, 809. 
By tins method the computation might have been abridged in some portions, had I noticed its advantages earlier. 

t Mr W. T. B. Woolhoube, in a paper " On Interpolation, Summation, and the Adjustment of Numerical 
Tables," in The Assurance Magazine, 1863-65 (vol. xi, pp. 61-88, 301-332, and vol. xii, pp. 136-176), has developed a 
formula with necessary -tables for interpolating terms in the middle interval of a series. The treatment is interesting, 
and the formulje are rapidly convergent, but not altogether convenient for computing a lengthy table. 



THE VALUES OF -7- I e" 

S/TTJ 






Vfc. 



207 



from which the differences used are derived.* It appears that if the intervals between 
a series of values be sufficiently small and their number so large that the last difference 
is practically zero, then the results will usually be about equally correct along the whole 
series, — for the first interpolated value is affected by the last difference. 

14. In the computation of the values of any function to be tabulated with equi- 
different arguments, the two usual formulas are — 

V„ = V + an + bn 2 + en 2, + dn 4 + en 5 +fn 6 + gn 7 + etc. 



and V„ = V + nA + 



n.n — 1 
1.2 



A,+ 



n.n — l.n — 2 
1.2.3 



A 3 + 



n.n — l.n — 2.n — 3 



(19) 
A 4 + etc. (20) 



By the first each value has to be computed separately ; by the second, if we 
determine the values of A', A' 2t A3, etc., for the intervals to be adopted, the process is 
reduced to one of continuous addition and subtraction, according as the signs of the 
differences require. Now the conversion of the one formula into the other is readily 
effected by means of the numerical values of A n m .t The following table, rearranged 
and extended to A 12 12 , will suffice for all purposes : — 





01 


O 2 


3 


4 


O 5 


8 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


O12 


A 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


A 2 




2 


6 


14 


30 


62 


126 


254 


510 


1022 


2046 


4094 


A 3 






6 


36 


150 


540 


1806 


5796 


18150 


55980 


171006 


519156 


A 4 








24 


240 


1560 


8400 


40824 


186480 


818520 


3498000 


14676024 


A 5 










120 


1800 


16800 


126000 


834120 


5103000 


29607600 


165528000 


A c 












720 


15120 


191520 


1905120 


16435440 


129230640 


953029440 


A 7 














5040 


141120 


2328480 


29635200 


322494480 


3162075840 


A 8 
















40320 


1451520 


30240000 


479001600 


6411968640 


A 
A 10 


— 
















362880 


16329600 


419126400 


8083152000 



















3628800 


199584000 


6187104000 


A 11 




















39916800 


2634508800 


A 12 
























479001600 



* Conf., e.g., De Morgan's Biff, and Integ. Gale, pp. 544, 545 ; and Woolhodse in Assur. Mag., vol. xi, p. 73, note, 
t Herschel, Examp. of Calculus of Finite Bifferences, p. 9. His table extends to A 10 10 (conf. De Morgan, 
Mft. and Int. Calc., p. 253.) This table is readily computed by the formula— 

A n+1 O m + 1 = (n + l) (A n ra + A n+1 m ). (21) 

That is, the sum of the quantities in the two lines for A" aii'l A" +1 , in the preceding column for O m , multiplied by 



268 



DR JAS. BURGESS ON 



We luave here the coefficients in the following; values- 



A x = a + b + c + d + c+f+g + h + i + lc + etc. 

A 2 = 2&+6c + 14d + 30e + 62/+126<7 + 25a + 510i+1022;fc+ etc. 

A 3 = 6e+36d + 150e+540/+1806<7 + 5796&+18150i+55980&, etc. 

A 4 = 24tf+240e+1560/+8400£ + 40824&+ 186 480z+ 818 520ft, etc. 

A 5 = 120e + 1800/+ 16800# + 126 000& + 834 120i+ 5103 000/fc, etc. 

A 6 =720/+ 15120^+ 191 520A+1905 120i+16 435 440&, etc. 

A r = 5040*7 + 141 120A+ 2328 480i+ 29 635 200&, etc. 

A 8 = 40320/^ + 1451 520i + 30 240 000&, etc. 

A 9 =362 880i+16 329 600&, etc. 

A 10 = 3628 800&, etc 



K22) 



If we write A, B, C, etc., for the first terms of each value in the above, and reverse 
the arrangement, we have — 



A in = iT+ etc. 



no 



9 



A Q =/+ „K, etc 



-JO 



A 8 =11+41+ ~ K, etc. 
8 3 . 



A 7 



G+ i ff+ i2 I+ ir K ' 



A K =F+3G + 



77 

ii 

19 



H+ni+W-r. 



10 



2fi 



240 

331 T , 45 



^= D + , E +^F+lG + lH+^I+^K, 



\ (23) 



43 



23 



•.-°+i»+i*+?+m°+m* + 



605 T 311 K 
12096 20160 ' 



*>= B+c+ r2 B+ l M +m F+ m G+ mzo R+ i 



17 I+-™-K 
259200 ' 



. , , 1 p , 1 „ , !n, E , F L # > H . J . K 

A, =A + T2 B + l C + -D+ ^ +_++__+_+_ 



15. These equations readily give us the values of A, B, C . . . K ; and now, if 
n denote any subdivision of the intervals for which A, A 2, A3, etc., represent the 
successive differences, and A', A^ A3, etc., represent the differences for these smaller 
intervals in the value of the argument, — then we have — 



n 10 A\ n = K+ etc. 



ID 



n?A' 



2n 



etc. n s A' R =H-\ + -j-- r-; and so on. (24) 

n 3ii- 



the index of A in the second line, gives the value in the m+1 column : thus A 3 7 + A 4 7 = 1806 + 8400 =10206, ami 
10206 x 4 = 40824 = A 4 e . The formula is derived from that for A"0m in Hersciikl's Appendix to Lacroix'.s Differ, 
and Intecj. Calculus, (1816), p. 478. 



THE VALUES OF 



2 ft 



Vtt, 



ft 2 

Jo 



(It. 



And, by means of (23) we may thus obtain the values of A^, A' 2} Ag, etc. 
transposition, we have 

n 10 A' 10 = A 10 = J ST+ etc. 



269 

Or, by 



}" (25) 



w 7 A' 7 



7(^-1) ^, 77(n*-l) 7 _ 49(^-1) 
7_a ? 2n 12«2 6» 3 



ne A ' fl = A fl - fcll) G- 19(n'-l) g _ 21(n»--l) / . 1087(n« - j) etc _ 



4w 2 



4% 3 



240n* 



, etc. 



In actual calculation, it is convenient to compute and arrange the quantities in 
equation (23) thus, — the sum of the quantities in each column being equal to the value 
of A at the top of it : — 



A 10 
K. 


A 9 


A 8 


A 7 


A 6 


A 6 


A 4 


A 3 


A 2 


A, 


3 


$* 


1087 „ 
A. 

240 


45 V 
J2 K - 


6821 
3.7.12.120 ' 


311 v 


73 

2.9.120.120 


I5V*-* 


2.7.12.120 




I. 


4 7. 


Hi. 

12 


21 7. 

4 


331 7 

144 ' 


* 7 /. 

72 


605 
7.12.12.12 


17 I 


^ 


7.12.12.12" 






H. 


7 H. 

2 


4 


25 


81 77 


23 
1*6* 


127 
2.7.12.120 " 


^-*- 








G. 


2,0 . 


> 


5 -G. 
3 


43 r 


la. 

40 


1 _ 

7"! 6 '• 










F. 


1- 


%'■ 


4 


360 


n*-'- 












E. 


IE. 
D. 


4 
3 
2 D - 

a 


4 

la 

12 

C 
5. 


l |fet 

5! 
4! 

2 




















.4= a. 


After K- A 10 , the values of /, H, G, etc., are successively 


found by subtracting the 


sum of the quantities in the proper column from the value 


of A n above it. If the 


values (a, b, c, etc.) in the last column are determined with 


extreme accuracy, they 


ifford a ready means of verification of the whole operation, sine 


e 








V 


„-V = 


an + bn 


i + cn 3 + dn 4 + 


+kn 10 . 







270 



DR JAS. BURGESS ON 



Then, by equation (24), we readily deduce the values of A[. A£, etc., from the above 
by dividing successively upwards each quantity in the column, except the lowest, by 
/-. ?r, n 3 , etc., adding the quotients to the value of A, B, or C, etc., and lastly dividing 
the sum by the coefficient of A'. When ?i = 10, this can be done by mere inspection. 
Thus, for example — 



10A ' =/;+ f0 + 67l0s + 3.103 + 



+ 



6821JT 
30240.1 06 ' 



And the quantities in the same horizontal lines may be computed by the fractional 
coefficients ; or, k, i, h, etc., being first found directly from A', /, II, etc., we may use the 
integral coefficients in eq. (22). 

16. Again, if in a series of values of a function, the first differences before and after 
any value V be A_ t and A ; A 2 = A_ x — A ; the third differences, before and after A-' be 
A 3 _j and A 3 ; A 4 - A 3 .!- A 3 ; the fifth differences, before and after A 4 , be A 5 .,-^, 
and so on, — 

Putting AJ = J(A-i +A) =A -|A 2 > \ 

A^ = KA 3 .i+A 3 ) = A 3 -iA 4 , 

A^KAi 1 + A^) = A 5 -^A 6 , } (26) 

A 7 o = KA 7 . 1 + A 7 ) = A 7 - 1 T A 8 , 
A* = KA 9 . 1 + A 9 ) = A 9 - , jA 10 . j 

Then, as before, expressing the values of A n , A 2 , A 3 , etc., in terms of the coefficient 
a, b, c . . . in the formula (19), we have — 



Al = a + c+e+[/ + i, 



A 3 = 3 

a:=5 

A 7 = 7 
A" = 9 



(c + 5e + 21g + 85i), 
(e+Uff + Wi), 
(g+SOi), 

•i 



From these we deduce — 

A 3 . 4A* 36AT 576A* 



7! 



+ 



9! 



,_A?_Aj,7A]_.S20Aj 
~3! 4T 6! 9! ' 

s M 2A 7 273A° 
5! 6!"*" 9! ' 

_A]_3_0Aj 
°~7\ 9! ' 



tf =2(b + d+f+h + k), 
A 4 =±\(d + 5f+21h + 85k), 

A 6 =6!(/+14A + 147A;), 
A 8 = 8!(A + 30£), 
and A 10 = 10! .k. 



, , A2 A 4 , 4A 6 36A 8 , 576A 10 
b = ^ A —4! + in— 8T + ToT' 

A^_5A 6 49 A 8 82 A 10 

4i gT + T\ W 

A 6 _14A 8 273A 10 
J~6l 8! + 



(27) 



,(28) 



, A s 3A 10 



i=4i 

9!' 



and k 



10! ' 

A 10 



io r 



Substituting these values in the general form of the function (19), and simplifying, we 
have — 



V n = V+7i(AJ+^A 2 )+ 



^ 2 -l),A3^ A4 . n(rc2-l)(H 2 -4) 



3! 



'(A 3 + 7 A 4 ) + 



O! 



(A*+ g A 6 )+etc.< 



(29) 



* This is only an altered mode of writing the formula given in De Morgan's IHff. and Intey. Calculus, p. 546 
conf. Woolhou.sk, A mir, Mag., vol. xi, (1803), p. 68. 




THE VALUES OF -?- IV'V*. 271 

WIT J 

and replacing AJ, A 3 , etc., by the second equivalents from (26) we have finally — 

V, = V + n(A + '^ 1 An+^ ) XA 3 +^ 2 A')+ " ( ' t8 - 1 5 f'- 4 > iA» + ^ 3 A«) 

+ / ^^lX^_4)( ? «-9) w , + »-4 A8)+eto (30) 

Either of these formulae, which converge rapidly, may be used for interpolating 
terms in a series of values already found, especially if we form tables of the values of 
each term for the various coefficients of A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , etc. Thus, to insert values at 
intervals of 0"1 between V and V 10 , we have — 

Y 1 =V +^--045.A 2 - -0165. A 3 + 007 8375.A 4 + -003 291 75.A 5 --001 591 0125.A e -etc. ^ 

V 2 =V 1 +^-035.A 2 --0155.A 3 +006 5625.A 4 +003 044 25.A 5 -001365 7875-A 6 -etc. 

V 3 =V 2 +^--025.A 2 -0135.A 3 +'0049375.A 4 + -002 559 25.A 5 --001046 06 25.A 6 -etc. 

V 4 =V 3 + -^--015.A 2 --0105.A 3 + -003 0625.A 4 +001856 75.A 5 --000 656 3375.A 6 -etc. 



M31) 



10 

V 5 =V 4 + y 6 --005.A 2 --0065.A 3 +0010375.A 4 +-000 966 75.A 5 --000 222 9125.A 6 -etc. 
V 6 =V 5 + A + -005.A 2 --0015.A 3 -0010375.A 4 --000 070 75.A 5 +-000 222 9125.A 6 +etc. 
V 7 = V 6 + -^ + 015.A 2 + -0045.A 3 - -003 0625.A*- 001 205 75.A 5 + '000 656 3375.A 6 +etc. 
V 8 = V 7 + -^ + -025.A 2 + -0115.A 3 - -004 9375.A 4 - 002 378 25.A 5 +-001 046 0625.A e +etc. 
V. =V 8 +4 + -035.A 2 +'0195.A 3 --006 5625.A 4 --003 518 25.A 5 +-001365 7875.A c +etc. 
V 10 = V, r h^ + -045.A 2 + -0285.A 3 --007 8375.A 4 --004 545 75.A 5 + -0015910125.A 6 +etc. 

If the interval n be — , we have — 
5 

V 1 = V + 0-2A - -08. A 2 - 032.A 3 + 0144. A 4 + 006336.A 5 - -0029568. A° - etc. ] 
V 2 =V 1 +0-2A--04.A 2 --024.A 3 +-008. A 4 + -004416 A 5 - -00l7024.A 6 -etc. | 
V 3 = V 2 +0-2A -008. A 3 +-000896.A 5 -etc. J> (32) 

V 4 = V 3 +0-2A+ 04.A 2 + -016.A 3 --008. A 4 - 003584.A 5 + -0017024 A 6 +etc. | 
V 5 -V 4 +0-2A + -08.A 2 + -048.A 3 --0144.A 4 --008064.A 5 + -0029568.A 6 +etc.J 

The series converges so rapidly that it is seldom necessary to go beyond the fourth 
or fifth differences, and the last result in each case is a check on the accuracy of the 
work. But, as it requires fresh arrangements for each short series of interpolated 
values, it is not so satisfactory for computing a lengthy table as the method above 
explained, though a larger number of differences is required to compensate for the more 
rapid convergence. For isolated values, however (30), is most convenient. We may 
proceed by successively correcting the differences in a retrograde order, correcting the 
highest employed, if necessary, to its mean value, by adding half the next above it. 
Thus, if five orders of difference are to be used, make A* = A 5 + ^A 6 . Then — 



272 DR J AS. BURGESS ON 

A' = A' + 2 t ?i A?, A:' = A 3 — 2 ~'"a\ A»=A 2 +4^A s e , A e =A--^A?, and V„=V+nA e 

O 4 6 A 

To bisect an interval, n=£-, and-— 

v _ V ,A A 2 _A 8 3A* 3Aj 5A" 5A 7 35A S 
* + 2 8 16 + 128 + 256 1024 2048 + 32768 + etC> (33) 

Or, A*=A 4 +KA 5 +£A 6 ), A; ! = A :! -gAJ, A? = A 2 +£A?, A c = A-|A?, andV, = V+|A c . (34) 

Thus if it be required to find the value of H corresponding to t— 1 '575, we take the 
differences following and on line with 1"574 in the table, and proceed thus : — 

A H 

+ 188 870 390 940 -973 983 952 882 675 
= +297 470 570 . = + 94 583 930 75.' 
-1S669X -f 1 + 5992293x£' - 1 189 882 281 x - V +189 167 861 510 x £ "974078 536 813430: 

This value, H = '974 078 536 813 430, is correct to the last figure, and ^-A 5 = - 13, is so 
small that it might have been neglected without affecting the result. 

After determining the values of H for moderate intervals, the differences for the 
smaller intervals of '001 or '002 were determined by means of the formulse (22) to (25), 
and the table thus filled up throughout. 

The Difference Formula, 

17. The difficulty of computation, due to the slowness of convergence of the series 
for values of t above 1*0, led Kramp, who computed the table so often reprinted, 
to adopt a difference-formula* obtained from the general series by means of Taylor's 
theorem, viz. — 



A 4 A 3 


A 2 


-18656 +5985 292 


-1192 978 427 


-13=4A 5 ,= +7 001 


i= +2 996146 



k f e -edt=-r e -<il-rt+ 2 -^r*-^^r* + ete\ 



(35) 



where A^ = r = 0'01. This implies the separate computation of the values of the differ- 
ences for each entry in the table. When r is small, three terms of the series maj 
sufficient, and M. Kramp says he used no more. Mr J. W. L. Glaisher, in computing 
the values of the same function from £ = 3 to t = 4'50, tells us that he computed separate 

tables of loo;. e~ r and of loo;. ( r — tr 2 + — r 3 — V 4 ), and then built up his table 

by the successive differences. t This requires for his table about a hundred and fifty 
computations of the values of (35), and an error in one would have been perpetuated 

* Analyse d !' 'ra i\ ns astronom-iques et terrestres (Strasbourg, 1799), p. 135. 

t Philos. Mag., xlii, (1871), p. 434. Conf. De Moroan, ut cit., § 117. Mr Glaisher remarks (p. 432) that 
" Kramp does not state what value he started from in applying the differences, or what means of verification he adopted. 
Id all cases where a table is constructed by means of differences, the last value should be calculated independently 
and then the agreement of the two values would verify all the preceding portion of the table." And he adds that 
Kkamp's value For '=3 is in error in the tenth and eleventh figures, so that probably a portion of his table is incorrect 
in the Last two figures (see § 4 above). 



(36) 



THE VALUES OF -MV**fife. 273 

through the rest, if he had not checked his work by means of Laplace's continued 

fraction. 

18. But the formula may be applied with great effect in this way : r may be taken 
as negative as well as positive, so that from a value H, corresponding to t, we can derive 
both the values at t-r and t + r; and by developing the formula more fully, we may 
use it with much larger values than r = 0*01. Putting x= - 2t, the general term is — 

iT+I \ n~ (^^\ + 172X^^)1 3!(%-6)! + 4!(%-8)! j 

2 {' 
Expanding and adapting to the integral —r e~' 2 dt, — 

att 2e-'-' (\ . 2( 2 -l, 2^-3^3,4^-12^ + 3, 4t°-20t s +15t . 
AH = 7?r r {1-^4—3- r- g-r»+ ^ -*•* 3^ r« 

8* 6 -60* 4 +90* 2 -15 ,, 8* 7 -84* 5 + 210* 3 -105* . , 16* 8 -224* 6 +840**-840* 2 + 105 „ 
3.5.7.3! 3.5.7.4! T 3.5.7.9.4! 

_ 16t 9 - 288l 7 + 1512ft- 2520* 3 + 945* , 9 32* 10 -720* 8 + 5040* 6 - 12600**+ 9450* 2 - 945 , 10 
3.5.7.9.5! ? ' + 3.5.7.9.11.5! 

32* u -880* 9 +7920* 7 -27720* 5 + 34650**- 10395 * u 

3.5.7.9.11.6! r 

64 * 12 -2112* 10 +23760* 8 -110 880* 6 +207 900* 4 - 124 740* 2 + 10395 12 
3.5.7.9.11.13.6 ! 
_ 64* 13 -2496* 11 + 34320* 9 -205 920* 7 +54Q540* 5 -540 540* 3 +135 135* 13 j 

3.5.7.9.11.13.7 ! 'J 

For any portion of the table then, say from £=1*9 to t—Z, we may compute the 
coefficients of the powers of r for t at the values 2*0, 2*2, 2*4, 2*6, 2'8, and 3 ; and by 
means of the first we find the differences from f = 1*90 to £ = 2*10, by the second series 
from £ = 2*10 to 2*30, and so on. If, also, we know the values for t = 2 and £ = 3 (which 
I have computed separately, both by the general series and by Laplace's fraction), we 
can fill up the table, — first, for all values of t differing by 0*01 ; and, secondly, by form- 
ing from these values the differences in the series H + nA / + n ^zl A' 2 + etc., for 1/5, 1/10, 
or any other subdivision of the interval, we may complete the table from £=1*900 to 
t = 3*100. This sufficiently explains the method of computation for the portion of the 
table beyond t= 1*000. 

19. Since the computation of these coefficients of the powers of r is also required 
for the other branch of the integral — G, they may be preserved here. 

For t= 1, e" 1 = 0*367 879 441 171 442 321 595 524, 

AG=-re-'^l-r + ir 2 + L- 3 -^r 4 + ^r 5 + -036 5079r 6 -*011507 936V T -*004 541446 208112 875r 8 
\ 6 6 90 

+ •002 954 144 620 811 287r 9 +*000 206 028 539 362r 10 - *000 481 935 7597?* 11 

+•000 045 088 6562r 12 + *000 057 110 732r 13 , etc. Y 

Also 4- e- l = 0*415 107 497 420 594 703 340 268 = E, and H = 0*842 700 792 949 714 869 34. 

* If we make <=0 in this series, r then becomes t, and we have the series in (9) from which it is derived. 
VOL. XXXIX. PART II. (NO. 9). 2 T 



274 DR JAS. BURGESS ON 



2 



And, for our purpose, multiplying the above coefficients by -rje '" , we have — 

AH =Er- 0-415 107 497 420 594 703 340 27j- 2 + 0138 369 165 806 864 901 113r 3 
+ 0-069 184 582 903432 450 557r 4 - 0-069 184 582 903 432 4506r 5 

+ 0-004 612 305 526 895 496 70r 6 + 0-015 154 718 159 799 49r 7 - 0-004 777 030 724 284 62r« 
-0-001 885 188 370 120r 9 + 0-001 226 287 580 563r 10 + 0-000 085 523 9914r n 

- 0-000 200 055 147r 12 + 0-000 018 716 6392r 13 + 0-000 023 707 93r 14 . 

These values would be sufficient to compute to seventeen or eighteen places all 
values from t — 0'90 to £=ri0, making r negative for values below l'O ; and, taken to 
?- 8 , they would give accurate results to ten or eleven decimal places. 

For t = l-l, 6 -'- = 0-298 197 279 429 887 378 618 226. 
AG=-?-e-' 2 {l-rir+-473r 2 + -1063V3--188 786^ + -040 8662r 5 + -032105 5365 B V- c 

-•017 586 07 Ti V' 7 - -001 943 926 059 964 7266^+ -003 554 076 205 855 38r 9 
-•000 392 718 249 540 48r 10 --000 466 498 049 0775r" + -000 134 329 166 57r 12 
+ •000 040 407 3572r 13 , etc.}. 

and —j— €-'- = 0-336 479 597 793 244 144 101 453. 

For * = l-25 = -. e -'* = 0-209 610 951 665 850 449 333 13; 
4 

AG = -re-' 2 {l-l-25r+-7083r 2 --026416r 3 --19947916r 4 + -090 0607638V 5 

+ -015 330 481 150 7936?'°- -024 089 510 478 670 635r 7 + -003 710 603 798 087. r . 

+ •003 354 928 691 130 68r 9 -'001 369 673 505 853r 10 - -000 222 973 881 906?- 11 

+ -000 236 037 9076r 12 - -000 012 746 614r 13 , etc. }. 

-4- e -'- = -236 521 122 447 290 787 220 015 = E ; H = 0-922 900 128 256 458 230 14 ; 

and AH = Er--295 651 403 059 113 348 402 50r 2 + -167 535 795 066 830 974 28r 3 
-•006 159 404 230 398 197 58r 4 - -047 181 036 404 850 1935r 5 
+ •021 301 272 963 460 433r 6 + -003 625 982 609 442 75r 7 
-•005 697 678 057 620 95r 8 +-000 877 636 175 281r 9 +-000 793 511 499 76r 10 
-•000 323 956 7150r n - -000 052 738 033r 12 +-000 055 827 95r 13 - -000 003 0148/'" 

fal'4: e-* = 0140 858 420 921 044 996 147 971 ; 

AG=-re-' 2 {l-l-4r + -973r 2 --2146r 3 --171786?' 4 +-137 4115r 5 --014 063 034 9206r« 

-•024 523 27b' 7 + -010 363 941 013 58r 8 + -00l 457 789 123 950 06r» 
-•002 066 991 235 5915r 10 +-000 261 420 814 979r n + -000 235 192 7423r 12 
-•000 081536 3055r 13 } 

4-e-' 2 = 0158 941 707 677 277 875 860 084 = E ; H = 0-952 285 119 762 648 810 5165 ; 

AH = Er--222 518 390 748 189 026 2041r 2 + 154 703 262 139 217 132 504r 3 

- -034 119 486 581 388 984 02r 4 - -027 304 066 156 187 3087r 5 

+ -021 840 427 294 591 140r 6 - -002 235 202 785 41091r 7 - -003 897 770 588 2329r B 
+ -001 647 262 502 391r 9 +-000 231 703 492 79r 10 - -000 328 531 1167r u 
+ •000 041 550 67lr 12 + -000 037 381 94r 13 --000 012 9579r 14 

For t = 1-5 e- < 5 = -105 399 224 561 864 336 783 218 ; 
AG=-rc-' 2 {l-r5r+l-16r 2 -0-375r 3 --125r 4 + 0-1625r 5 -0-039 880 9523r 6 -0-019 866 0714285? ; 
+ 0-014 376 653 439r 8 - 0-000 78125r 9 - 0-002 139 475 108r 10 + 0-000 653 239 989r" 
+ 0-000 150 973 16r 12 - 0-000 473 971 71r 13 }. 



THE VALUES OF -^-f'e^'dt. 275 

WIT J 



-A e -«-= 0118 930 289 223 629 371 531 02 - E ; H = 0'966 105 146 475 310 727 067 ; 

■J* 

and AH = Er - 0178 395 433 835 444 057 297r 2 + 0138 752 004 094 234 2668r 3 
- 0-044 598 858 458 861 0143r 4 - 0-014 866 286 152 953 671r 5 
+ 0-019 326 171 998 839 77r 6 - 0-004 743 053 201 180 46r 7 - 0-002 362 677 620 737r* 
+ 0-001 709 S19 551 58r 9 - 0-000 092 914 288 46r 10 -0-000 254 448 393r" 
+ 0-000 077 690 02r 12 + 0-000 017 955 28r 13 - 0-000 014 092r 14 . 

For *=l-6, e-' 2 = -077 304 740443 299 745 990 466 ; 
A G= _re-'-'{l-l-6^+l-373?- 2 -0-5653r 3 - 0-050 186^ + 0-177 5217V 5 - 0-069 203 606 3492> 
-0-010 358 938 412 69r 7 + 0-017 139 434 892 416r 8 -0-003 643 030 1144r 9 
- 0-001 744 844 218r 10 + 0-001 017 260 52r n - 0-000 004 336r 12 
-0-000 133 153 85r 13 +}. 

2 e . a = 0-087 229 058 633 945 352 846 147 = E ; H = 0-976 348 383 344 644 007 77 

Jit 

AH = Er-0139 566 493 814 312 564 553 836r 2 + 0119 794 573 857 284 951 242r 3 

- 0-049 313 494481 057 106 14r 4 - 0-004 377 735 689 308 937 44r 5 
+ 0-015 485 057 562 579 995r6-0-006 036 565 435 915 39r 7 
-0-000 903 600 446 1867r 8 + 0-001 495 056 771 183r 9 - 0-000 317 778 087 45r 10 
-0-000 152 201 1186r n + 0-000 088 734 678r 12 -0-000 000 378 2405r 13 
-0-000 Oil 614 885r 14 . 

For t = l-8, €■*= 039 163 895 098 987 073 739 770 994 
AG=-re-< 2 {l-l-8r + l-826r 2 -l-044r 3 +0-203 68r 4 + 0156192r 5 --0128 822 5523809> 
+ 0-024 500 434fr 7 + 0-015 248 655 915 343> -0-009 845 148 89fr 9 
+ 0-000 726 814 123 775r 10 + 0-001 273 644 989r u -0-000 455 201 117r 12 
- 0-000 509 014 6956r 13 +etc.}. 

-+-€-< 2 =0'044 191 723 332 Oil 061 234 953 87 = E ; H = 0-989 090 501 635 730 714 19 ; 

J* 

AH = Er- 0-079 545 101 997 619 910 222 917r 2 + 0-080 723 547 953 140 205 189r 3 

- 0-046 136 159 158 619 547 93^ + 0-009 000 970 208 264 013r 5 

+ 0-006 902 393 650 673 472r 6 -0-005 692 890 593 742 55r 7 + 0-001 082 716 413 4684r 8 
+ 0-000 673 864 383 396r 9 - 0-000 435 074 095 97r 10 + 0-000 032 119 1687r n 
+ 0-000 056 284 567?' 12 - 0-000 020 116 12r 13 -0-000 002 2494r 14 + etc. 

'or t = 2, e-< 2 = 0-018 315 638 888 734 180 293 718, 
AG= -re-' 2 {l-2r + 2-3r 2 -l-6r 3 + 0-63r 4 + 0-02r 5 -0-1634920r 6 + 0-076 984 126r 7 
-0-002 425 044 091 71r 8 -0-012 716 049 38> + 0-005 020 843 354r 10 
+ 0-000 253 059 6975r u - 0-000 785 932 1748r 12 + 0-000 191 191 54r ls -etc). 

2 
—e-^ 0-020 666 985 354 092 053 857 069 = E ; H = 0-995 322 265 018 952 734 1517 ; 

sJTV 

AH = Er - 0041 333 970 708 184 107 714 14r 2 + 0-048 222 965 826 214 792 3332r 3 

- 0-034 444 975 590 153 423 095r*+ 0-013 089 090 724 258 300 78r 5 
+ 0-000 459 266 341 202 0456r u - 0-003 378 888 081 700 764r 7 .... . _ ... 

. +0-001 591 029 824 878 52r8-0-000 050 118 350 7264r 9 - 0-000 262 802 406 3545r 10 
+ 0-000 103 765 696 06r u + 0-000 005 229 9811r 12 - 0-000 016 242 849r 13 
+ 0-000 003 95114r 14 - etc. 

Dr t = 2-2, €-* 2 = -007 907 054 051 593 440 493 635 645, 



276 DK J AS. BURGESS ON 

AG= -re-'-'-}l-2-2r + 2-893r 2 -2-4493?^+l-287 413r 4 --290 9475r 5 -123 645 663 4920r 8 
+ 130 351 019 682 53r 7 - -039 684 952 832 4515r s - -005 712 135 363 95r 9 
+ •008 778 755 518 163r 10 --002 353 401 968 184r 11 -000 441 493 573 588r 12 
+ •000 449 093 84? a3 +}. 

4-6-* 2 = -008 922 155 064 916 204 491 2763 = E ; 

AH = Er- -019 628 741 142 815 649 8808r 2 + -025 814 768 654 490 8850r 3 

-•021 853 331 805 668 0902r 4 + -011 486 501 392 640 65r 5 --002 595 879 206 4449/ 

- -001 103 185 782 780r 7 + -001 163 012 010 47r 8 - -000 354 075 302 915r 9 

- -000 050 964 5574r 10 + -000 078 325 41 8r n - -000 020 997 4173r 12 
-•000 003 939 07r 13 + -000 004 0068r 14 + etc. 

For *=2-4, e-«- = 0-003 151111 598 444440 557 819 11, 

AG = - ?-e- (i {l- 2-4r+ 3-506V 2 -3408r 3 + 2-21968^ --866 944r 5 + -065 980 647 6190/- 6 
+ 146 185 32*r 7 - "090 795 077 417 989> + -017 593 1348f r 9 
+ 007 180 372 023 41r 10 - -005 537 775 295 94r u + -001 032 100 464 94>- 12 
+ -000 376 393 066/- 13 }. 

4-€-' 5 = 0-003 555 648 680 877 747 112 = E, 

AH = Er- 008 533 556 834 106 5928/' 2 + -012 468474707 611 2995r 3 

- -012 117 650 704 431 3617r*+ -007 892 402 263 970 72r 5 

- -003 082 548 289 9949? 6 + -000 234 604 002 670r 7 + -000 519 783 660 54r 8 

- -000 322 835 397 25r 9 +-000 062 555 0066r 10 + -000 025 530 8798?- 11 

- -000 019 690 38r 12 + -000 003 669 787r 1:j + -000 001 338 32r 14 -etc. 

For * = 2-5, e-r = -0-001 930 454 136 227 709 242 213 515 ; 

AG =- re -< 2 {l_2-5r + 3-83r 2 -3-9583r 3 + 2-8083r 4 - 1-284 72?- 5 + 0-249 007 9365r 6 
+ -119 667 658 730b- 7 - -114 900 242 504 41r 8 + -036 175 870 8113r 9 
+ •002 358 280 2229r 10 --006 463 809 307r n + -003 355 4256r 12 
+ 000 2316051738r 13 -}. 

and -^- e -» = 0-002 178 284 230 352 709 720 3867 = E ; H = 0-999 593 047 982 555 0361 ; 

s/7r 

AH = Er--005 445 710 575 881 774 35r 2 + -008 350 089 549 685 3876r 3 

- -008 622 375 078 479 476r 4 + -006 117 348 213 573 86r 6 - -002 798 490 157 0504r« 
+ 000 542 410 061 328r 7 + -000 260 670 173 895r 8 - -000 250 285 386 31r 9 
+ -000 078 801 328 91r 10 + -000 005 137 0046r n - "000 014 080 014r 12 + -000 007 309 07r 15 
+ -000 000 5044r 14 -etc. 

For t = 26, 6 -< 2 = 0-001 159 229 173 904 591 150 012; 

AG = - re-*{ 1 - 26r + 4173r 2 - 4-5586r 3 + 3-489 013> - 1-808 1671>+ 0-512 492 393 6507> 
+ •054 344 325 079 36r 7 - -131 050 242 144 62r 8 + 058 484 912 567 76r 9 
-•006 202 829 135 64r 10 --010 449 018 028 06r u +005 053 337 26r 12 
+ -002 601512 3865?- 13 -}. 

and -?-6-' 8 = 0-001 308 050 049 723 251 542 496 = E ; 

AH = Er- -003 400 930 129 280 4540r 2 + -005 458 928 874 178 370r 3 - -005 962 964 160 005 06.V 
+ -004 563 804 064 151 75r 5 - -002 365 173 079 5968r 6 +-000 670 365 700 9977r 7 
+ •000 071 085 097 127*- -000 171 420 2756r 9 + -000 076 501 193r 10 - -000 008 113 61r" 
- -000 013 6678?- 12 + -000 006 610r 13 + -000 003 4029r 14 - etc. 



THE VALUES OF -^-('e^'dt. 2.77 

VTTJ 

For t = 2-8, e ~ < 2 = 0-000 393 669 040 655 078 210 9805 ; 
A G = _ re - <2 {l-2-8r + 4-893r 2 -5-9173r 3 + 5-159 413r 4 - 3-237 4968> + 1-361 565 765 0793r 6 
-0-259 346 702r7- -103 377 617 382 716 05r 8 +-103 997 546 129 383r 9 
-•036 027 867 912 33r 10 + -001 055 801r 11 + -004 625 1919r 12 --001 989 645r 13 , etc}. 

and -|-e" (3 = 0-000 444 207 944 205 666 629 3623 = E ; 

J-rr 

AH = Er- 0-001 243 782 243 775 866 56r 2 + -002 173 657 540 313 0620r 3 

- -002 628 526 475 179 665r*+ -002 291 852 390 107 31r 5 - -001 438 121 837 3856r 6 
+ -000 604 818 329 407r 7 - -000 115 203 865 431^ - -000 045 921 158 89r 9 

+ •000 046 196 536 17r 10 - -000 016 003 8651r n + -000 000 468 995r 12 + -000 002 054 511r 13 
-•000 000 088 38r 14 +etc. 

Lastly, for t = 3, e'< 2 = 0-000 123409 804 086 679 549 4976 ; 

AG=-r€ _(3 {l-3r + 5-6r 2 -7-5r 3 + 7-3r 4 -5-3r 5 + 2-8d4 7619r 6 -0-967 857jr 7 + -099 867 724> 

+ 112}r 9 --077 510 822r 10 + -021 764 0692r n + -000 886 0583r 12 
-•003 249 626 464 0122r 13 + etc.}. 

and -4-e- 12 = 0-000 139 253 051 946 747 853 89 = E ; H = 0-999 977 909 503 001 4145 ; 
Jtt 

AH = Er- -000 417 759 155 840 243 561 67?* 2 + -000 789 100 627 698 237 8386r 3 

- -001 044 397 889 600 608 904r 4 + -001 016 547 279 211 259 33r 5 

- -000 738 041 175 317 7636r 6 + -000 390 571 655 222 069r 7 - -000 134 777 060 991 32r 8 
+ •000 013 906 885 4788r 9 + -000 015 616 235 lllr 10 --000 010 793 618 59r n 

+ -000 003 030 713 07r 12 + -000 000 123 386r 13 - -000 000 452 53r 14 + etc. 

These data will enable anyone to verify the table, and also to recompute to the like 
degree of accuracy Kramp's first Table of the values of G. Any value of G may also be 
found for verification by multiplying 1 - H by ^ s/ 7r - 

TJie constant p and its derivatives. 

20. The value of t = /j , in the solution of the equation — 

t* 1 t 5 1 t 1 J * 2 / t s tf t 7 \ 1 

'-3+L2-5 +LT3T - ^ = 4 ; ° r 7^ ('-3 + 275-3!7 + J = 2 (37) 

is of importance, as it enters into the coefficients of various formula?. Bessel 
employed the value 0'476 9364, Encke, followed by De Morgan, uses 0*476 9360, 
and Airy gives 0'476 948. # To obtain this value with extreme accuracy, we may 

proceed thus: Since 0*475 =\ (I-2V) an d 0'475 2 = 5+^8 + 40^0' the computation of the 
series for this value is comparatively easy, and gives — for t= *475 — 

* It seems strange that the late Astronomer Royal, so late as 1861, should have adopted a value differing from 
that so generally recognised as correct at least to six decimal figures ; he gives its reciprocal also as 2'096 665 {Theory 
of Errors, pp. 23, 24). Laplace (Throne Anal, des Probabilites, 2 e ed., p. 238), in one of the very few examples he 
gives, makes « 2 = -210 2497, which would give p = -45853. M. Poisson, also (Connaissance des Temps, 1832, Add. p. 20), 
gives -47414 for the value of p, and "67336 for that of p\fv, and again (Bech. sur la Prob. des Jugements, p. 208), he has 
•4765 and -6739 for the same quantities. Gauss (Werke, Bd. iv, S. 110) gave the value as *476 9363, which is correct 
to the nearest figure in the seventh place. Lastly, O. Byrne (Dual Arithmetic, p. 200) finds 0-476 936 2744, which 
errs only in the last two decimal figures. 



278 DJK JAS. BURGESS ON 

JL e -' s rf< = 0-498 258 053711 787 564127 43 = H. 
JttJ 

For the same value of t, we have— 

JL € - (2 = 0-900 466 098 615 398 685 314 176 = e , 

and Kramp's formula (36) for a difference r, becomes — 

i-H = er(l-0-475r -0182 916r 2 + 0-201 776 0416r 3 + 0-016 537 552r 4 
- 0-056 42539r 5 + 0-00372r 6 +etc.) 
= 0-900 466 098 615 398 685 314 176r- 0-427 721 396 842 314 8755r 2 
-0164 710 257 205 0667^ + 0181 692 485 0336r 4 + 0-014 891 505r 5 
-0-050 809r 6 +0-00335r 7 + etc. 

Using the first three terms, and taking r = '001 936 as a first approximation, we 
obtain H'-H= + -001 741 699 03, etc. But ±-H = '001 741 946 29, and the differ- 
ence of these is i-H'= +'00000024726. The value of fa'* for £ = 0'476 936 is 
0'898 80814. Hence the correction is " 00 fi 2 Q ^ 26 = + 0'OOQ 000 275, and the new value 



of p is 0'476 936 + '000 000 275 = '476 936 275 ; and from this,— taking in the higher 
powers of r, — we readily arrive at the value, correct to the twenty-fourth place of 
decimals, viz.: — 

p = 0476 936 276 204 469 873 383 506. 

Otherwise, we may form a difference-formula for the computation of this and other 
values of t corresponding to definite values of H. Thus let H be the tabular or com- 
puted value corresponding to t, and H' the value for which t' = t + At is sought. Put 
h =£ «/7r(H' - H)e -'\ Then— 

w 7.1 , 7, , & 2 + h z , 12 * 3 + ^ z,3 i 96^ + 92^+7^ , 480*5 + 652*3 + 127^ , , x ,« fl v 
At = h(l + ht-\ g — h 2 -\ g h 3 -\ 235 h + 35-g A 5 + eta). (38) 

Using the above value of H for £ = '475, we find h= '001 934 494 025 806 1229, and 
this series becomes — 

At = h(l + -475h + -634 16h 2 + -768 510 416/V + 1-088 151 25A 4 + 1-575 641 961 805>+ . . .), 

and this gives at once the value of p correctly to seventeen figures. When h is very 
small, the first three terms of (38) will usually be sufficient to determine the values of 
t corresponding to H = 0'1, 0'2, 0'3, etc., as given below, § 23. 

21. The following table contains the values of the factors dependent on this con- 
stant, p, together with some others used in Probabilities,* with their logarithms, com- 
puted to a degree of accuracy far beyond what can be required. 

* These constants will be met with, among other places, in Bessel's Fundamenta Astron., p. 18 ; and Ueber d. 
Bahn des Olbersch.cn Kometen, in Abh. d. Math. Kl. d. Kdnigl. Preuss. Akad., 1812-13, S. 142 ; De Morgan's Theory of 
Probab., §§ 68, 100, 116, 150, 152, etc. ; Encke, in Berl. Ast. Jahrb., 1834, Ss. 270, 293, 298 ; Gauss, Werke, Bd. iv, S. 
6 ; Aiky, Theory of Error s s pp. 23, 24 ; Poisson, Rech. sur la Probab. des Jugements, p. 176, etc. 




THE VALUES OF -r- j 6 



-If 



"'•*. 



279 



TABLE. 





Constants. 


Values of Constants. 


Logarithms. 


1 


P 


0-476 936 276 204 469 873 383 51 


T-678 460 356 521 217 913 230 78 


2 


1 

p 


2-096 716 165 015 061 071 615 78 


0-321 539 643 478 782 086 769 22 


3 


2 

P 


0-227 468 211 559 786 375 973 25 


T-356 920 713 042 435 826 461 56 


4 


Pv/2 


0-674 489 750 196 035 151 103 81 


T-828 975 354 353 208 510 837 65 


5 


W?r 


1-690 695 078 790 009 806 981 30 


0-228 065 288 532 266 035 620 15 


6 


2 


0-538 164 968 101 235 048 729 82 


1-730 915 415 838 132 181 268 88 


7 


2 2 


0-256 670 391 159 638 137 627 19 


T-409 375 772 459 350 094 499 66 


8 


1 


1-182 945 419 957 695 955 821 42 


0-072 964 707 131 715 159 593 59 


9 
10 


1 

2p\/ 7r 


0-591 472 709 978 847 977 910 71 
0-845 347 539 395 004 903 490 65 


1-771 934 711 467 733 964 379 85 
T-927 035 292 868 284 840 406 41 


11 


i 

P V2 


1-482 602 218 505 601 860 540 58 


0-171 024 645 646 791 489 162 35 


12 


0-577 189 827 811 086 284 473 01 


T-761 318 668 636 906 888 955 99 


13 


io /!L 

PV 4 


0-465 553 230 574 244 418 753 06 


T-667 969 344 657 835 059 623 16 


14 


pJ-K-2 


0-509 584 182 684 138 078 029 73 


T-707 215 939 186 776 502 110 25 


15 


/15,r - 8 

P *J Q« 


0-497 198 854 778 314 121 494 65 


T-696 530 119 639 696 588 914 00 


16 


' 00 

/945ir-128 
P ** 1600 


0-635 508 087 011 832 529 750 44 


T-803 121 081 439 621 574 379 57 


17 


0-550 7 18 574 905 896 772 795 56 


T-740 929 724 825 367 889 797 00 


18 
19 


4/4 

/113 
«/8 

e p ' J 


0-512 501 381 805 211 150 143 34 
0-755 776 391 184 821 580 506 05 


T-709 695 040 673 292 901 513 89 
T-878 393 321 375 255 934 940 23 


20 
21 


0-429 497 009 734 013 564 961 27 
1-255 417 531 354 680 356 016 89 


T-632 960 144 510 594 970 490 77 
0-098 788 189 088 816 702 448 09 


22 


e p V7r 


2-225 169 637 943 592 189 588 00 


0347 363 125 435 823 629 623 72 


23 


g-p8 


0-796 547 742 105 315 688 192 06 


T-901 211 810 911 183 297 551 91 


24 


V"" 


0-898 807 877 788 607 267 593 84 


T-953 666 870 228 097 565 590 02 


25 


W2 


0-961 057 757 039 779 206 215 42 


T-982 749 488 407 280 034 830 52 


26 


e 


1-084 437 551 419 227 546 611 58 


0-035 204 547 724 194 302 868 63 


27 


VI 


1-253 314 137 315 500 215 207 88 


0098 059 938 515 076 329 568 76 


28 


-/I 


0-797 884 560 802 865 355 879 89 


T-901 940 061 484 923 670 431 24 


29 


1 

2 
-\/7r 


0-564 189 583 547 756 286 948 08 


T-751 425 063 652 933 072 824 37 


30 


1-128 379 167 095 512 573 896 16 


0052 455 059 316 914 268 038 10 


31 


IA 


0-886 226 925 452 758 013 649 08 


T-947 544 940 683 085 731 961 90 



280 



DR JAS. BURGESS ON 



22. In the theory of Errors of Observations, we may state the proportions of 
the different constants for 
1 modulus,' ' mean error,' 
* error of mean square,' 
and ' probable error,' as 
in the adjoining table. # 
And the ordinary rela- 
tions of ' mean' or average 
error, A (double the mean 
risk) ; weight of an obser- 
vation, or square of the 
number of observations 
divided by twice the sum 
of the squares of the errors, 
W ; modulus, M ; the error 
of mean square, S ; and probable error, E, — are expressed by the equations, — 





Modu- 
lus. 


Mean 
Error. 


Error 
of Mean 
Square. 


Prob- 
able 
Error. 


In terms of modulus 


1 


1 


1 

x/2 


P 

pjir 


In terms of mean error 


J* 


1 


/- 
V 2 


In terms of error of mean square 


/2 


1 


ptf 


In terms of probable error 


i _L 
P pJt 


1 
P J2 


1 



M = Aj7T = SJ2: 



E 



JW 



E = Mp = A P Jw = S P J2 = £ 



W 



M 2_ 7rA 2 2S 2 E2 



A * 2 E 1 

~ J2~ A ^ 2-^2- V2W 
_ 1 _P 2 



,(39) 



The values of the constants are found in the table above ; but for approximations 
that are occasionally useful, the following may be given : — 



296 , -^ (ce ,, 709 

For Jtt we may use ^= = 1-772 455, or roughly ^; 



for 


4 ■ ■ 

7T 


for 


J2 „ „ 


for 


p 


for 


pJ2 „ „ 


for 


P Jtt » » 


and for p 2 „ „ 



500' 



^ = 0-797 8848, or g| = 797 895, or g= 797 87, or 3 ' 
g| = 1-414 2156, or g|= 1414 201, or ?? = 1-414 286 ; 
g-|| = 0476 939, or|^= -476 9475, or f -476 923; 



|JU = 0-6744898, or |^= -674497, org '67445 



65 
29 

43 : 



^| = 0-845 3472, or g = -845 36, or g= "845 24; 
^ = 0-227 468, or^-= -227 488, or^= -227 27; 



„ 296. 239 „ 99 a 629 _ 65 1 

Whence,- M = ^A = m S,or^S= ^E, ov^E--^ . 

* Conf. Airy's Theory of Errors, p. 24 ; Galloway's Treat, on Probability, §§ 145-148, pp. 194-197 ; De Morgan 
Essay, p. 139. 



THE VALUES OF -^/V'V*. v»81 



_2 

V7TJ 



. 167 M 679 Q 75 Q 763 „ 97 ^ 167 



296 851 ' 94 645 ' 82 296 ^W ' 

„ 455., 31 ., 645 . 82 , 661 Q 300 31 

E^k^M, or^M = ^A, or--A= ^S=, 1(rmr or 



954 ' 65 763 ' 97 980 629 JW 65 ^W ' 

a 408, T 70 _ _ 851 . 94 . 298,-, 169 
S = p^rM, or ttttM = ^A, or == A = kt^-E = 



577 ' 99 679 ' 75 201 239 ^ W " 

2, H3 7 1 53 _5 

M 2 355A 2 ° r 22A 2 ~ 2S 2 ~ 233E 2 ° r 22E 2 ' 

23. Besides p, other values of t corresponding to certain definite values of H may 
occasionally be required,* and the extent of the table now given will enable us to 
determine them with a high degree of accuracy by simple interpolation f; thus : — 



o-i, 


# = 0088 885 991 


. . log 2-948 832 9230 


. . 0-186 367 523.p 


0-2, 


0179143 455 


1-253 200 9459 


0-375 512 978./) 


03, 


0-272 462 716 


1-435 303 8936 


0-571 272 788. p 


0-4, 


0-370 807 149 


1-569 148 0986 


0-777 377 028./) 


05, 


0476 936 276 


T678 460 3565 


1-000 000 000./) 


06, 


0-595116 079 


1-744 6016843 


1-247 789503./) 


07, 


0-732 869 079 


f-865 026 3985 


1-536 618 445.p 


0-8, 


0-906193 802 


1-9572210875 


1-900 031 193.p 


0-9, 


1-163 087153 


0-065 612 2587 


2438 663635./) 



I "> co co co 

Construction of the Table. 

24. In both divisions of the general integral the factor e - ' 2 forms a multiplier. 
Assistance in obtaining the values of this factor might have been derived from the 
extensive tables of e~ x by Prof. F. W. Newman and Mr Glaisher,J had they been in 
existence when the following table was begun. But the interpolation for values of 
e~* , by means of the formula — 

«-*"=«- { 1± i + r2 ± H3 +et0 -} (40) 

is somewhat laborious, since h in this case has the form of 2xh+h 2 . As the factor in the 
function H is the multiple —r^e' 1 , it is occasionally convenient to find its value 
logarithmically, and also as part of the computation of the value of the function, the 
former proving a check on the working for the latter. § In the first part of the 

* Gauss, Bestirrvm. d. Genauigkeit d. Beobacht., § 2 ; Werke, Bd. iv, S. 110. 

t Or, the difference formula (38), given above, § 20, may be used to find these values. 

t Trans. Comb. Phil. Soc, vol. xiii, (1883), pp. 145-272. 

§ If we compute in succession, as is naturally the easiest method, the terms of the expression — 

£p+-'-/+S+S-fi-{r>5+S-~> 

he sum of the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc., terms will give the value of —6"' ! i whilst the sum of the quotients of the 2nd, 
th, 6th, 8th, etc., terms, divided respectively by 1, 3, 5, 7, etc., will give the value of H. 
VOL. XXXIX. PART II. (NO. 9). 2 U 



282 



I)R J AS. BURGESS ON 



tallies the values of this factor are given for every value of t, and, at larger intervals, 
from t=l'25 to t = 6'0 (on p. 295). The following values were also computed with 
extreme accuracy : — 



X. 


€ •'■ 


2 _,. 



| 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
G 
7 
8 
9 
10 


1-000 
•606 530 G59 712 633 423 603 799 534 990 
•367 879 441 171 442 321 595 523 770 161 
•135 335 283 236 612 691 893 999 494 972 
•049 787 068 367 863 942 979 342 415 650 
•018 315 638 888 734 180 293 718 021 273 
006 737 946 999 085 467 096 636 048 423 
•002478 752 176 666 358 423 045 167 431 
•000 911 881 965 554 516 208 003 136 084 
•000 335 462 627 902 511 838 821 389 126 
•000 123 409 804 086 679 549 497 636 691 
•000 045 399 929 762 484 851 535 591 516 


1128 379 167 095 512 573 896 158 903 
0684 396 560 624 433 066 358 502 37 
0-415 107 497 420 594 703 340 268 249 
0-152 709 514 177 164 314 421 873 367 
0-056 178 690 737 057 656 594 924 613 
0020 666 985 354 092 053 857 068 941 
0-007 602 959 022 761 767 784 966 646 
0002 796 972 316 542 974 354 763 250 
0-001 028 948 612 781 823 885 494 178 
0-000 378 529 040 664 308 164 933 856 
0-000 139 253 051 946 747 853 890 418 
0000 051 228 334 931 587 428 772 169 



25. The first part of the table contains the values of H from £ = to £=r250, 
at intervals of *001 to nine places of decimals, together with the first and second 

differences, and the corresponding values of-^e~ .* These values were computed in 
1862, by using the general series for intervals of *02, and interpolating for the inter- 
mediate values with six or more orders of differences. The second part contains tbe 
values from t= 100 to t = 3"00. computed recently, to fifteen decimal figures, — (l) from 
t = 1-000 to £ = 1-500 at intervals of '001, and (2) from t=V5 to t=3Q at intervals of 
•002, with four orders of differences. In the last column of this portion of the table 

are given the corresponding values of log r^e - ' +10, to sixteen decimal places. And 
(3) lastly, values of H and G from 3"0 to 6"0 are appended,! computed by means of 
Laplace's fraction (§ 9), — the values of L (16) being preserved. These would enable us 
to extend the general table still farther if required. 

* The differences of these values have been omitted from want of room on the page. The differences given through- 
out the tables are stated to the nearest figure in the last place, being taken from the computations. 

t Mr J. W. L. Glaisher's table (referred to above, § 4) of the values of G from < = 3-00 to 4-50 (Phil. Mag., 4th 
Ber., 1871, vol. xlii. p. 436) is computed for differences of O'Ol and to seven significant figures, that is from eleven to 
fourteen decimal places ; the appended table gives the values computed to fifteen places. But the values of L wouhl 
enable us to carry them to a much larger number of figures. 



THE VALUES OF 



V* 



\'e- r dt. 
170 



283 



2 r* 
Table of the Values of H= -1- I e-'dt. (1) From t=o to /= 1*250. 

v"v 

/=o*o] [to -099 



O'OOO 

I 

2 

3 
4 

0-005 
6 

7 
8 



o-oio 
II 

12 
13 
14 

0-OI5 
16 

17 
18 

19 

0'02O 
21 
22 

2 3 
24 

0-025 
26 
27 
28 
29 

0-030 
31 

32 

33 
34 

°"°35 
36 

37 
38 
39 
0040 
4i 
42 
43 
44 

0-045 
46 

47 
48 
49 



H 



-000 000 000 
001 128379 
002256755 
003385 127 
004513493 

•005 641 849 
006 770 194 
007898525 

009 026 841 

010 155 138 

■on 283 416 

012 411 670 

01 3 539 9°° 
014668 103 
015 796 276 

•017 924418 

018 052 526 

019 180 598 

020 308 632 

021 436 625 

•022564575 
023 692 480 
024820337 
025948 145 
027 075 901 

•028 203 603 
029331 249 

o3°45 88 3 6 
031 586362 
032713825 

•033 841 222 

°34 9 68 55 2 

036 095 812 

037 223 000 
038350 114 

'°39 477 150 
040 604 108 
041730985 
042857778 
043984486 

•045 in 106 
046237636 

47 364 073 
048490416 
049616662 

■050 742 809 
051 868854 

S 2 994 796 
054 120632 

055246360 



A 

+ 



1 128379 
377 
372 
365 

1 128356 

345 
33i 
316 
298 
1 128 277 

255 
230 
203 
173 
i 128 142 
108 
072 

034 
i 127993 

1 127 950 

905 
858 
808 
756 
1 127 702 
646 

587 
526 

463 

1 127398 

33° 

260 
188 
"3 
1 127 037 
1 126 958 
877 

793 
708 

1 126620 

53o 
437 
343 
246 

1 126 147 

045 

1 125942 

836 

728 

1 125 618 



00 
02 
05 
07 
09 

11 

14 
16 
18 
20 

23 
25 
27 
29 

32 

34 
36 
38 
4i 
43 

45 
47 
5o 
52 
54 

56 

59 
61 

63 
65 



70 
72 
74 
77 

79 
81 

83 
86 



90 
92 
95 
97 
99 

101 
104 
106 
108 
no 






I-128 379 167 
378039 

374 654 
369 OI2 

3 61 "3 

1-128350958 
338 546 
323878 

300 953 

287 772 

1*128 266 335 
242 641 
216 692 
188487 
158 026 

1-128 125 310 
090339 
053 126 
013631 

1-127 971 896 

1-127 927 906 
881662 

833 l6 4 

782 412 
729408 

1-127 674 150 
616 641 

556878 

494865 

43o 599 

1-127364083 
295316 
224 298 
i5 I °3 I 
o75 5i4 

1-126997749 
9*7 735 
835 473 
750963 
664 207 

1-126575204 

483 955 
390461 
294 722 
196738 

1-126 096 511 

1-125994041 

889329 

782374 

673 i79 



0-050 

5i 
52 
53 
54 

°'°55 
56 
57 
58 
59 

C060 
61 
62 

63 
64 

0-065 
66 
67 
68 
69 

0-070 

7i 

72 
73 

74 

0-075 
76 

77 
78 
79 
o'o8o 
81 
82 
83 
84 

0-085 
86 

87 
88 

89 

0-090 

9 1 

92 

93 
94 

0-095 

96 

97 
98 

99 



H 






' 5 6 37i978 

057 497 483 

058 622 873 

059 748 146 

060 873 300 

•061 998 209 

063 123 242 

064 248 024 
065372679 
066 497 203 

•067 621 594 
068745851 

069 869 970 

070 993 950 
072 117 788 

•073241483 
074365031 
075488431 
076 611 681 

077734778 

•078857 720 
079980504 

081 103 130 

082 225 593 

083 347 893 
•084470027 

085 59*992 

086 713 787 
087835409 
088956856 

•090078 126 

091 199 216 

092 320 125 
093440850 
094561 39° 

•095 681 740 

096 801 901 

097 921 869 

099 041 641 

100 161 217 

•101 280 594 
102399769 
103 5 l8 74o 
104637506 
105 756064 

•106 874 411 
107 992 546 
109 no 466 
no 228 169 
111 345 653 



A 
+ 



1 I2 5 5°5 
390 
273 
J 54 

1 125032 

1 124 909 
783 
655 
524 

1 124 391 
256 
119 

1 123 980 
838 

i 123694 

548 

400 

250 

097 

1 122 942 

785 
625 
464 
300 
1 122 134 
1 121 965 

795 
622 

447 
1 121 270 

091 
1 120 909 

725 

539 
1 120351 

160 
[1 119 968 

773 
576 

1 119377 

175 

1 118971 

766 

557 

1 1 18 347 

i35 
1 117 920 

703 

484 

1 117 263 



Ix 3 
J 5 
17 
*9 

22 

124 
26 

28 
30 
33 

E 35 
37 
39 
42 

44 
146 
48 
5i 
53 
55 

*57 

59 
62 

64 

66 

168 

7i 
73 

75 
77 

179 
82 

84 
86 



190 
93 
95 
97 
99 

201 

04 
06 
08 
10 

212 

IS 

17 
19 
21 



T* 



1-125561 742 
448 066 

332151 
213998 

093 606 

1-124970978 
846 113 
719 012 
589677 
458 108 

I "* 2 432 4 305 
188270 
050 004 

1*123 9°9 5°6 
766779 

1*123 621 822 
474637 
325225 

i73 5 8 6 
019 722 

1*122 863 633 
705 321 
544 785 
382028 
217 050 

I-I22 O49852 

1*121 880435 

708 80I 

534 949 
358882 

1*121 18060O 
OOO I05 

I*I20 817397 
632477 

445 347 

I"I20 256008 
064460 

ni987o 706 
674 746 
476 581 

1-119 276 213 
073 642 

1-118868870 
661 899 
452 728 

i'n8 241 361 

027 797 

1-117 812 039 

594086 

373 942 



LN4 



DR JAS. BURGESS ON 



Table of the Values of H= ~ ( e-^dt. (i) From e=o to /= 1-250. 
'=•100] [., 99 







A 


a 2 


2 ,.1 






A 


A 2 


2 ,, 


t 


H 






/ e 


/ 


H 




I 


-j-r" 






+ 


_ 


n /tt 






+ 


J* 


O'lOO 

I 


•112 462 916 

"357995 6 


1 117 040 
6814 

6586 
6356 


223 
26 


1-117 151 607 < 
6 927 082 


3-150 
5i 


•167995 971 
169 099 080 


1 103 108 

2 775 
2 440 

2 103 


33 l 
33 


1*103 274 127 
2 942 091 


2 

3 


114 696 769 
"5813356 


28 
3° 


6 700 369 
6471 469 


52 
53 


170 201 855 

171 304295 


35 
37 


2607950 
2 271 706 


4 


116 929 712 


32 


6 240 383 


54 


172406398 


39 


1 933 361 






1 116 124 










1 101 763 






0-105 
6 


•118045836 
119 161 725 


5890 
5 653 

5 414 

5 i73 


234 
37 


1116 007 113 
5771660 


3*155 

56 


•173 508 161 
174609583 


1 422 

1 078 
o733 
0385 


34i 
44 


i'o8i 592 916 
1 250374 


7 
8 


120277378 
121 392 792 


39 
41 


5 534 026 
5 294212 


57 
58 


175 710 661 
176811394 


46 
48 


i"o8o 905 736 
0559006 


9 


122 507 966 


43 


5 052 220 


59 


177 911 778 


5o 


210 184 






1 1 14 930 










1 100035 






O'OIO 

1 1 


•123 622 896 
124 737 581 


4685 
4 438 
4188 


245 
47 


i"ii4 808 050 
4 56i 705 


o'i6o 
61 


•179011 813 
180 in 496 


1099683 
9 329 
8 973 
8615 


352 
54 


1-099850273 
9506274 


12 

!3 


125 852 019 

126 966 207 


50 

52 


4313 185 
4062493 


62 
63 


181 210 825 
182309798 


56 
58 


9151 191 
8 794025 


14 


128 080 143 


3 936 


54 


3 809 629 


64 


183 408 412 


60 


8 434 7?8 






1 113 682 










1 098254 






0-OE5 


•129193825 


, 


256 


I-II 3 554 59 6 


0-165 


•184 506 667 


7892 

7 527 
7 161 
6 792 


362 


1-098073453 


16 
17 


i3°3°7 252 
131 420420 


3 420 
3168 
2907 
2645 


58 
60 


3 297 395 
3038027 


66 
67 


185604559 
186 702 086 


64 
67 


7 7 I00 5 I 
7 344 574 


18 


•32 533327 


63 


2 776493 


68 


187 799247 


69 


6977025 


19 


133 645 972 


65 


2 512797 


69 


188896039 


7i 


6 607 406 






1 112 380 










1 096 422 






0'120 


•I34 75835 2 




267 


I-II2 246 938 


0-170 


■189 992 461 


6 049 
5 674 
5 297 
4918 


373 


1-096235719 


21 


135870465 


2 1 13 
1 844 
1573 
1299 


69 


I978919 


7i 


191 088 510 


75 


5861967 


22 


136982309 


71 


I 70874I 


72 


192 184 184 


77 


5 486 1 50 


2 3 


138093 882 


73 


I 436 405 


73 


193 279482 


79 


5108273 


24 


139205 181 


76 


I l6l 914 


74 


194 374 400 


81 


4728336 






1 in 024 










1094538 






0*125 


•140316205 


746 

466 

184 

1 109 900 


278 


i'iio 885 270 


o-i75 


•195468938 


4 154 
3 769 
3 382 

2 993 


383 


1-094346343 


26 


141 426951 


80 


0606472 


76 


196563092 


85 


3 962 294 


27 


142 537417 


82 


0325524 


77 


197 656 862 


87 


3 576i94 


28 
29 


143 647 601 

i44 757 5 OJ 


84 

86 


O O42 428 
I-I09 757 183 


78 
79 


198750244 
199843237 


89 
9i 


3 188043 
2 797 845 






1 109 614 










1 092 602 






0-130 


•i45 867 115 


9325 


288 


1-109469793 


o - i8o 


■200935839 


2 209 
1 813 
1 416 
1 017 


393 


1-092 405 601 


31 


146 976440 


9 1 


9 l8o 260 


81 


202 028 048 


95 


2 on 314 


32 

33 


148085475 
149 194 216 


9 035 
8742 
8 447 


93 

95 


8888584 
8 594 767 


82 
83 


203 119 861 

204 211 277 


97 
99 


1 614985 
1 216 619 


34 


150 302 663 


97 


8298812 


84 


205302 294 


401 


0816 216 ' 






1 108 150 










1 090 615 






0*135 

36 
37 
38 
39 


•151 410813 

152 518 664 

153 626 214 
i54 733 46o 
155840400 


1 107 851 

7 549 
7 246 
6941 

1 106 633 


299 

301 

03 
06 
08 


1*108 000 719 

7 700 492 

7 398 131 
7093638 
6 787016 


0-185 
86 

87 
88 

89 


•206 392 909 

207 483 120 

208 572 927 

209 662 325 
210751315 


0212 
1 089 806 

9 399 
8989 

1088578 


403 
05 
08 
10 
12 


1-090413779 j 
0009 310 
1-089602812 , 

9 194 3 88 
8 783 739 


0-140 


•156947033 


6323 
6 1 1 


3 ID 


i'io6 478 265 


0-190 


•211 839 892 


8164 

7 748 

7 33i 
6 911 

1 086 490 


414 


1-088371 168 


41 


158053356 


12 


6167389 


9 1 


212 928 056 


16 


7 95 6 578 


42 
43 


159^9367 
160 265 064 


5697 
5381 


14 
16 


5854388 
5 539 264 


92 
93 


214015805 
215 io 3 *35 


18 
20 


7 539 970 
7 121 348 


44 


161 370445 


18 


5 222 020 


94 


216 190 047 


22 


6700713 






1 105 062 














o-i45 


•162475507 


4742 


320 


1*104 902 657 


o -I 95 


•217276536 


6 066 


424 


1-086278069 


46 


163 580250 


23 


458i 177 


96 


218 362 602 


5640 

5213 

4 783 

1 084351 


26 


5 853417 


47 


164684669 


4 420 

4095 

3768 

1 103439 


25 


4257582 


97 


219 448 242 


28 


5426761 


48 


165788764 


27 


3 93 l8 74 


98 


220533455 


30 


4998 102 


49 


166892532 


29 


3604055 


99 


221 618 238 


32 


4 567 443 

: 



THE VALUES OF 



VTTJ 



285 



Table of the Values of H= ~f e -*dt. (i) From /=o to /= 1-250. 

•200] ["299 



H 



0'200 
I 
2 

3 

4 

0-205 
6 



0'2IO 
1 I 
12 

"■3 

*4 

0-215 
16 

17 
18 

19 
0'220 
21 
22 

23 

24 



27 
28 
29 

0*230 
31 
32 

33 
34 

3 '235 
36 
37 
38 
39 



42 
43 
44 

•245 
46 

47 
48 

49 



•222 702 589 
223786507 
224869989 

225 953 033 
227035638 

•228 117 801 

229 199 520 

230 280 794 

231 361 621 
232441 998 

•233521923 
234601395 

235 680 411 

236 75 8 97o 
237837070 

'238 914 708 
239991 883 
241068593 

242 144 836 

243 220 609 

•244295912 

245 370 741 

246 445 095 

247 5^973 
248592371 

•249 665 289 

250 737 724 
251809675 
252881 139 
253952114 

•255 022 600 
256092 592 

257 162 091 

258 231 093 

259 299 598 

'260367 602 

261 435 105 

262 502 104 
263568597 
264634583 

•265 700059 

266 765 024 

267 829476 

268 893 412 
269956832 

•271 019 733 

272 082 113 

273 J 43 97i 

274205304 
275 266 in 



+ 



1 083 918 
3482 

3 044 
2605 

1 082 163 
1 720 
1 274 
0826 
0377 

1079925 
9472 
9 016 

8 559 
8 100 

1077638 

7 175 

6 710 
6243 
5 773 

1075302 
4829 

4 354 
3877 

3 399 
1 072 918 

2 435 
!95i 
1464 

975 
1070485 
1 069 993 

9 499 

9 002 

8504 

1 068 004 

7 503 
6 999 
6 493 

5 986 

1065476 

4 965 
4 452 

3 937 
3420 

1 062 901 

2 380 
1858 

1333 

0807 
1 060 279 



434 
36 
38 

40 

42 

444 
46 

48 

5o 
52 

453 
55 
57 
59 
61 

463 
65 
67 
69 

7i 

473 

75 
77 
79 
81 

483 
85 
87 
88 

90 
492 

94 

96 

98 

500 

502 

04 
06 
08 
09 

5" 
1 3 
15 
17 

!9 

521 
23 
24 
26 
28 



Jtt 



1-084134787 

3 700 136 
3263493 
2 824 860 
2384240 

1-081941635 
1 497 049 
1050483 
o 601 940 
0151 423 

1-079698934 

9 244 477 
8788053 
8 329 665 
7869317 

i'o77 407 010 
6 942 748 
6476532 
6 008 367 
5538254 

i # o75 °66 196 

4 592 197 
4 116 258 
3638382 
3 158 573 

1*072 676 833 
2 193 165 

1 707571 
1 220055 
o 730 620 

i'o7o 239 267 

1 069 746 001 

9250823 

8 753 737 

8 254 745 

1*067753851 
7 251 058 
6746367 
6239783 

5 731308 



H 



1*065 22 ° 945 

4 708 697 

4194567 
3678557 

3 160672 

1-062 640 914 
2 1 19 285 

1595 789 
1 070 429 

o 543 208 



0-250 

5i 

52 
53 
54 

o ,2 55 
56 

57 
53 
59 

0*260 
61 

62 
63 
64 

0-265 
66 

67 
6S 

69 

0*270 

7i 

72 

73 
74 

0-275 
76 

77 
7S 

79 

o'28o 

81 
82 

83 

84 

285 

86 

87 
88 
89 



0*290 

9 1 
92 
93 
94 

0-295 
96 
97 
98 
99 



•276326390 
277386139 
278445356 
279504039 
280 562 187 

•281 619 797 
282676868 
283 733 398 
284789385 
285 844 827 

•286 899 723 
287954071 
289007868 

290 061 113 

291 113 804 

•292 165939 
293217517 
294268536 
295318994 
296368888 

•297 418 219 

298 466 982 

299 5*5 *77 
300562 803 
301 609 856 

•302656336 
303 702 240 
304747567 
305792316 
306836483 

•307880068 
308923069 

309965484 
311 007311 
312048548 

•313 089 194 

314 129 248 

315 168706 
316207568 
317245832 

•318283496 
319220558 
320357017 
321392871 
322 428 117 

•323462 756 
324496784 

325 530200 

326 563 002 
327595189 



+ 



A 2 



1 o59 749 
9217 
8683 
8 148 

1 057 610 
7071 
6530 
5 987 
5 442 

1054896 

4 347 
3 797 

3245 
2 691 

1052 136 

1578 

1 019 

0458 

1 049 895 

1 049 33° 
8764 

8i95 
7625 

7053 

1 046 480 

5 904 
5 327 
4 748 

4 168 

1043585 
3001 

2415 

i 827 

1238 

1 040 646 

o °53 

1039459 

8862 

8264 

1037664 

7 062 

6459 

5 854 
5 247 

1034638 
4 028 
3 4i6 
2 802 
2187 

1 031 570 



53o 
32 
34 
36 
37 

539 
41 
43 

45 
47 

548 
5o 
52 
54 
56 

557 

59 
61 

63 
65 

566 
68 

7o 
72 

74 

575 
77 
79 
81 
82 

584 
86 
88 
90 
9 1 

593 
95 
96 
98 

600 

602 

°3 

05 

07 

09 
610 

12 

14 

15 

17 



J* 



i'o6o 014 129 

I- o59 483 195 

8950409 

8415 774 

7879294 

1-057340970 
6 800 807 
6258807 

5 714 974 
5 169310 

ro5462i 819 
4072505 

3521369 
2 968415 
24x3647 

1-051857067 
1 298 680 
0738487 

176 492 
1-049 612 699 

1-049 °47 IIQ 
8479729 
7910559 
7339603 
6766865 

1*046 192 348 
5616055 
5037989 
4458 154 
3876552 

I- o43 293 l8 8 
2 708 065 
2 121 186 

1 532 554 
o 942 172 

1*040350044 

1*039756174 

9 160564 

8563219 

7 964 141 

i - o37 363 333 
6 760 800 

6156545 
5550 571 
4942 881 

I- o34 333 479 
3722369 

3 io 9 553 

2 495 036 
1878820 



28(i 



DR JAW. liUKGEwy ON 



Table of the Values of H= 4-/V**. (i) From t=o to /= 1-250. 

/='30o] [399 



H 



a :a., 



j* 



0*300 
1 
2 

3 

4 

o # 3°s 

6 



0-310 
1 1 
12 

13 

14 

0-315 
16 

17 
18 

J 9 

0-320 
21 
22 

2 3 
24 

o-3 2 5 
26 
27 
28 
29 

0-330 
3 1 
32 
33 

34 

o-335 
36 
37 
38 
39 

0-340 
41 
42 
43 
44 

o-345 
46 

47 
48 

49 



•328626759 
329657 711 

330 688 042 

33 1 7i7 75o 
332746835 

'333 775 294 
334803 127 

335 8 30 33o 
336856903 

337 882 843 

•338908150 

339 932 822 

340 956 856 

341 980251 
343 o°3 °° 6 

•344025 119 
345046588 

346 067 4E2 
347087589 
348 I07 117 

'349 I2 5 995 

350 144 221 

351 i6t 793 

352 178711 

353 194 971 

•354210574 
355225516 
35 6 239 797 
357253415 
358266368 

•359278655 

360 290 274 

361 301 223 

362 311 502 
363321 107 

'3 6 4 33o°39 
365338295 

366345873 
367352 773 
368358992 

'369364529 
370369383 
37I373 55 2 
372 377 034 
373379827 

'374 381932 
375 383 344 
376384065 
377384091 
378383421 



I 030951 


0331 


I 029 709 


9085 


1028459 


7832 


7203 


6573 


5941 


1025307 


4671 


4034 


3 395 


2 755 


1 022 113 


1469 


824 


0177 


1 019 528 


1018878 


8226 


7 573 


6917 


6 261 


1 015 602 


4942 


4 281 


3618 


2 953 


1 012 287 


1 619 


949 


278 


1 009 606 


1 008 932 


8256 


7 578 


6 900 


6 219 


1005537 


4854 


4169 


3482 


2794 


1 002 104 


1 413 


720 


026 


999 330 


998 633 



619 

20 

22 
24 
25 
627 
29 
31 
32 

34 

635 
37 
39 

40 

42 

644 
45 
47 
49 
5o 

652 

53 
55 
57 
58 

660 
62 
63 
65 
66 

668 

69 
7i 
73 
74 

676 
77 
79 
80 
82 

684 

85 
87 
88 

90 

691 

93 
94 
96 

97 



1*031 260 910 
o 641 308 
o 020 019 

1-029397045 
8772391 

1*028 146 059 

7 5 l8 o54 
6888378 
6257036 
5624031 

1*024 989 3*5 6 

4353°45 
3715072 

3075 450 
2434182 

I'02I 79I 274 

1 I46 727 

500 545 

1-019852 733 

9203294 

i - oi8 552 231 
7899548 
7 245 249 
6589338 

5 93 1 817 

1*015 272 691 
4611 964 

3 949 638 
3285719 

2 620 209 

1-011953 112 
1 284432 
0614173 

1-009942337 
9268931 

1-008593955 
7917416 
7239316 

6 559 659 
5878448 

1-005 "(95689 

4 5" 383 
3825536 

3 138 151 
2449232 

i'ooi 758 782 
1 066 806 

0373 307 
0-999678 289 

8981756 



o-35 
5i 

5 2 
53 
54 

o-355 
56 

57 
5S 
59 

0-360 
61 
62 

63 
64 

0-365 
66 

67 
6S 

69 

0-370 

7i 

72 

73 
74 

o-375 
76 
77 
78 
79 

0-380 
81 
82 

83 
84 

0-385 
86 

87 
88 

89 

0-390 
9 1 

92 

93 
94 

o-395 
96 

97 
98 
99 



H 



•379382054 
380379988 

381 377 221 

382 373 753 
383369582 

•384364706 

385 359 I2 3 

386352833 

387 345 834 
388338124 

•389329701 
390320565 
391310714 

392 300 146 

393 288860 

•394276855 
395264128 
396250689 
397236507 
398 221 609 

•399205 984 

400 189 631 

401 172 549 

402 154735 

403 136 189 

•404 116 909 

405 096 894 

406 076 143 
407054653 
408 032 424 

•409009453 
409985741 

410 961 285 

411 936 084 

412 910 136 

-413 883441 
414855997 
415 827 802 
416798855 
4i7 769 155 

•418738700 
419707489 
420675 521 

421 642 795 

422 609 308 

•423 575o6o 
424540050 

425504275 
426467 736 

427430429 



A 

+ 



997 934 


7 234 


6532 


5829 


995 I2 4 


4418 


3710 


3001 


2 290 


99 1 578 


0864 


149 


989432 


8714 


987 995 


7274 


6 55i 


5827 


5 102 


984 375 


3647 


2 918 


2 186 


1454 


980 720 


979 985 


9 248 


8510 


7771 


977030 


6288 


5 544 


4 799 


4053 


973 305 


2 556 


1805 


io53 


300 


969 545 


8789 


8032 


7273 


65*3 


965752 


4989 


4 226 


3460 


2 694 


961 926 



J* 



699 

700 
02 

03 

05 

706 

08 
09 

II 

12 

7H 
15 
17 
l8 
20 

721 
22 
24 
25 
27 

728 
3° 
31 

3 2 
34 

735 
37 
38 
39 
4i 

742 
44 
45 
46 
48 

749 
5i 
52 
53 
55 

756 
57 
59 
60 
61 

763 
64 
65 
67 
68 



0-998283712 
7 584 160 
6883105 
6 180 550 
5476500 

0-994770957 
4063 926 

3355 4ii 

2645416 

1 933 944 



0-991 221 
0506 

0-989 790 
9 073 
8 354 

0-987634 
6912 
6189 
5 464 

4 738 

0-984 01 1 
3282 

2 552 

1 820 
1087 

0-980352 

0-979 616 

8879 

8 140 

7 400 

0-976658 

5 9^5 

4425 
3678 

0-972930 

2 180 
1429 
0676 

0969 922 

0-969 167 
8410 
7652 
6893 
6i33 

0-965371 
4607 

3 843 
3 077 
2309 



000 

S»7 

710 

372 

577 

329 
632 

490 
907 
887 

434 

55* 
244 

5'5 
369 

810. 
841 
467 
692 
520 

954 

999 
660 

939 
840 

369 
5 2 9 
324 
758 
835 

559 
935 
966 
656 
010 

032 
725 
095 
144 
877 



THE VALUES OF 



V: 



IV 



28r 



Table of the Values of H= —f'^dt. (1) From t-o to *= 1-250. 

/='40o] [-499 



0-400 
1 

2 

3 
4 

0-405 

6 

7 
8 



0-410 
11 
12 
J 3 
14 

16 

17 
18 

*9 

0-420 

21 

22 

2 3 

24 

0-425 
26 
27 
28 
29 

0-430 

31 
32 

33 
34 

°"435 
36 
37 
38 
39 

0-440 

4i 

42 

43 

44 



H 



•428392355 

429 353 5 12 

43° 3 J 3 897 

43 I2 73 5 12 
432232352 

, 433 I 9°4i9 

434 147 710 

435 104224 
43 6o 59 959 
437014915 

•437969090 
438922483 

439 875 93 

440 826 918 

44i 777 957 

•442 728 209 

443 677 673 
444626347 
445574230 
446521321 

•447 467 618 
448413 122 
449 357 829 

45° 3 QI 739 
451 244851 

•452 187 164 
453 128 676 
454069387 
455009294 
455 948 397 

•456886695 

457 824 186 

458 760869 

459696743 
460631 807 

461 566 060 

462 499 501 
463432 128 

464 363 94o 
465294936 

•466 225 115 
467154476 
468083018 
469 010 739 
469937639 



o'445 


•470863715 


46 


471 788968 


47 


472 713396 


48 


473636998 


49 


474559 773 



A 

+ 



961 156 
0386 

959614 
8841 

958067 
7291 
65H 
5 736 

4 956 

954 175 

3 393 

2 610 
1825 
1039 

950252 

949 464 
8674 
7883 
7091 

946 298 

5 503 

4 707 
3910 

3 "2 

942313 

1 512 

710 

939 907 
9103 

939 383 

7 49i 
6683 

5 874 
5064 

934253 

3 44o 

2 627 

1 812 
o 996 

930179 

929361 

8542 

7 721 

6 900 

926077 

5 253 
4428 
3602 

2 775 
921947 



769 

7i 
72 

73 

74 

776 
77 
78 
80 



782 
83 
85 
86 

87 
788 
9° 
9i 
92 

93 

795 
96 

97 
98 

99 

801 

02 

°3 
04 
05 
807 
08 

°9 
10 
11 

812 
14 
15 
16 

17 
818 

19 
20 
22 
23 
824 

25 
26 
27 
28 



J- 



0-961 
o 
o 

o'959 



o'957 
6 
6 

5 
4 

°'953 
3 
2 
1 

o 

0-949 

9 
8 

7 
6 

°'945 
5 
4 

3 

2 

0-941 

1 
o 

°'939 
8 

0-937 
7 
6 

5 
4 

°"933 
3 
2 
1 

o 



541 299 

77I4I3 
000 223 
227734 

453 949 

678873 
902 511 
124865 
345 941 
5 6 5 742 

784273 
001 537 
217540 
432 284 
645 775 

858016 
069 012 

278 767 
487 284 
694569 

900 626 
105458 
309069 
5" 465 
712 649 

912 626 
in 399 
308974 

5°5 353 
700542 

894 544 
087365 

279 007 
469476 
658775 
846 910 
033 883 
219 700 

404365 
587881 



0-929770254 
8951487 

8 131 585 
7310552 
6 488 392 

0-925 665 110 
4 840 709 
4015195 
3188572 
2360843 



H 



0-450 

5i 
52 
53 

54 

°"455 
56 
57 
58 
59 

0-460 
61 
62 

63 

64 

0-465 
66 

67 
68 
69 

0-470 

7i 

72 

73 

74 

o'475 
76 
77 
78 
79 

o"48o 
81 
82 

83 
84 

0-485 
86 

87 
88 

89 

0*490 

9i 
92 
93 

94 

o'495 
96 

97 
98 
99 



•475481 720 
476402837 

477 323 I2 4 
478242579 
479 161 201 

-480 078 990 
480995944 
481 912 062 
482827343 
483 741 786 

'484655390 
485568154 
486 480077 

487391 157 
488301394 

•489 210 787 

49° "9335 
491 027 036 

49 1 933890 
492839895 

'493 745 °5 x 

494 649 356 

495 552 8io 

496 455 412 
497357 160 

•498258054 
499158092 

5ooo57 274 
500955598 
501853064 

•502 749671 
503645417 
504540302 

505 434325 
506327484 

•507 219 780 
508 in 210 
509001 774 
509891471 
510 780 301 

■511 668 261 

512555352 
513 441 572 
514326920 
515 211396 

•516094999 
516977727 
517859580 
518740556 
519 620656 



+ 



921 117 

287 

919455 
8622 

917 789 

6 954 
6118 

5281 

4 443 
913604 

2 764 
1923 

1 080 
0237 

909 393 
8548 

7 7oi 
6854 
6005 

9°5 I S 6 
4305 

3 454 

2 602 
1748 

900894 

0038 

899 182 

8324 
7 466 

896 607 

5 746 
4885 
4023 
3160 

892 295 

1430 

0564 

889697 

8829 

887 960 

7091 

6 220 
5 348 

4 476 
883 602 

2 728 
1853 
o977 
o 100 
879 222 



829 
3o 
32 
33 
34 

835 
36 
37 
38 
39 

840 
41 
42 
43 
44 

845 
46 

47 
48 

49 

850 

5i 

52 
53 

54 

855 
56 
57 
58 
59 

860 
61 
62 
63 
64 

865 
66 

67 
68 
69 

870 

7i 
72 
73 
73 

874 
75 
76 

77 
78 





0-921 532013 

702 087 
0-919 871 068 

9038961 
8205 771 


°'9i7 37i 5 01 
6536156 
5 699 74o 
4862 258 
4023714 


0-913 184 112 

2 343 457 

1 501 752 

0659003 

0-909815 213 


0*908 970 387 
8124530 

7277645 
6429 737 
5580810 


0-904 730 869 

3879917 
3 027 960 
2 175 002 
1 321047 


0-900466 099 

0-899 610 162 

8753242 

7895343 

7 036 468 


0-896 176 622 
53i58io 
4454036 

359*304 
2 727 619 


0-891 862 985 
997 406 
0130888 

0-889263433 
8 395 047 


0-887525734 
6655498 

5 784 344 
4 912 276 
4039298 


0-883 165 416 
2 290 632 
1414952 
0538381 

0-879 660 921 



2b8 



DK J AS. BURGESS ON 



Table of the Values of H= ~- f ( -' 7 dt. (i) From t=o to /= 1-250. 
^=•500] [- 599 



0-500 
01 

02 

°3 
04 

o"5°5 
06 

07 
08 
09 

0-510 
11 
12 
13 
14 

16 

17 
18 

19 

0-520 
21 
22 

23 

24 

0*525 
26 
27 
28 
29 

°"53° 
3 1 
32 
33 
34 

Q-535 
36 
37 
38 
39 

0-540 
4i 
42 
43 
44 

o - 545 
46 

47 
48 

49 



H 



+ 



•520499878 
521 378221 
522255684 
523 132 267 
524007969 

•524882 788 

525 75 6 724 

526 629 776 
527501943 
528373225 

•529243620 
530 113 128 
530981 747 
531849478 
532 716318 

'533 582268 

534 447 327 

535 3ii 493 
536174767 
537037146 

•537898630 
538759220 
539618913 
540477708 
541335606 

•542 192 606 
543048706 

543 9°3 9°6 
544758205 
545 611 602 

546464097 
547315689 
548166376 
549 016 160 
549865037 

•55°7 I 3°°9 
551560074 
552406231 
553251480 
554095820 

■554 939 25o 
555781770 

55° 02 3 379 
557464076 
558303860 

'559 I 42 732 
559980689 
560817 732 
561653859 
562489071 



878343 
7463 
6583 

5 7oi 
874819 

3 936 

3052 
2 167 

1 282 

870395 

869 508 

8620 

7 73i 
6841 

865 950 

5059 

4 166 

3273 

2 379 
861485 

0589 

859693 

8796 

7898 

856999 

6 100 
5200 
4299 

3 397 

852495 

J 59 2 
0688 

849 783 
8878 

847 972 
7065 
6i57 

5 249 

4 34o 

843 43o 

2520 

1 609 

o 697 

839 784 

838871 

7 957 
7043 
6128 
5212 

834 295 



A. 



879 
80 
81 
81 
82 

883 
84 

85 
86 
87 

887 
88 
89 
9° 
9i 

891 
92 
93 

94 
95 

895 
96 

97 
98 

99 

899 

900 

01 

02 

02 

903 
04 
05 
05 
06 

9°7 
08 
08 

09 
10 

910 
11 
12 
13 
13 

914 
15 
15 
16 

17 





t 


0-878782579 


o-55o 


790335 8 


5 1 


7 023 262 


52 


6 142 296 


53 


5>6o465 


54 


0*874377 773 


o-555 


3 494 224 


56 


2 609 822 


57 


1 724572 


58 


0838479 


59 


0-869951 547 


0-560 


9063779 


61 


8175 182 


62 


7285758 


63 


6 395 5 J 3 


64 


0-865504450 


0-565 


4612575 


66 


3719892 


67 


2 826 404 


68 


1 932 117 


69 


o-86i 037 034 


0-570 


141 161 


7i 


0-859244502 


72 


8 347 060 


73 


7448841 


74 


0-856549849 


o-575 


5650088 


76 


4 749 5 6 2 


77 


3848277 


78 


2 946 236 


79 


0-852043444 


0-580 


1 139906 


81 


0235625 


82 


0*849 33° 606 


83 


8424853 


84 


0-847518372 


°-585 


6 611 165 


86 


5703239 


77 


4 794 596 


78 


3885242 


79 


0*842 975 181 


0-590 


2 064417 


9 1 


» 152 955 


92 


240 799 


93 


o - 839 327 954 


94 


0-838414423 


o-595 


7 500 212 


96 


6585324 


97 


5669765 


98 


4 753 538 


99 



H 



•563323366 
564156744 
564989204 
565 820 746 
566651368 

•567 481 071 
568309853 
569 137 714 
569964653 
570790670 

•571 615 764 

572 439 934 
573263 180 
574085502 
574906898 

•575727367 
576546911 

577365 527 
578 183 215 

578999975 

•579815806 
580 630 708 
581444679 
582 257 720 
583069829 

•583881007 
584691 253 

585500565 

586 308 944 

587 116 390 

•587 922 900 
588728476 
589 533 116 
590336821 

591 139 588 

•591 941 419 

592 742 311 
593542 266 
594341 283 
595 i39 3 6 o 

•595 936 497 
596732695 

597 5 2 7 952 

598 322 268 

599 115 642 

•599908074 

600 699 564 

601 490 in 

602 279 715 
603068375 



A 

+ 



833 378 
2 460 

1 542 

622 

829703 

8782 
7861 

6 939 
6 017 

825094 
4170 
3246 
2321 

1 396 

820 470 

819 543 
8616 
7688 

6 760 

815831 
4901 
397i 
3041 

2 no 

811 178 

0245 
809313 

8 379 

7 445 
806 511 

5 576 
4640 

3 704 

2 768 

801 831 
0893 

799 955 

9 016 
8077 

797138 
6197 
5 257 
43 l6 

3 374 
792432 

1490 

o547 
789604 

8660 
787 716 



9i7 
18 

19 
*9 

20 

920 
21 
22 
22 
23 

924 

24 
25 
25 
26 

927 

27 
28 
28 
29 

93° 
30 
3i 
3 1 

32 

932 
33 
33 
34 

34 

935 
36 
36 
37 
37 

938 
38 
39 
39 

40 

94o 
4i 

4i 
42 

42 

942 
43 
43 
44 
44 



> € 



0-833836647 
2 919098 

2 000895 

1 082 042 
0162543 

0*829 242 403 
8321 626 
7 400 217 
6478180 
5 555 5*9 

0*824 632 239 

3 7o8 345 

2 783 839 
1858728 
0933015 

0*820006 705 

0*819079801 

8152309 

7224233 

6 295 577 

0-815366346 

4 43 6 544 

3 5 o6l 74 
2 575 2 43 
* 643 753 

0-810 711 
0*809 779 

8845 

7912 

6978 

0*806043 
5108 
4172 

3235 

2 299 

0*801 361 
0423 

0799 485 
8546 
7 607 

0-796667 

5 727 
4786 

3 845 
2903 

0-791 961 

1 018 

0075 
0-789 131 
0*788187 



710 
118 
981 

3 a 3 
089 

343 
070 

273 
958 

I2(; 
789 

943 
597 
753 
416 

59' 

493 
229 

494 

292 
627 

5°5 
928 

9°3 



THE VALUES OF -f- {'e^dt. 

s/ttJ o 



289 



Table of the Values of H= ~f\- ,,l dt. (i) From t=o to /=• 1-250. 

/ = '6oo] [to 699 



o'6oo 
01 

02 

03 
04 

0-605 
06 

07 
oS 
09 

o - 6io 
11 
12 

13 
14 

0-615 
16 

17 

18 

19 

0-620 

21 

22 

23 
24 

0-625 
26 
27 
28 
29 

0-630 
3i 

3 2 

33 
34 

o"63S 
36 

37 
38 
39 
0-640 

4i 

42 

43 

44 

0-645 
46 

47 

48 

49 



H 



•603 856 091 
4642 862 
5428688 
6213568 
6997 502 

•607 780490 
8562531 
9343625 

•610 123 771 
o 902 969 

•611 681 219 

2458520 

3 2 3487i 
4010273 
4784724 

•615558226 
6330776 
7102375 
7873023 
8642718 

■619 411 462 
■620179253 

946 090 

1 711975 

2 476 906 

•623 240 882 
4OO3904 
4765972 

5 5 2 7 085 

6 287 242 

•627046443 

7 804689 
8561978 
9318311 

■630073 686 

■630828 105 

1 581 566 
2334069 
3085614 
3836201 

•634585829 

5 334 498 

6 082 208 
6828959 

7 574 75° 
•638 319 581 

9063452 
9 806362 

" 6 4o 548 3" 
1 289 300 



A 

+ 



786 771 


5826 


4880 


3 934 


782988 


2 041 


1094 


146 


779198 


778250 


7301 


6351 


5402 


4 452 


773 5 QI 


2 55° 


*599 


0648 


769 696 


768 743 


7791 


6838 


5884 


493i 


763977 


3 022 


2068 


1 113 


0157 


759202 


8246 


7 289 


6 333 


5 376 


7544i8 


3 46i 


2503 


1545 


0587 


749628 


8669 


7710 


6751 


5 79i 


744831 


3871 


2 910 


1950 


0989 


740027 



945 
45 
46 
46 
46 

947 
47 
48 
48 
48 

949 

49 
5o 
5° 

5o 

95i 
5 1 

52 
52 
52 

953 

53 
53 
54 
54 

954 
55 
55 
55 
56 

956 

56 

57 
57 
57 

958 
58 
58 
58 
59 

959 
59 
59 
60 
60 

960 
60 
61 
61 



Vt 



0787243432 
6 298 520 

5 353 172 

4 407 39 1 

3 461 182 

0782514550 

1 567 499 

620032 
0779672 155 

8723871 

°'777 775 185 

6 826 101 
5876623 
4926756 
3976504 

o'773°25 8 7i 

2 074862 

1 123 480 
0171 731 

0*769 219 617 

0768 267 144 

7 3!43 l6 
6361 137 

5 407 611 

4 453 742 

0763499536 

2 544 995 

1 590125 

634 928 
o - 7596794ii 

0758 723 576 

7 767429 
6810973 
5854212 
4897151 

0753 939 794 

2 982 146 
2 024 209 

1 065 989 

107 490 

0749 148 716 
8189671 

7 230 359 

6 270 785 

5 310952 

o744 35o865 
3390528 

2 42 9 945 

1 469 121 
0508059 



H 



0-650 

5i 

52 
53 
54 

655 
56 
57 
58 
59 

o - 66o 
61 
62 
63 
64 

0-665 
66 

67 
68 

69 

0*670 

7i 

72 
73 

74 

0-675 
76 
77 
78 
79 

o-68o 
81 
82 

83 
84 

0-685 
86 

87 
88 

89 

0*690 

9 1 
92 
93 
94 

0-695 
96 
97 
98 

99 



■642 029 327 

2 768393 
3506498 

4 243 640 
4979821 

'645 715 039 
6449295 
7182587 
7914917 
8646284 

■649376 688 
"650 ro6 128 

834 604 

1 562 117 
2288666 

' 6 53 OI 4 25o 
3738870 
4462 525 
5 185 216 

5 906 942 

■656 627 702 

7 347 498 
8066328 
8784193 
9501 092 

•660 217 026 

931993 

1 645 995 
2359030 

3 071 100 

-663 782 203 

4492 339 
5201 509 

5 909 713 

6 616 949 

•667323219 

8 028 522 
8732858 

9 436 226 
•670 138628 

■670 840062 

1 540529 

2 240 029 
2938561 

3 636 126 

•674332723 
5028352 

5 723 OI 4 
6416 709 
7109435 



+ 



739066 
8 104 

7 143 
6180 

735218 
4256 
3293 
2330 
!367 

730404 

729440 
8476 

7 5*3 

6 549 

725 584 
4620 

3655 
2 691 

1 726 
720 761 
719796 

8830 
7865 
6899 

715 933 
4968 
4002 

3036 

2 069 

711 103 

oi37 

709 170 

8203 

7 237 
706 270 

5 303 
4 336 

3369 
2 402 

701434 
0467 

699500 
8532 
7 565 

696597 

5630 
4662 

3694 

2 727 
691759 



A 2 



961 
62 
62 
62 
62 

963 
63 
63 
63 
63 

963 
64 
64 
64 
64 

964 
65 
65 
65 
65 

965 
65 
65 
66 
66 

966 
66 
66 
66 

66 

966 

67 
67 
67 
67 

967 
67 
67 
67 

67 

967 
67 
67 
67 
68 

968 
68 
68 
68 
68 



J* 



VOL. XXXIX. PART II. (NO. 9). 



739 546 763 

8585239 
7623489 
6661 518 
5 699 330 

0734736930 
3 774 321 

2 811 507 

1 848 494 
0885284 

0729 921 881 
8958291 

7 9945*7 

7 030563 
6066433 

0725 102 132 
4137663 

3 173 031 

2 208 239 

1 243292 

0720 278 193 
0-719312947 

8 347 558 
7382030 
6416367 

0715 450 573 
4484652 
3518608 

2 552 445 
1 586 167 

0710 619 778 

0709653283 

8686684 

7719987 

6 753 195 

0-705 786311 
4819341 
3852288 
2885157 

1 917 950 

0700 950 672 

0-699983327 

9015919 

8048453 

7 080 930 

0-696113357 

5 145 737 
4178073 
3210370 

2 242 631 

2 x 



2<J0 



DR J AS. BUKGESb ON 



700] 



Table of the Values of H= ~ r [\-'"dt. (1) From t=o to /= 1-250. 



[to 799 



1 




A 


A, 


2 „ 


1 




A 


A, 


2 


/ 


H 




2 


-r € 


/ 


H 




2 


-/ -« 






+ 


— 


Jn 


1 
_ 




+ 


- 


> 


0700 
01 
02 


•677 801 194 
8491985 
9 181 808 


690 791 
689823 

8855 
7887 


968 

68 
68 


0*691 274 860 

307 062 

0-689339 241 


3"75° 
5i 

52 


7" 155634 

1 798083 

2439567 


642 449 
1485 
0521 

639 557 


964! 
64 
64 


0*642 931 069 ! 
1966754: 
1 002 602 ' 


°3 
04 


9870663 
'680558551 


68 
68 


8 371399 

7 403 542 


53 
54 


3080088 
3719645 


64 
64 


0038619 
0-639074807 






686 920 










638 593 






0705 


•681 245470 




968 


0686435672 


=755 


7U358237 


7 629 
6 666 


964 


0-638 m 171 ' 


06 


1 931422 


5 952 
4984 


68 


5 467 794 


56 


4995867 


63 


7 147 7i3 


07 


2616 406 


68 


4499912 


57 


5632533 


5 703 
4 74o 


63 


6 184437 j 


08 


3300422 


A. O I 

3048 


68 


3 532030 


58 


6 268 236 


63 


5 2 2i347 1 


09 


3983470 


68 


2 564 151 


59 


6 902 976 


63 


4258447 ! 






682 080 










633 777 






0710 


•684665550 




968 


o'68i 596 279 


0-760 


717 536 753 


O 5\ I A 


963 


0*633 295 740 


1 1 


5 346 663 


1 112 


68 


628 419 


61 


8169567 


1852 

890 

629 928 


62 


2333229 


12 
13 


6 026 807 
6705984 


144 
679177 

8 2 00 


68 
68 


0-679660573 
8 692 747 


62 
63 


8 801 419 

9 432 309 


62 
62 


1370919 
0408 812 


14 


7384193 




68 


7 724 943 


64 


720 062 237 


62 


0*629 446 912 






677 241 










628 966 






0715 


•688 061 434 


6273 

5306 
4338 


968 


0-676 757 166 


0-765 


720 691 203 


8 004 

*7 C\ A *> 


962 


0-628485 223 


16 


8737707 


68 


5 789419 


66 


1 319 208 


61 


7 5 2 3 749 


17 


9413012 


68 


4 821 706 


67 


1 946 251 


7 °43 
6 082 


61 


6 562 492 


18 


•690087350 


68 


3854031 


68 


2 572 333 




61 


5 601 456 


*9 


760 721 


3 37° 
672403 


68 


2886398 


69 


3 197 454 


5 I21 
624 160 


61 


4640645 


0720 
21 


•691433 123 
2 104558 


1435 

0468 

669 500 

8533 


968 
68 


0-671 918 811 
0951 274 


0-770 
7i 


723 821 614 
4444814 


3 200 
2 240 
1 280 


960 
60 


0-623 680063 
2 719 712 


22 
23 


2775 026 
3 444 5 26 


67 
67 


0-669 983 789 
9 016 362 


72 
73 


5067053 
5688333 


60 
60 


* 759 596 
0799719 


24 


4113058 


67 


8048995 


74 


6308653 


320 


60 


0*619 840 085 






667 565 










619 360 






0725 


•694 780 624 


6598 

r Ait 


967 


0-667 081 693 


o775 


726 928 013 


8 401 
7442 
6483 
5 525 


959 


0-618880695 


26 


5447222 


67 


6 1 14 459 


76 


7 546414 


59 


7 92I55 6 


27 


6 112 853 


5 °3 X 
4664 

3697 


67 


5 T 47 298 


77 


8163857 


59 


6962C68 


28 


6777516 


67 


4 180 212 


78 


8 780 340 


59 


6 004037 


29 


7441 213 


67 


3213 206 


79 


9 395 865 


58 


5045665 






662 730 










614 567 






0730 


•698 103 943 


1 763 

796 

659829 

8863 


966 


0*662 246 284 


0-780 


730010431 


, 


958 


0*614087556 


3 1 


8765706 


67 


1 279448 


81 


624040 


3 00 9 
2651 
1693 
0736 


58 


3 129 713 


3 2 
33 


9426502 
700 086 331 


67 
67 


0312 704 
0-659346054 


82 
83 


1 236 691 
1 848 384 


57 

57 


2 172139 
1 214839 


34 


o745 *94 


67 


8379503 


84 


2459 121 


57 


257 816 






657896 










609779 






o*735 


701 403 090 


r\ c\ •*? c\ 


966 


0-657413053 


0785 


•733068900 


8823 
7867 


957 


0*609 301 072 


36 


2 060020 


u 930 

5964 

4 997 


66 


6 446 709 


86 


3677 723 


56 


8 344 61 1 


37 


2 715984 


66 


5480475 


87 


4285589 


56 


7 388 438 


38 


3370981 


66 


45*4354 


88 


4 892 500 


Q 1 


56 


6 432 554 


39 


4 025 012 


4°3 X 
653065 


66 


3 548 350 


89 


5 498 455 


5 955 
604999 


55 


5 476 963 


0740 


704678078 


966 


0-652 582 466 


0790 


•736103454 


955 


0*604521 670 


4i 


5 33 i77 


2 I OO 


66 


1 616 707 


QT 


6 707 498 


4 °44 
3089 


55 


3 5 66 676 


42 


598i3" 


1 *34 
0168 

649 203 


66 


651 076 


92 


73 io 5 8 7 


55 


2 611 986 


43 

44 


6 631 480 
7280683 


65 
65 


0-649685576 
8 720 211 


93 
94 


7912 722 
8 5 I 3 9°3 


2 *35 
1 181 


54 
54 


1 657 602 
0703529 






648 238 










600 227 






0745 


707 928 920 




9 6 5 


0647 754 986 


°795 


739 1 14 129 


r" /-\ r\ r% M 'j 


954 


0*599 749 769 


46 


8576193 


7 272 
6307 


65 


6 789 9°3 


96 


9713402 


599 273 
8320 

7 367 

6414 

595 462 


53 


8796326 


47 


9 222 500 


65 


5 824 966 


97 


740311 722 


53 


7 843 20 3 


48 


9867843 


5 343 

4378 

643 413 


65 


4 860 179 


98 


909 089 


53 


6 890 403 


49 


710 512 220 


65 


3 895 546 


99 


1 505 5°3 


52 


5 937 93° 



THE VALUES OF 



Vtt 



Jo 



291 



Table of the Values of 



f=-8oo] 



J* Jo 



-^dt. (i) From t—o to t= 1-250. 



[•899 



H 



•742 100 965 
2695475 

3 28 9 033 

3 881 640 
4473296 

•745 064001 

5 653 756 

6 242 561 

6 830417 

7 417 323 

•748 003 281 
8588290 

9I72 35 1 

9 755 464 

•750337630 

•750918848 

1 499 121 

2 078446 
2656827 
3234261 

•753810 751 
4386 296 
4960 896 

5534553 
6 107 267 

•756679037 

7 249 864 
7819750 
8388693 

8 956696 

759 523 757 

•760089878 

0655058 

1 219 299 

1 782 601 

•762344964 

2 906388 
3466875 
4026 424 

4 5 8 5o36 
•765 142 711 

5 699 451 
6255255 

6 810 123 
7364057 

•767917057 
8469123 
9020255 

9570455 
•770 119 722 



A 
+ 



594 5io 
3 558 

2 607 
1656 

590 705 

589 755 
8805 
7856 

6 906 

585 958 

5oo9 
4061 

3 "3 

2 166 

581 219 

272 
579326 

8380 

7 435 
576490 

5 545 

4 601 

3657 
2713 

571 770 
0828 

569885 

8 944 
8 002 

567 061 

6 121 

5 181 
4241 

3 3° 2 
562363 

1424 

0487 

559 549 
8612 

557 676 

6 739 
5804 
4869 
3 934 

553000 
2 066 

1 133 

o 200 
549267 
548 335 



A 2 



952 
52 
5i 
5i 

5i 

95° 
5° 
5o 
49 
49 

948 
48 
48 

47 
47 

947 
46 
46 
45 
45 

945 
44 
44 
43 
43 

943 
42 

42 
4i 
4i 

941 

40 
40 

39 
39 

938 
38 
37 
37 
37 

936 
36 
35 
35 
34 

934 
33 
33 

32 
32 



o-594 985 786 
4033976 

3 082 502 

2 i3!369 
1 180578 

0-590230133 

0*589 280038 

8330295 

7380909 

6431 881 

0585483216 

4534917 
3586986 
2639427 
1 692 243 

0-580745438 

o'579 7990i4 
8852975 
7907324 
6 962 064 

0-576017 197 
5072728 

4 128 659 
3184994 
2241 736 

0-571 298886 

0356450 

0-569414430 

8472828 

7531649 

0-566590894 
5650568 
4710673 

3 771 212 
2832188 

0-561 893605 

955 465 
OOI7 771 

0-559080526 

8 143 734 

0-557207397 
6 271 518 
5336100 
4401 147 
3466 661 

0-552532644 

1 599 101 
o 666 034 

°"549 733 446 
8801339 



0-850 

51 
52 
53 
54 

0-855 
56 
57 
58 
59 

o-86o 
61 
62 

63 
64 

0-865 
66 

67 
68 
69 

0*870 

7i 

72 
73 

74 

0-875 
76 
77 
78 
79 

o-88o 
81 
82 

83 
84 

0-885 
86 

87 
88 

89 

0-890 

9i 
92 

93 
94 

0-895 
96 
97 
98 
99 



H 



•770668058 
1 215 462 

1 761935 
2307478 

2 852 091 

773 395 774 

3 938 5 2 9 
4480355 
5021 253 

5 561 224 

•776 100 268 
6638386 
7 175 578 
7 711 844 
8247 186 

•778 781 604 

93i5o97 

9 847 668 

780379316 

910 041 

•781439845 

1 968 729 

2 496 691 
3023734 

3 549 857 
•784075 061 

4 599 347 
5 122 715 
5645 lfi 6 

6 166 701 

•786687319 

7 207 022 

7 725 810 

8 243 684 
8 760644 

•789 276 690 
9791825 

•790306047 
0819357 

1 33i 757 
•791843247 

2353827 

2 863498 
3372260 
3 880 115 

•794387062 

4893103 
5398238 
5902467 
6405792 



A 

+ 



547 404 

6 473 

5 543 
4613 

543684 

2 755 
1826 
0898 

539971 

539 044 

8118 

7 192 

6 267 

5 342 
534417 

3 494 
257i 
1648 
o 726 

529804 
8883 

7 963 
7043 

6 123 

525204 
4286 

3 368 
2 45 1 
1534 

520618 

5^703 
8788 

7 874 

6 960 

516047 

5 J 34 

4 222 

33ii 

2 400 

511490 

0580 

509671 

8763 

7 855 
506947 

6041 

5 J 35 
4 229 

3 3 2 5 

502 420 



93i 

31 
30 
3° 
29 

929 
28 
28 
27 
27 

926 
26 

25 
25 
24 

924 
23 
23 
22 
22 

921 
21 
20 
19 
19 

918 
18 
i7 
i7 
16 

915 
15 
14 
14 
*3 

9i3 
12 
11 
11 

10 

910 
09 
08 
08 
07 

907 
06 

05 
°5 

04 



</« 



0-547869717 

6938583 
6 007 939 

5077789 
0-544148135 

0-543218980 
2 290 327 

1 362 179 

434 538 
o*539 5o7 4o8 

0-538580792 
7654691 

6 729 no 
5804050 
4879515 

o-533 955 5o8 
3032030 

2 109 086 

1 186 677 

264 806 

o'529 343 477 
8 422 692 

7 5°2 454 
6582 764 
5663627 

0-524 745 045 

3 827 021 
2909556 
1992655 

1 076319 

0-520160551 

°-5 1 9 245 355 
8330732 
7416685 
6503217 

0-51559033° 
4678028 
3 766 312 
2855186 

1 944651 

0-511034712 

0125369 

0*509 216 626 

8 308 485 
7 400 949 

0*506 494020 
5587701 
4681 994 

3776903 

2 872 428 



•M)v> 



1")R JAS. BURGESS ON 



Table of the Values of H= ~[ r*dt, (i) From /=o to /= 1-250. 
' = '9°°] ['999 



o"9oo 
01 
02 

03 
04 

0905 
06 

07 
08 
09 

O'QIO 

II 

12 

13 
14 

°*9 ' 5 

l6 

17 
18 

19 

0'92 
21 

22 

23 

24 

!o-925 
26 

21 
28 
29 

0'930 

3 1 
32 
33 
34 

°"935 
36 
37 
38 
39 

o 940 
4i 
42 
43 
44 

°"945 
46 

47 
48 

49 



H 

•796 908 212 
7409729 

7 9 io 343 

8 410055 
8908865 

•799406774 

9 9 3 783 
■800 399 891 

895 101 

1 389412 

•801 882 826 

2 375 342 

2 866 962 

3 357 685 

3 8 47 5*4 

•804336448 
4824488 

5 3 Il6 34 
5 797 889 
6283251 

•806 767 722 
7251302 

7 733 992 
8215793 

8 696 706 

•809 176 730 
9655868 

•810 134 119 
0611 483 
1087963 

■811 563 559 

2 038 270 
2512 099 

2985045 

3 457 109 

813 928 292 

4 398 595 
4 868 019 

5336564 
5804230 

816 271 019 
6736931 

7 201 967 
7666 128 

8 129 415 

•818 591 827 
9053367 

9 5 I 4°34 

9973829 
•820432 753 



A 

+ 



5°*5*7 

614 
499712 

8810 
497909 

7 009 

6 109 
5 210 
43 11 

493 413 
2516 

1 620 
0724 

489828 
488 934 

8 040 

7 147 
6254 

5 362 

484471 

3 58o 

2 690 

1 801 
o 912 

4S0025 

479 137 

8251 

7 365 
6480 

475 595 
4712 
3828 
2946 

2 064 

47i 183 

0303 
469423 

8 545 
7666 

466 789 

5912 
5036 

4 161 
3286 

462 412 

1539 
0667 

459 795 
8 924 

458054 



A. 



904 

03 
02 
02 
01 

900 

00 

899 

98 
98 

897 
97 
96 

95 

95 

894 
93 
93 
92 
9i 

891 
90 
89 

89 
88 

887 

87 
86 

85 
84 

884 

83 
82 
82 

81 

880 
80 

79 
78 

77 
877 
76 
75 
75 
74 

873 

72 
72 

7i 

70 



Ji. 



0-501 968574 

1 065 342 
o 162 736 

0-499 260 756 
8 359 407 

0-497 45 868 9 
6558607 

5659 l6 2 
4760356 
3862 193 

0-492 964 674 

2 067 802 

1 171 580 
o 276 009 

0*489381093 
0-488486833 

7 593 232 
6 700 292 
5.808016 
4916 406 

0-484025464 

3 135 *93 

22 45 595 
1356672 
o 468 427 

0479 580 861 
8693978 
7807779 

6 922 268 
6037445 

>*475 153 313 
4269875 

3 387 133 

2 5°5 089 
1623 745 

0-470 743 io 3 
0-469 863 166 

8983936 

8 105 415 

7 227605 

0*466350509 
5474128 

4598465 
3723522 
2849301 

0-461 975804 
1 103033 
o 230 991 

o'459 359 679 

8 489 099 



0-950 

5i 

52 
53 
54 

°'955 
56 
57 
58 
59 

960 
61 
62 

63 
64 

0-965 
66 
67 
68 
69 

0-970 

7i 

72 

73 

74 

o-975 
76 
77 
78 
79 

0980 
81 
82 
83 
84 

0-985 
86 

87 
88 

89 

0-990 

9 1 
92 

93 
94 

Q, 995 
96 

97 
98 

99 



H 



•820 890 807 
1 347 992 

1 804308 
2259756 

2 7 r 433 6 

•823 168 050 

3 620 899 

4 072 882 
4524001 
4974257 

•825423650 

5 872 180 
6319850 

6 766 659 
7212 608 

•827657699 
8 101 931 

8 545 306 
8987824 

9 429 486 

'829 870 293 
•830 310 246 



1 187 591 


1 624986 


•832 061 529 


2 497 222 


2932065 


3366059 


3 799 205 


'834231504 


4662957 


5 093 564 


5 523 326 


5952243 


•836380318 


6807550 


7 233 940 


7659490 


8 084 199 


•838 508 070 


8 931 101 


9 353 296 


9774653 


•840195 174 


•840 614 861 


1033 712 


*45* 73 1 


1 868 916 


2 285 270 



457 185 


6316 


5 448 


4581 


453 714 


2848 


1983 


1 119 


0256 


449 393 


8 53i 


7 670 


6809 


5 949 


445 090 


4232 


3 375 


2518 


1 662 


440 807 


439 953 


9 099 


8246 


7 394 


436 543 


5 693 


4843 


3 994 


3146 


432299 


1453 


607 


429 762 


8918 


428075 


7 232 


6390 


5 54i 


4709 


423870 


3°3 2 


2 194 


1357 


0521 


419 686 


8852 


8018 


7186 


6 354 


4*5523 



869 

69 

68 
67 
67 

866 

65 
64 
64 
63 

862 
61 
60 
60 

59 
858 
57 
57 
56 
55 

854 
54 
53 
52 
5i 

850 
50 
49 
48 
47 

846 
46 
45 
44 
43 

842 
42 
4i 
40 
39 

838 
38 
37 
36 
35 

834 
34 
33 
3 2 
3i 



7?" 



0-457619255 
6750147 
5881778 
5 014 150 
4147265 

0-453281 124 

241573* 

1 551 087 

0687 194 

0-449824055 

0*448961 670 
8 100042 
7239174 

6379067 ; 
55197-3 
0-444661 143 
3803331 
2 946 288 
2 090016 
1 234516 



0-440379 

0-439525 
8672 

7 820 
6968 

0-436 117 
5267 
4418 

3570 
2 722 

0-43*875 
1 029 
0184 

0-429339 
8496 

0-427653 
68n 

5969 
5*29 

4 289 

0-423450 
2612 
1775 
0939 

o 103 

0*419 268 

8 434 
7 601 
6769 
5 938 



79* 
843 
674 
284 
678 

855 
819 

57° 
in 

444 

57i 
493 
212 

73° 
049 

170 
096 
828 
367 
7*7 

878 
852 
641 
247 
671 

9*5 

981 

871 
586 
127 



THE VALUES OF 



Vx 



jydt. 



293 



Table of the Values of H= —j^dt. (i) From t=o to /= 1-250. 
/=rooo] [ I- °99 



H 



•842 700 793 
3"5 485 

3 5 2 9 349 
3942383 

4 354 59° 

•844 765 970 
5176524 
5586253 

5 995 J57 

6403238 

•846810496 
7216933 

7 622 548 
8027343 
843i3 I 9 

•848834477 
9236817 
9638340 

•850039047 
0438940 

•850838018 
1 236 283 

1 633 735 
2030376 

2 426 206 

•852 821 227 

3 2I 5 43 8 
3608841 
4001437 
4393 227 

•854 784 21 1 

5J7439 1 
5 563 767 

5 952 340 

6 340 in 

'856 727 081 
7113251 
7498 622 
7883194 

8 266 969 

•858649947 
9032 129 
94i35 l6 

9 794 109 
•860 173 909 

•860552918 

0931 134 
1308561 
1685 197 
2 061 046 



+ 



414693 
3863 

3 035 

2 207 

411 380 

o554 
409 729 
8 904 
8081 
407258 
6436 
5615 

4 795 

3 976 

403 158 
2340 

i5 2 3 

0707 

399892 

399 078 
8265 

7 452 

6 641 

5830 
395020 

4 211 

3 403 
2596 

1 790 

390984 
o 180 

389 376 
8573 

7 77i 
386970 

6 170 
537i 
4572 
3 775 
382978 

2 182 
1387 
o593 

379800 

79008 

8 217 
7426 
6 637 
5848 

375061 



830 

29 
29 
28 
27 
826 

25 
24 
24 
23 

822 
21 
20 

19 

18 

818 

17 
16 

15 
14 

813 
12 
12 
11 
10 

809 
08 

07 
06 

05 

805 

04 

03 
02 
01 

800 

799 
98 

98 

97 

796 
95 
94 
93 
92 

791 

9° 
90 
89 



2 



0-415 J07 497 
4277698 

3 448 730 

2 620 596 

1 793297 

0-410966835 

o 141 211 

0-409316427 

8492485 
7^669 386 

0-406 847 132 

6 025 724 
5205 164 

4 385 454 
3566595 

0*402 748 588 
I93J43 6 

299 700 
o*399 485 119 

0-398671399 
7858541 

7 046 545 
6235415 

5425 I5 1 

i 

0-394615 754 

3 807 226 
2999570 

2 192 785 
1386873 

0.390581837 
0-389777677 

8 974 394 
8 171 991 
7 370468 

0-386 569 827 

5 770069 
4971 196 
4173209 
3376 no 

0-382 579899 

1 784578 
o 990 148 
o 196 611 

°'379 403 9 6 8 

0*378 612 221 
7821370 
7 031 416 

6 242 362 
5 454 209 



1-050 

5i 

52 
53 
54 

r °55 
56 
57 
58 
59 

1*060 
61 
62 
63 
64 

•065 
66 

67 
68 

69 

1*070 

7i 
72 
73 
74 

i - o75 
76 
77 
78 
79 

ro8o 
81 
82 

83 
84 

1-085 
86 

87 
88 

89 

1-090 

9 1 

92 
93 
94 

1 "095 
96 
97 
98 

99 



H 



+ 



•862 436 106 

2 810 380 
3183868 

3 556 570 
3928489 

'864 299 625 
4669 978 

5°39 55° 
5408341 

5776 353 

■866143587 
6510 042 
6875721 
7 240 624 

7604752 

•867968 106 
8330687 
8692495 

9 053 533 
9413800 

•869773297 

870 132 026 

0489988 

0847183 

1 203 612 

•871559276 

1 914 176 

2 268 314 
2 621 690 
2974304 

•873326158 

3677254 
4027591 
4377 170 

4 725 993 
■875074061 

5 421375 

5 767 934 
6 113 742 

6 458 797 

•876 803 102 
7146657 
7489463 
7831522 
8172833 

•878 513 399 
8853219 
9192295 
9530629 
9 868 220 



374274 
3488 
2703 
1 919 

371 136 

o353 

369 572 

8791 

8 012 

3 6 7 233 
6456 

5 679 
4 903 
4 128 

363 354 
2581 

1 809 
1037 
o 267 

359 49 8 

8 729 
7961 

7 195 

6 429 

355 664 

4 900 
4138 
3376 

2 614 

351854 
1095 
o337 

349 580 
8823 

348068 

73i3 

6 560 

5807 
5056 

344 305 

3 555 
2806 
2058 
1311 

340565 
339820 

9 076 

8 333 

7 59i 
336850 



787 
86 

85 
84 
83 

782 
81 
80 
80 
79 

778 
77 
76 
75 
74 

773 
72 

7i 

70 
69 

769 
68 
67 
66 

65 

764 

63 
62 

61 
60 

759 
58 
57 
56 

55 

754 
54 
53 
52 
5i 

75° 
49 
48 

47 
46 

745 
44 
43 
42 
4i 



>•- 


0-374666957 
3880608 
3095 163 

2 310 624 
I 52699I 


0-370744267 
O369962451 

9 181 546 
8401 552 
7 622 471 


0-366844303 
6 067 051 

5290715 
45 I 5 2 97 
3 74o 797 


0-362 967 216 

2194557 

1 422 819 

652 004 

0-359882 114 


°'359 "3 149 
8 345 no 

7 577 999 
6811 816 

6 046 563 


o-355 282 240 
4518850 

3 756 392 
2 994 867 
2234278 


o-35 x 474 625 
0715908 

o-349 958 129 
9 201 289 
8 445 390 


0-347690431 
6936413 
6183339 
5 43 1 209 
4 680 023 


o-343 929 783 
3180489 

2432 143 
1 684 746 
938 298 


0-340 192 800 

0-339448254 

8704659 

7 962 018 

7 220331 



-J!I4 



DR J AS. L5UUGESS ON 



TABr.E OF THE VALUES OF H= -r- /V' dt. (l) FROM / = TO t= 1*250. 

•/-=rioo] [1199 



/ 


H 


A 


A 2 I 




r 6 *" 


t 


1 
H 


A 


A 2 


^ 




•880 205 070 
0541 179 


+ 

336 no 
5 37o 
4632 

3 895 


- 1 

740 
39 


Jir 






+ 

300332 

299 641 

8952 

8263 


692 
91 


Jtt 


rioo 
01 


"33 6 479 59 8 
5 739821 


1-150 
5 r 


•896 123843 
6424175 


0-300677 276 
0-299986213 


02 


0876550 


38 


5 001 000 


52 


6 723 816 


90 


9 296 140 


°3 


1 211 182 


37 


4263 136 


53 


7 022 767 


89 


8607056 


04 


1 545 76 


36 


3526231 


54 


7 321 030 


881 


7918964 


1105 


•881878234 


333 !5 8 

2423 
1688 

955 
222 


735 


o\33 2 79 02 85 


'•155 


•897 618 605 


297 575 
6889 
6 203 
55i8 
4835 


687 


0-297231863 


06 
07 


2 210 657 
2542345 


35 
34 


2055 298 
1 321 273 


56 
57 


7 915 494 

8 211 697 


86 

85 


6 545 753 
5 860 635 


08 
09 


2873300 
3203522 


33 
32 


0588208 
°'3 2 9 856 106 


58 

59 


8 507 216 
8 802 051 


84 

83 


5176510 
4 493 378 






329490 










294152 






1 1 10 
1 1 


•883533012 
3861 772 


8760 


73i 

3° 


0*329 124 967 
8 394 79 1 


1 "i 60 

61 


-899 096 203 
9389673 


347i 
2 790 
2 1 10 


682 
81 


0*293 8n 239 
3 i3 094 


12 
13 


4 189 802 
4517 104 


8 030 
7301 
6574 


29 
28 


7665581 
6 937 335 


62 
63 


9682463 
9 974 574 


80 
79 


2 449 943 

r 770787 


'4 


4843677 


27 


6210 056 


64 


•900 266 005 


1 43 2 


78 


1 092 625 






3 2 5 847 










290754 






1115 


•885 169524 


5 121 
4 396 
3672 


726 


°'3 2 5 483 743 


1-165 


•900 556 759 


0077 
289 402 

8727 
8053 


677 


0-290415459 


16 

'7 


5 494 645 
5819041 


25 
24 


4 758 398 
4034022 


66 

67 


0846837 
1 136238 


76 
75 


0-289739289 
9064 116 


18 


6 142 713 


23 


3310615 


68 


1424965 


74 


8389938 


19 


6465663 


2 949 


22 


2588177 


69 


1 713 018 


73 


7 7I6 7S8 






322 227 










287381 






1*120 


•886787890 


r 506 
786 
0067 

T T r\ 1 A f\ 


7 21 


0*321 866 710 


1-170 


-902 000 399 


6 709 
6038 

5 369 
4700 


672 


0*287044575 


21 


7 io9 397 


20 


1 146 215 


7i 


2 287 108 


7i 


6 373 3 8 9 


22 
23 


7 43 ol8 3 
7750250 


19 
18 


0426 691 
o'3 I 9 7°8 140 


72 
73 


2 573 146 
2858515 


70 
69 


5 703 202 
5034013 


24 


8 069 600 


3 J 9 349 


17 


8 990 562 


74 


3 I43 2 i4 


68 


4365822 






318632 










284032 






I-I25 


•888388232 


7916 

7 201 
6487 
5 774 


716 


0-318273959 


i'i75 


•903427247 


3 365 

2 700 

2035 
I37i 


667 


0*283 698631 


26 

2/ 
28 


8706 148 
9° 2 3 349 
9 339 835 


15 
14 
13 


7 558 330 
6843676 
6 129 998 


76 

77 
78 


3710612 
3993312 
4275347 


66 

65 
64 


3 032 439 
2367247 

1 703 °54 


29 


9655609 


12 


5417298 


79 


4 556 718 


63 


1 039 862 






315061 










280 709 






IM30 


•889970670 


4 35° 
3640 


711 


o"3 J 4 705 574 


1-180 


•904837427 


0047 

279386 

8727 

8068 


662 


0*280377670 


31 
32 


•890 285 020 
598 660 


10 
09 


3994829 
3 285 062 


81 
82 


5 H7474 
5396860 


61 
60 


0*279 716479 
9 056 290 


33 


0911 591 


2 931 


08 


2576274 


83 


5675587 


59 


8397101 


34 


1 223813 


2 2 2 2 


07 


1 868466 


84 


5 953 655 


58 


7 738915 






3" 5 X 5 










277 410 






i"'35 


•89i535 3 2 8 


809 
0103 


706 


0*311 161 639 


1-185 


•906 231 065 


6 754 
6098 


657 


0*277081 730 


36 

37 


1846137 
2 156 240 


05 
04 


455 793 
0-309750928 


86 
87 


6507819 
6783916 


56 

55 


6 425 547 
5 770 3 6 7 


38 


2 465 639 


3°9 399 
8696 


°3 


9047 046 


88 


7059360 


5 443 
4790 


54 


5 116 190 


39 


2 774 335 


02 


8 344 146 


89 


7 334 149 


53 


4463015 






307 993 










274 137 






1 140 


•893 082 328 


7292 

6591 
5892 

5 '93 


701 


0*307 642 230 


1 "190 


•907 608 286 


3 485 
2835 
2185 
1536 


652 


0*273 810844 


4i 


3389619 


00 


6 941 298 


9i 


7 881 771 


5i 


3159676 


42 
43 


3 696 21 r 

4 002 102 


699 
98 


6241 350 
5 542 387 


92 
93 


8 154606 
8426 791 


5° 
49 


2 509 5" 
1860350 


44 


4307296 


97 


4 844410 


94 


8698327 


48 


1 212 194 






304 496 










270 889 






•"'45 


•8)4611 791 


3 799 
3 IQ 4 
2409 
r 716 
301023 


696 


0*304 147420 


i*i95 


•908 969 215 




647 


0*270565041 


46 

47 


49'559i 
5218695 


96 
95 


345!4i5 
2756398 


96 
97 


9239457 
9 509 053 


0242 

269596 

8952 

8308 

| 267665 


46 

45 


0*269918893 
9 2 73 749 


48 


5521 104 


94 


2 062 369 


98 


9778005 


44 


8629610 


I 49 


5 822 820 


93 


1369328 


99 


•910046313 


43 


7986476 

i _ 



THE VALUES OE 



£]>-•<"• 



295 



Table of the Values of H= -.—( vftfe (i) From /=o to /= 1-250. 



1-249] 0" 2 s 



[6-o 



H 



200 
1 
2 
3 

4 



II 

12 
13 
14 



17 
18 

r 9 

220 
21 
22 

2 3 

24 



230 

3 1 
32 
33 
34 



240 
4i 
42 
43 
44 

2 45 
46 

47 
48 

49 



•910313978 

581 002 
0847385 

1 113 128 
1 378>33 

■911 642 701 

1 906 531 
2 169 726 
2432287 

2 694 214 

■912955508 

3 216 171 
3476203 

3 735 6 ° 6 
3 994 38o 

•914252526 
4510046 
4766941 

5 023 211 
5278857 

•915 533 881 
5788283 

6 042 065 

6 295 228 
6547772 

'916 799698 

7 051 008 
7301 703 

7 55 1 783 

7 801 250 

■918 050 104 
8298347 

8 545 979 

8 793 002 

9 039 417 

•919285224 

9 530 425 

9775020 

■920019 on 

262 399 

•920505 184 
0747368 
0988952 

1 229936 
1470322 

•921 710 no 

1 949 3°3 
2 187 900 

2425902 
2 663 311 



*1 


A 2 


+ 


— 


267 024 


642 


6383 


I 




5 743 
5 io 5 


639 
8 


264 467 




3831 


637 
6 


3 195 


5 
4 


2 5 6 ° 


1927 


3 


261 294 




663 


632 

1 


032 





259 403 
8 774 


629 

8 


258 147 






627 


7 5 2 ° 


6 


6894 


5 


6 270 


5646 


4 
3 


255o 2 4 






621 


4 402 
3782 
3 l6z 




619 

8 


2 544 


7 


251 927 






616 


1 310 




0695 


5 


080 


4 


249 467 


3 

2 


248 854 






611 


8 243 





7632 
7 023 


609 
8 


6415 


7 


245 807 




606 


5 201 
4 595 


5 
4 


3 99 1 


3 388 


3 

2 


242 785 




2 184 


601 


1584 


O 


984 


599 


0386 


O 

7 


239 789 


9192 


596 
5 
4 
3 


8 597 


8003 


7409 


236 817 


592 



o' 



o- 



•A 


t 


'267344347 


1*25 


6 703223 


126 


6 063 105 


1-27 


5 423 992 


1-28 


4785885 


1-29 


264 148 783 


1-30 


3512687 


I- 3i 


2877598 


132 


2 243 5 14 


1 '33 


1 6J0437 


I- 34 


260978 366 


* "35 


0347302 


1 -36 


259717244 


1-37 


9088193 


r 3 8 


8 460 148 


1 "39 


257833"° 


1-40 


7207079 


1-41 


6582055 


1-42 


5958038 


1 "43 


5 335 028 


1-44 


254713024 


1 '45 


4092 028 


1 -46 


3472039 


1 '47 


2853057 


1 -48 


2 235 082 


1 -49 


251 618 114 


1 '5o 


1002 153 


i'52 


0387 199 


i'54 


249 773 253 


i'56 


9160313 


i'58 


248548381 


160 


7 937 455 


1-62 


7 327 536 


r6 4 


6 718625 


166 


6 no 720 


168 


245503822 


170 


4897931 


172 


4293047 


i'74 


3689169 


176 


3086 298 


178 


242484434 


i-8o 


1883575 


1-82 


1 283723 


1-84 


0684878 


i-86 


0087 038 


r88 


•239 490 205 


190 


8894377 


1-92 


8 299 555 


1 '94 


7 705 739 


1 -96 


7 112 928 


r 9 8 



•236 
•230 

■224 
■219 

•213 

•208 
-202 

•197 

•192 

•187 

•182 
■177 

-172 

•168 
•163 

•158 

•154 
■150 

•146 

•141 

•137 
'133 
•130 

•126 

'122 

•Il8 
"III 

' I0 5 
•098 
■092 

•087 
•081 
•076 
•071 
•067 

'062 
•058 
'054 
'°5° 
•047 

•044 
•041 
•038 

•035 
•032 

•030 
•028 
•026 
•024 
•022 



521 122 
658328 
895874 
233531 
671 014 

207 986 
844062 
578804 
411 732 

342 3 J 7 

369986 
494 126 
714081 
029 156 
438 621 

941 707 
537613 
225502 
004 510 
873 741 

832 270 
879 148 

OI 3 399 
234023 
540 001 

930289 

959 535 
313068 
981 950 
957 046 
229 058 
788571 
626 082 
732 040 
096878 

711 040 
565015 
649 360 
954 726 
471879 

191 723 

105318 
203 896 

478877 
921 881 

524740 
279510 

178475 
214 158 

379324 



1 


/ 


447291 


2 - 00 


140 766 


2 '02 


843 793 


2 '04 


734808 


2 '06 


478186 


2-08 


796I070 


2*IO 


051 747 


2"I2 


842 403 


2'15 


599 137 


2*17 


192 141 


2 - 20 


539023 


2-25 


214278 


2 '30 


057 979 


2 '35 


78i793 


2 '40 


570507 


2 '45 


677278 


2-50 


010 895 


2'55 


713389 


260 


726399 


265 


344 739 


270 


755 693 


2'75 


562625 


2-80 


291 529 


2-85 


879239 


2 "90 


142057 


2 '95 


223 629 


3'°o 


587 539 


3' 1 


275229 


3' 2 


627349 


3'3 


104774 


3 '4 


633 945 


3'5 


!3°589 


3-6